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Упражнение по пройденным временам




Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из следующих времен: Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Continuous или Past Continuous.

1. Where you (to be) yesterday? — I (to be) at home the whole day. — How strange. I (to ring) you up at two o’clock, but nobody (to answer). — Oh, I (to be) in the garden. I (to read) your book and (not to hear) the telephone. 2. What you (to do) at five o’clock yesterday? — I (to work) in the library. — I (to be) there, too, but I (not to see) you. 3. Nina (to celebrate) her birthday yesterday. Her room looked beautiful, there (to be) many flowers in it. When I (to come) in, somebody (to play) the piano, two or three pairs (to dance). 4. Listen! Somebody (to play) the pi­ano. 5.1 (to like) music very much. 6. When I (to look) out of the window, it (to rain) heavily and people (to hurry) along the streets. 7. What you (to do) at seven o’clock yesterday? — I(to have) supper. 8. When I (to come) home yesterday, I (to see) that all my family (to sit) round the table. Father (to read) a letter from my uncle, who (to live) in Kiev. 9. Yesterday I (to work) at my English from five till seven. 10. It (to rain) the whole day yesterday. 11. Where your sister (to be) now?— She (to be) in her room. She (to do) her homework. 12. He (to brush) his teeth at the moment. He (to clean) them thoroughly morning and night. 13. Don’t disturb her while she (to sleep). 14. You (to talk) nonsense. You never (to talk) sense. 15. My mother (to sit) in the sun­light now and I (to set) the table.

Урок 9. Грамматика.

PRESENT PERFECT

Present Perfect употребляется для выражения Действия или состояния уже завершившегося к моменту речи, если результат свершившегося имеет значение в настоящий момент.

Признаки:never никогда, ever когда-либо , already уже, just только что, lately в последнее время, недавно, by now уже, к настоящему времени, up to now до настоящего момента, yet еще (в вопросах и отрицаниях)

Употребление:

1. Действие произошло в неопределенное время в прошлом (важно не время, а результат)

 

· I’ve seen this movie. — Я видел этот фильм.

Т.е. я видел этот фильм вообще, неважно когда. Важен только результат для настоящего.

 

2. Действие началось в прошлом, продолжается в настоящем и может продолжаться в будущем.

 

· We have lived in Kiev since 1985. — Мы живем в Киеве с 1985 года.

Т.е. мы начали жить в Киеве в 1985 году, продолжаем жить и, возможно, будем жить и дальше.

 

4. Описание событий недавнего прошлого

Обычно при этом используются слова recently (недавно), lately (недавно, в последнее время).

· He has come back recently. — Он вернулся недавно.

 

Отличае Present Perfect от Past Simple:

1. Периодом, который еще не закончился: today (сегодня), this morning (этим утром), this week (на этой неделе), this month (в этом месяце), this year (в этом году) и т.д., и даже целая жизнь!Present Perfect



 

Периодом, который закончился: yesterday (вчера), last week (на прошлой неделе), last month (в прошлом месяце), last year (в прошлом году) и т.д. И даже, например, this morning, если утро уже закончилось, и наступил день!Past Simple

 

1. Связь с настоящим Present Perfect

Нет связи с настоящим; действие полностью относится к прошлому Past Simple

2. Важен результат для настоящего; Present Perfect

2. Важно время совершения действия в прошломPast Simple

 

Образование PRESENT PERFECT:

Глагол TO HAVE (HAVE, HAS)^

1. Смысловой глагол:

· I have a pen.

· He has a pen.

· They have a pen.

2. Вспомогательный глагол:

Правил. Гл. Неправ. Гл.
___ have V1 +ed has · He has worked. ___ have V3 has · They have begun.
__ have not V1 +ed has · He has not worked. ___ have not V3 has · They have not begun.
Have___ V1 +ed Has · Has he worked? Have ___ V3 Has · Наve they begun?

 

Упражнения:

Упражнение 1.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. I (not yet to eat) today. 2. He (not to eat) yes­terday. 3. You (to play) the piano yesterday? 4. You(to play) the piano today? 5. What you (to prepare) for today? 6. Look at this birdhouse. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 7. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 8. You (to see) Mary today? 9. When you (to see) Mary? — I (to see) her last week. 10. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 11. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 12. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. — When he (to fall) ill? — He (to fall) ill yesterday. 13. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk. 14. I (to do) my homework yes­terday. 15. He just (to come) home. 16. He (to come) home a minute ago. 17. Nick (to play) football yester­day. 18. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework. 19.1 (to read) this book last year. 20. I (to read) this book this year. 21. I never (to be) to Washington. 22. You ever (to be) to New York? 23. I don’t think you ever (to see) Niagara Falls. 24. I (to invite) Linda to the party. — When you (to see) her? — I (not to see) her for ages. I (to call) her an hour ago.

 

Упражнение 2.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Simple.

1. She just (to go) out. 2. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 3. We (not yet to solve) the problem.

4. When it all (to happen)? 5. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o’clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 6. Show me the dress which you (to make). 7. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes. 8. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind. 9. When you (to open) the win­dow? — I (to open) it ten minutes ago.

Урок 10. Грамматика

PAST PERFECT

В Past Perfect действие совершается до определенного времени в прошлом или до начала другого действия (события) в прошлом. В Past Perfect действие совершилось к некоторому моменту в прошлом.

Признаки:

already, yet, ever, never, by 10 o’clock, by that time

 





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