Мегаобучалка Главная | О нас | Обратная связь

Функции герундия в предложении




1 Подлежащее.Например: Skating is a favourite sport with the youth - Катание на коньках - любимый вид спорта молодежи.

2 Часть составного сказуемого.Герундий в функции именной части составного именного сказуемого или части составного глагольного сказуемого обычно переводится на русский язык существительным или неопределенной формой глагола. Например: My favourite sport is skating. Примечание.

После глаголов to begin, to start, to continue в функции части составного глагольного сказуемого употребляются как герундий, так и инфинитив:

Everyone now began talking to his neighbour. - Теперь каждый начал говорить со своим соседом. Не began to tell them about his own struggles. - Он начал рассказывать им о своих собственных трудностях.

3 Прямое дополнение. Герундий в функции прямого дополнения переводится неопределенной формой глагола, существительным или глаголом в личной форме (в функции сказуемого) в составе придаточного предложения.

Герундий употребляется в функции прямого дополнения после глаголов: to avoid − избегать, to mind − возражать, to fancy − воображать, to mention − упоминать, to deny − отрицать, to put off − откладывать, to delay − откладывать to postpone − откладывать, to excuse − извинять, to propose − предлагать, to give up − бросать, to require − требовать, to need − нуждаться в, to suggest − предлагать и некоторых других глаголов. Например: I gave up smoking. - Я бросил курить.

Примечание.

После глаголов to enjoy, to forget, to hate, to like, to dislike, to neglect, to omit, to detest, to prefer, to prevent, to refuse, to regret, to remember, to resist в функции прямого дополнения употребляется как герундии, так и инфинитив:

The night was such a fine one that I preferred to go on foot. - Ночь была такая хорошая, что я предпочел пойти пешком. Hе always preferred staying at home, with such a thick fog moving on from the moor. - Он всегда предпочитал

оставаться дома, когда такой густой туман надвигался с болота.

4 Предложное дополнение. Обычно герундий употребляется в функции предложного дополнения после глаголов, прилагательных и причастий, требующих после себя определенных предлогов. К числу таких наиболее употребительных глаголов, прилагательных и причастий относятся:



to depend on − зависеть от, to be proud of − гордиться, to rely on − полагаться на, to insist on − настаивать на, to be fond of − любить кого-либо или что-

либо, to object to − возражать против, to be sure of − быть уверенным в чем-

либо, to agree to − соглашаться на, to be pleased at или with − быть доволь- ным чем-либо или кем-либо, to hear of − слышать о, to think of − думать о, to thank for − благодарить за, to be surprised at − удивляться чему-либо, to pre- vent from − помешать, препятствовать, to be interested in − интересоваться

чем-либо, to succeed in − преуспевать в, to be connected with или to − быть связанным с, to accuse of − обвинять в, to agree to − согласиться на, to ap-

prove of − одобрять, to complain of − жаловаться на, to depend on/upon − за- висеть от того, to feel like − собираться/чувствовать в себе желание сделать что-то, to object to − возражать против того, чтобы, to succeed in − добиться успеха в выполнении какого-либо действия, to look forward to − с нетерпе- нием ждать выполнения какого-либо действия. Например: I`m fond of read-

ing. – Я люблю читать. Thank you for coming. – Спасибо, что пришли.

5 Определение.Герундию в качестве определения большей частью предшествует предлог of (иногда for). Герундий в функции определения переводится на русский язык существительным в родительном падеже, сущест- вительным с предлогом или неопределенной формой глагола. Например: the method of doing work - метод выполнения работы, the possibility of using - возможность использования, the possibility of seeing - возможность увидеть, the way of speaking - манера говорить.

Например: I'm glad to have the opportunity of talking to you, Doctor. - Я рад возможности поговорить с вами, доктор.

6 Обстоятельство.Герундий в функции обстоятельства употребляется всегда с предлогом и обычно переводится существительным с предлогом, деепричастием несовершенного или совершенного вида или глаголом в

личной форме (в функции сказуемого) в составе придаточного предложения. Например: Не went in. The hall clock greeted him by striking the half- hour. - Он вошел. Стенные часы приветствовали его, пробив полчаса.

Only after having applied force we could change the volume and the form of solid body. - Только после применения силы (применив силу, ... а после того как мы применили силу), мы могли изменить объем и форму твердого тела.

Герундий часто входит в состав сложных существительных для указания назначения предмета, обозначенного существительным:

writing-paper − почтовая бумага, писчая бумага (бумага для письма), driving force − движущая сила (сила для производства движения).

Упр. 36. Выберите подходящую неличную форму глагола.

1. I heard him mention/mentioning my name.

2. I would rather listen/listening to music.

3. Let me say/to say a few words.

4. He is trying to protect/protecting them.

5. I would like having/to have a cup of tea.

6. He avoids to meet/meeting Lucy.

7. He made us wait/to wait three hours.

8. I have finished to write/ writing a business letter.

9. I felt my heart jumping/jump.

10. It is no use asking/ to ask him about it.

 

Упр. 37.Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную неличную форму.

1. The child (sleep) on the sofa is sick. __________________

2. They watched him (go) upstairs. ________________

3. I would appreciate your (call) Alfred back. __________________

4. I saw a taxi (stop) near my gate.____________________________

5. He is said (be) a good pupil. ________________________

6. I object to Lora's (drive) the car. _______________________

7. He made us (read) all the papers. ____________________

8. Help me (move) the table. ___________________

9. She is not capable of (do) any harm. ________________

10. Please excuse me (disturb) you._

 

 

Упр. 38. Выбирите правильное предложение.

1. I watched her go up the street and enter the house. / I watched her going up the street and entering the house.

2. Excuse my take your seat. / Excuse my tak- ing your seat.

3. She couldn't help to laugh. / She couldn't help laughing.

4. Bob is said to resemble his dad. / Bob is said resemble his dad.

5. I hate the rain pouring all the time. / I hate the rain pour all the time.

6. I won't have you speaking like that. / I won't have you speak like that.

7. He heard the clock to strike 12. / He heard the clock strike 12.

8. Loud music didn't let George fall as- leep. / Loud music didn't let George to fall asleep.

9. The plane is reported hav- ing landed on time / The plane is reported to have landed on time.

10. You'd better to tell your parents the truth. / You'd better tell your parents the truth.

 

Союз

 

Союз – служебное слово, которое служит для соединения слов и словосочетаний в простом предложении или для соединения отдельных предложений в составе сложного. Союзы делятся на сочинительные и подчинительные.

Сочинительные союзы соединяют однородные члены простого предложения, а также отдельные предложения в составе сложносочиненного. К наиболее распространенным сочинительным союзам относятся: andи, а (с помощью которого сообщается дополнительная информация), butно (который предполагает противопоставление), orили (с помощью которого вводится альтернатива).

Подчинительные союзы присоединяют придаточное предложение к главному в сложноподчиненном предложении. Союзы сравнения, времени и условия уже рассматривались ранее. Среди наиболее распространенных подчинительных союзов следует упомянуть также союзы, которые вводят придаточные предложения причины: as− так как, because− потому что, sinceпоскольку; so −поэтому (следствия); so thatдля того чтобы (цели), in order thatчтобы; in spite of the fact that− несмотря на то что, though/although− хотя (уступительные) и т.д.

 

Упр. 39. Заполните пропуски одним из следующих союзов: and, but, or.

1. Kate wants to visit either France … Italy this summer.

2. John is from London … Ann is from Manchester.

3. Most tourists who go to Egypt see the pyramids … the Sphinx.

4. Alice is deaf. She works as a journalist … she can use a com- puter.

5. Alice is deaf. She can`t hear … she can see very well.

6. Tom is a vege- tarian, … he sometimes eats fish ang poultry.

7. You`ll have to stay up late to- night … you won`t finish your report by tomorrow.

8. I wanted to have a party on Friday, … my roommate needed to study.

9. Shall we walk to the hotel … do you want to get a taxi?

 

Упр. 40. Заполните пропуски союзами so, because, thoughили in order that.

1. I gave him the book … he could study the subject at home

2. I like Carol … she is friendly and interesting.

3. They can`t get into the house … they haven`t got a key.

4. She likes films, …she often goes to the cinema.

5. … I wrote to him, I have had no reply.

6. I won`t be at home this evening, … don`t phone me.

7. He doesn`t like his job … he does the same thing all the time.

8. The company needed fresh ideas, … they decided to hire an outside consultant.

9. He speaks English perfectly … he has never been to Britain.

10. Ann didn`t go to work … she was ill.

11. The door was open, … I walked in.


Грамматический тест

 

1 Doing sports can really __________ your muscles.

--- strength --- strong --- strengthen --- strongly

 

2 This is Mary Simpson. She’s the girl _______ works with me.

which --- whom --- whose --- who

 

3 I am sorry I’m late. I got here as ________ as I could.

Fast --- the fastest ---- fastly ---- faster

 

4 I advise you to visit my …

father-in-law’s library ---- father-in-law library’s ----father’s-in-law library ----- father-in-laws’ library

5 I can’t get through to …

a Johnsons --- the Johnsons --- an Johnsons ---- Johnsons

 

6 It was very stupid ________ him to make such a silly mistake.

about --- with --- to ---- of

 

7 Children are allowed to use the swimming pool _______ they are with an adult.

Provided --- in spite of the fact that ----- though ----- unless

 

8 He will be late for the train if he _______ at once.

doesn’t start --- wouldn’t start ---- won’t start ---- didn’t start

 

9 The son and heir of the monarch _______ the title «Prince of Wales».

--- give --- gives --- is given --- is being given

10 He left the shop without _______ so he was accused of stealing.

--- to pay --- paying --- having been paid --- paid

11 He turned _____at the very end of the party when nobody expected him to appear.

--- back --- up --- round --- on

12 We ________ to hurry or we’ll be late.

--- ought --- were --- shall be allowed --- had

 

13 London is popular with foreigners, who visit the city in order to see many of its ______ buildings and tourist attractions.

--- unfamiliar --- famous --- familiar --- famously

 

14 This is a book _______ is definitely going to be a bestseller.

--- what --- who --- whose--- which

 

15 The more electricity you use, ________ your bill will be.

--- the higher --- more higher --- the highest --- less higher

 

16 They offered me the job because I had much …

--- certificates --- degrees --- experience --- ideas

 

17 There’s a regular air-service ________ those two cities.

--- among --- between --- at --- about

 

18 She wouldn’t forgive him ________ all his apologies.

--- after--- despite --- in case --- for

19 My youngest brother _______ a new job a week ago.

--- got --- has got --- gets --- had got

 

20 The newspapers are luckily _________ talking at any time.

--- to start --- being started --- started --- start

 

21 He eventually managed to come _______ a solution.

--- along --- back --- across--- up with

 


22 The letter must be as _______ as possible.

--- the shortest--- short --- shorter --- shortly


23 All _______ of the world should be peaceful.

--- humanity--- peoples --- man --- mankind

 

24 You could buy ________ at $500 in those days.

--- A Picasso --- The Picasso --- an Picasso --- Picasso

 

25 They should arrive ________ the airport in about an hour.

--- in--- at --- to --- out of

 

26 I haven’t been able to see Mr Brown because when I eventually found his office he _______ to lunch with some foreign visitors.

--- went --- has gone --- was going--- had gone


27 Their car is at the garage. It _______ now.

--- is being repaired --- is repairing --- is repaired --- has repaired

 

28 He speaks French like a Frenchman, he _________ by an excellent teacher.

--- may have taught --- must have been taught --- had to be taught --- was to be taught


29 He was ________ and wore decent clothes.

--- educator --- educational--- educated --- educative

 

30 Sam telephoned but there was ______ at home.

--- no--- nobody --- everybody --- nothing

 

31 You look ______ today!

--- greatly --- greatlier --- the greatest--- great

 

32 He had ________ holiday last summer.

--- month’s--- a month’s --- a months’ --- months’s

 

33 Porcelain was first made by …

--- a Chinese --- the Chinese --- Chineses --- Chinese

 

34 They discussed, ________ other things, recent events in Europe.

--- between--- among --- by --- at

 

35 Few people like him _______ of his bad manners.

--- since --- though --- in case--- because

 

36 I _______ English for the last two years but I can’t speak it yet.

--- have been studying --- am studying --- was studying --- study

 

37 We can’t give refunds on articles of clothes that …

--- are wearing --- are being worn --- have worn--- have been worn

 

38 He knew himself _______ strong enough to take part in the expedition.

--- be --- having been--- to be --- been

 

39 Headmaster to student: «That was terrible behaviour! You ________ apologize to your history teacher».

--- should --- must --- may --- can

 

40 Out of all the students in my music school, I practise …

--- more often--- most often --- the most often --- often

 

41 Mary hasn’t seen her distant relatives ________ three years.

--- for --- from--- since --- before

 

42 I’ll never forgive you ________ you tell this to anybody.

--- unless --- since --- because--- if

 

43 I slipped away while the others …

--- had lunch --- are having lunch --- had had lunch--- were having lunch

 

44 Shall I send the letter? – No, don’t worry about it. It …

--- has already sent --- is already sending --- was already sendin g--- has already been sent

 

45 Quite luckily, Nick’s departure was delayed by one day and so we ________ to spend one more evening together.

--- were able --- had --- ought --- might

 

46 She was so ________ that she lost all her money at the casino.

--- luck --- lucky--- unlucky --- luckily

47 There were ______ interesting people at the party last night.

--- no--- any --- nobody --- every

 

48 The staff of our hospital includes qualified …

--- woman-doctors --- womans-doctor--- women-doctors --- women-doctor

 

49 Coffee isn’t popular in England, ________ prefer tea.

--- an English--- a English --- English--- the English

 

50 The hall _______ before the academic year began.

--- had been painted --- was painting --- painted--- was painted

 

51 He is clever enough _______ the crossword.

--- to have done --- doing --- do --- to do

 

52 I hope nobody disturbs me; my favourite television programme will be ______ in five minutes.

--- off --- out --- away --- in

 

53 I bought everything we need yesterday so I ________ go shopping today.

--- don’t have to --- mustn’t --- shouldn’t --- ought not to

 

54 London is home to one of the United Kingdom’s most important ______, the Queen.

--- residence --- residents --- reside --- residentiary

 

55 Do you want to spread _______ honey on your slice of bread?

--- little --- a little --- few --- a few

56 That was ________ meal I’ve had for a long time.

--- the most delicious --- delicious --- more delicious --- much delicious

 

57 You can easily find that place. There’s ________ in the middle of the square.

--- a monument --- an monument --- the monument --- monument

 

58 You were rude ________ him for no reason.

--- to --- at --- with --- on

 

59 Choose an author ________ you choose a friend.

--- when --- in case --- as --- so that

 

60 He has been doing exercises since five o’clock and he _______ ten so far.

--- has done --- will do --- has been doing --- did

61 Wages _______ to workmen by the day or week.

--- is paid --- are paid --- pay --- pays

 

62 I saw him ________ her handkerchief.

--- to pick up --- pick up --- having picked up --- picked up

 

63 Her secret was given _______ by her friend by mistake.

--- in --- up --- away --- off

 

64 Headmaster to student: «That was terrible behaviour! You ________ apologize to your history teacher».

--- must --- should --- may --- can

65 We all watched __________ as Mark made his speech of thanks.

--- nervous --- nervy --- nerveless --- nervously

 

66 It is more shameful to distrust one’s friends than to be deceived by …

--- their --- theirs --- them --- themselves

 

67 I am sorry I’m late. I got here as ________ as I could.

--- fast --- the fastest --- fastly --- faster

 

68 By the time we all returned from holiday father and Bob _______ redecorating the kitchen.

--- had finished --- finished --- has finished --- have finished

 

69 This story is worth reading. Who wrote it? – It _______ by Jack London.

--- is written --- was written --- was being written --- wrote

 

70 I was taken _______ when I heard she’d married him. She’d never loved him.

--- away --- aback --- on --- upon

 

71 There aren’t ______ easy ways of learning languages.

--- some --- no --- few --- any

 

72 Do you think the police _______ well-paid?

--- doesn’t--- are --- is --- isn’t

 

73 St. Bernard dogs are named after a monastery high up in …

--- a Alps --- an Alps --- the Alps --- Alps

 

74 The forecast says it’ll rain. You _________ take your umbrella.

--- should --- must --- can --- needn’t

 

75 How many means of __________ do you use on a regular basis?

--- сommunication --- сommunicator --- сommunicable --- сommunicate

 

76 Unfortunately, ______ knew the history of this ancient town.

--- anybody --- nothing --- nobody --- somebody

 

77 Life is getting …

--- as hard as --- harder and harder --- hardly --- more and more hard

 

78 The money _______ to him.

--- belong --- do not belong --- belongs --- is not belonging

79 Tom’s away at the moment. He’s _______ holiday in France.

--- on --- at --- in --- for

 

80 I wouldn’t worry ________ I’m not bothered.

--- unless --- as long as --- so that --- until

 

81 Most of Shakespeare’s plays _______ in London.

--- wrote --- were written --- have been writing --- were being written

 

82 This house wants …

--- to paint --- painting --- being painted --- painted


83 The customs officer went through their bags looking _______ drugs.

--- for --- out --- in --- after

 

84 Ten miles ________ a long way to ride.

--- is --- don’t --- are --- were

 

85 Aren’t you afraid we have too little petrol? – So what? It’s so close from here that we ________ use the car.

--- mustn’t --- needn’t --- can’t --- shouldn’t

 

86 The Russian people _______ invincible.

--- don’t --- can --- becoming --- is

 

87 English is not ________ language spoken in Great Britain.

--- the only --- a only --- an only --- only

 

88 Police are looking _______ the robbery in Oxford Street that happened last week.

--- into --- for --- out --- after

89 There are special schools for _________ in our country.

--- the blinds --- the blind --- blinds --- a blind

 

90 They used to spend their summer holidays in …

--- a Crimea --- an Crimea --- Crimea --- the Crimea

91 Mr Harrison said that he _______ again.

--- would call --- will have called --- called --- will call

 

92 The man we interviewed for the job was ________ but we weren’t very impressed with his appearance.

--- intelligence --- intelligent --- intellective --- unintelligent

 

93 Some old laws are no longer …

--- more effective --- effective --- the most effective --- effectively

 

94 If you _______ to see Judie, ask her to phone me.

--- would happen --- will happen --- happen --- happened

 

95 Many film stars now hire bodyguards because they want …

--- protecting --- to have been protected --- being protected --- protected

 

96 Mary ________ use the dictionary when she reads Spanish books. She knows Spanish very well.

--- doesn’t have to --- mustn’t --- can’t --- isn’t to

 

97 Show me ________ on this map, please.

--- the Canary Islands --- a Canary Islands --- an Canary Islands --- Canary Islands

98 Christine and Andrew knew happiness, _________ they were so poor.

--- though --- after --- before --- lest

 

99 Without my glasses I can hardly make ________ the words on this page.

--- up --- for --- over --- out

 

100 I _______ over the phone for a whole hour when the porter knocked at the door.

--- talked --- had been talking --- had talked --- was talking

101 Look _______ through the notes before you start writing.

--- careful --- carefully --- careless --- carefree

 

102 We should arrive _______ Paris at six in the morning.

--- in --- at --- to --- out of

 

103 Though the report lasted for a long time, the speaker _______ to with great attention.

--- was listened --- listened --- was listening --- had been listening

 

104 The train _________ in a minute later, the two brothers parted.

--- coming --- to be coming --- have come --- having come

 

105 The other day Dad was invited to ________ to see the headmaster.

--- the school --- a school --- an school --- school

 

106 Books _______ for centuries to preserve and distribute information.

--- are used --- are being used --- have been using --- have been used

 

107 He gave _____ the idea of convincing her. It was useless.

--- away --- up --- out --- under

 

108 They ________ go to the theatre together because Nelly had agreed to baby-sit for them.

--- were able to --- had to --- can --- were allowed to

 

109 Before ________ anything you should ask the price.

--- buying --- having bought --- to buy --- having been bought

 

110 She gave him _______ water to wash his hands and face.

--- a little --- many --- few --- a few

 

111 Would you be so kind as _______ me move the sofa?

--- help --- helping --- being helped --- to help

 

112 Walk ________ the station, but turn right a couple of blocks before you get there.

--- in --- from --- towards --- into

 

113 The customs officer went through their bags looking _______ drugs.

--- out --- for --- in --- after

 

114 We ________ to hurry or we’ll be late.

--- ought --- were --- shall be allowed --- had

 

115 Tom’s away at the moment. He’s _______ holiday in France.

--- on --- at --- in --- for

 

116 He knew himself _______ strong enough to take part in the expedition.

--- to be --- be --- having been --- been

 





Читайте также:





Читайте также:
Почему человек чувствует себя несчастным?: Для начала определим, что такое несчастье. Несчастьем мы будем считать психологическое состояние...
Почему люди поддаются рекламе?: Только не надо искать ответы в качестве или количестве рекламы...

©2015 megaobuchalka.ru Все права защищены авторами материалов.

Почему 3458 студентов выбрали МегаОбучалку...

Система поиска информации

Мобильная версия сайта

Удобная навигация

Нет шокирующей рекламы



(0.107 сек.)