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The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The people rule the country through the representatives they elect. Today any citizen who is at least 18 years old can vote. The Constitution of the USA was written in 1787. It is the basis for its laws.
The United States has a federalist system. There are fifty states in the USA. Each state has its own government and there is a federal or national government. Each state has its own constitution and can collect taxes. But only the national government can print money.
The national government is divided into three branches. They are the legislative branch, the executive branch and the judicial branch.
The legislative branch is represented by the US Congress. The US Congress consists of two parts. They are the House of Representatives and the Senate. The congress's main function is to make laws. There are 100 senators (two from each state) and 435 representatives. The number of the representatives from each state depends on the size of the state's population. Senators are chosen for six years. But one-third is reelected or retired every two years.
The executive branch is headed by the President and his Administration. The president of the USA is the head of the country. The executive branch administers the laws. The executive branch consists of departments and agencies. The US President is elected for a 4-year term. The US President commands the armed forces, conducts foreign affairs, recommends laws to the Congress.
The judicial branch is headed by the US Supreme Court. The US Supreme Court has nine members. They are Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices. They are appointed for life. The judicial branch interprets the laws and makes sure that new laws are in keeping with the Constitution.
Each branch has certain controls over other branches. The US Congress makes laws, but the President can veto a law, and the Supreme Court can decide that the law is unconstitutional.
There are two main political parties in the USA. They are the Democtatic Party and the Republican Party. The Democratic Party is symbolized by a "donkey." The Republican Party is symbolized by an "elephant." There are no clear differences between these parties. The Republicans are more conservative. They have more support among the upper classes. The Democrats are more liberal. They have more support among the working class and the poor.
the United States of America (the USA) - Соединенные Штаты Америки
the US Congress - Конгресс Соединенных Штатов Америки
the Senate - Сенат
the US Supreme Court - Верховный Суд Соединенных Штатов
Chief Justice - председатель суда
parliamentary republic - парламентская республика
to rule - управлять
representative - представитель
to elect - выбирать
at least - по крайней мере
to vote - голосовать
law - закон
tax - налог
to print - печатать
to divide - разделять
function - функция
to depend on - зависеть от
to re-elect - перевыбирать
to retire - уходить в отставку
executive - исполнительный
legislative - законодательный
judicial - судебный
to head - возглавлять
to administer - управлять
department - министерство (амер.)
agency - учреждение
armed forces - вооруженные силы
to conduct - руководить
foreign affairs - иност. дела
to appoint - назначать
associate justice - помощник судьи
to interpret - объяснять
certain - определенный
to veto - наложить вето
support - поддержка
the upper classes – аристократия
Answer the questions.
1. The USA is a parliamentary republic. What does it mean?
2. When was the Constitution of the USA written?
3. How many states are there in the USA?
4. How many parts is the national government divided into? What are they?
5. What is the US Congress? What does it consist of?
6. What is the main function of the US Congress?
7. How many senators and representatives are there in the US Congress?
8. What does the number of the representatives from each state depend on?
9. How many years are senators chosen for?
10. Who heads the executive branch?
11. What does the executive branch consist of?
12. For how many years is the US President elected?
13. What are the functions of the US President?
14. What is the third branch of the US government?
15. How many members does the US Supreme Court have? What are they?
16. How many years are the members of the US Supreme Court appointed for?
17. What are the functions of the judicial branch?
18. How many main political parties are there in the USA? What are they?
19. What is the symbol of the Democratic Party?
20. What is the symbol of the Republic Party?
21. What differences are there between the main parties of the USA?
Choose the right version.
1.Senators are chosen for ... years. ( 2, 6,10 )
2.The US Supreme Court has ... members. ( three, eight, nine )
3.The national government is divided into ... branches. ( four, three, five )
4.Today any citizen who is at least ... years old can vote. ( 18, 21, 16, 20 )
5.There are ... senators and 435 representatives in the US Congress. ( 71, 100, 80 )
6.The Constitution of the USA was written in .... ( 1787, 1878, 1978 )
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