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Degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs




Прилаг.\степень положительная сравнительная превосходная
Одно-сложные и некоторые двусложные big warm easy bigger warmer easier the biggest the warmest the easiest
Многосложные beautiful dangerous more beautiful more dangerous the most beautiful the most dangerous

Исключения: good –better –the best

bad –worse –the worst

older –the oldest (сравнение по возрасту)

old

elder –eldest (сравнение в семье)

farther (дальше) -the farthest

far

further (далее) –the furthest

little- less –the least

Для вырожения сравнения существует целый ряд конструкций, таких как:

as ……as……такой же, как……

It is as cold as in winter

not so ……as…не такой….как…

She was not so young as he thought.

the ……the……чем ……тем.

The more we study the more we know.

much + сравнительная степень - намного + срав.-ная степень.

Much better намного лучше.

still + сравнительная степень - еще + сравнительная степень.

Still more difficult еще труднее.

 

 

Exercise 1

Supply the missing forms of the adjectives and adverbs

 

Positive     bad   near   little
Comparative further         bigger  
Superlative   eldest   best      
Positive comfortable    
Comparative     more famous
Superlative   the most interesting  

 

Exercise 2

Use the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets.

1. Which is (long) day of the year?

2. Winter is (cold) season.

3. Moscow is (large) than St. Petersburg.

4. My friend’s car is not so (new) as mine.

5. Where is it (beautiful), in the mountains or near the sea?

6. It was (good) meal, I’ve ever had.

7. In spring the days are (long) than in winter.

8. It is (cold) today than it was yesterday.

9. Health is (good) than wealth.

10. Who is (old) in your family?

11. New York is as (beautiful) as Moscow.

 

Exercise 3

Read the situations and complete the sentences. Use degrees of comparison.



Pattern: Yesterday the temperature was mine degrees. Today it is only six degrees.–It is colder today than it was yesterday.

1. Cris and Joe are group mates. Cris passed all the exams successfully. Joe passed only 2 exams. So Joe studies ……

2. I saw these films and I liked them all. But I think this film is ……

3. I expected my friends to arrive at about 4 o’clock. In fact they arrived at 15.20. My friends arrived ……

4. This shop is very nice, but the prices are very expensive. It is ……

5. You can go by bus or by train. The buses run every 30 minutes. The trains run every hour. The buses……

6. Dave and I went for a run. I ran ten kilometers. Dave stopped after eight kilometers. I ran ……

 

Exercise 4

Translate into English.

1. Моя старшая сестра на два года старше меня.

2. Этот текст горазда труднее, чем тот , который мы переводили на прошлом уроке.

3. Скажите, пожалуйста, где ближайшая остановка автобусов?

4. Чем больше вы будете гулять, тем лучше будет ваше здоровье.

5. Июль –самый жаркий месяц.

6. Я перевёл столько же, сколько и ты.

7. Кто в вашей группе самый лучший студент?

8. Самое холодное место на Земле - Северный Полюс.

9. Это здание не такое высокое, как то.

10. Самым высоким мужчиной в мире был Роберт Водлоу из США.

 

Глагол «to be »

 

Ед. Число Мн. Число
1 лицо I am 2 лицо you are he 3 лицо she is it 1 лицо we 2 лицо you are   3 лицо they

 

He is at home now.
Is he at home now?
Is he at home or at school now?
Where is he now?
He is at home now, is not he?
He is not at home now.

 

Оборот there + to be

Оборот there + to be употребляется, когда мы говорим о наличии или отсутствии кого- либо или чего-либо в определенном месте в определённое время. На русском языке такие предложения переводятся начиная с обстоятельства места.

 

  There are some institutes in our city.  
  There are no institutes in our city.  
  Are there any institutes in our city?  
  Are there any institutes in our city or not?  
How many institutes are there in our city?  
  There are some institutes in our city, are not there?
         

 

Глагол “ to have ”

I have we

He you have

She has they

It

  He They has have two children. a large flat.  
  Has Have he they two children? a large flat?  
  What has have he? they?  
  He They has have two children, a large flat, hasn’t he? haven’t they?
         

 

Exercise 1

Use the right form of “ to be “, “ to have ”.

1. It ……difficult to find a job now, …… not it?

2. I want to be an engineer, that’s why I ……a student of Siberian State University of Technology.

3. How old ……you? –I ……18.

4. There ……9 faculties at our institute.

5. ……you English classes twice a week?

6. I ……no time to help you. I……sorry about it.

7. There …… little milk in the bottle. Go and buy some.

8. He ……much work to do today.

 

Exercise 2

Make the sentences –negative;

-interrogative.

1. He is good at physics.

2. My father usually has holidays in summer.

3. I have a lot of English books.

4. My house is far from the university.

5. This dog has a funny name.

6. The weather is usually fine in summer.

7. There are 25 students in our group.

8. I am a first –year student now.

Exercise 3

Translate into English.

1. Наш дом находится на улице Кирова. Около дома есть школа.

2. В нашей библиотеке много разных книг.

3. Ты сейчас свободен?

4. Результаты этой работы очень важны для нас.

5. Этот текст очень трудный.

6. Сколько книг зарубежных писателей в твоей домашней библиотеке?

7. У неё два брата, но нет сестры.

8. Обычно у нас три занятия в день.

 

Modal verbs.

 

Модальный глагол значение примеры
can (could) to be able 1. способность, возможность, умение 2. сомнение, предполо- жение 1. He can speak English. Will you be able to come tomorrow? 2. It can rain.
may (might) to be allowed 1. возможность, разрешение 2. сомнение, предположение 1. May I come in? She might go for a walk. 2. They may come soon.
must     mustn’t 1. необходимость 2. предположение (уверенность) 3. запрещение   1. You must know your subject. 2. She must be still working. 3. You mustn’t go out today.
have to необходимость, вызванная обстоятельствами I have to get up early.
to be to необходимость, связанная с планом или договорённостью Am I to come at 5 p.m.?

 

Exercise 1

Make up sentences using can, could. or be able to.

Pattern: You are carrying a lot of things. You want me to open the door for you –You say to me: –“Can you open the door, please?”

1. We are having dinner. You want me to pass the salt. You say to me: ”……”

2. You want me to turn off the radio. You say : “…….”

3. You want to use my dictionary you say to me: “……”

4. You want me to give you my address. You say: “……”

5. You are in my house and you want to use my phone. You say to me: “……”

6. You want me to come to the university earlier tomorrow. You ask me: “……”

7. You want to invite me to your party next Saturday. You want to know if I’ll come. You ask me: “……”

 

Exercise 2

Translate into English using can, could or to be able to.

1. Я не могу его ждать.

2. Можешь ли ты ответить на этот вопрос?

3. Кто может перевести это предложение?

4. Я не смогу придти на следующее занятие.

5. Вы могли сделать это без моей помощи?

6. Я смогу начать работу завтра утром.

7. Мы не смогли перевести этот текст. Он слишком трудный.

8. Я никогда не смогу говорить по англиски быстро.

 

Exercise 3

Read the situations and make up sentences from the words in brackets.

Use may or might.

Pattern: I can’t find George anywhere. I wonder where he is.

a) He /go/ shopping –He may have gone shopping.

b) He /play/ tennis –He might be playing tennis.

1. I am looking for Helen. Do you know where she is?

a)She /watch TV/ in her room.

b)She /go/ out.

2. I can’t find my umbrella. Have you seen it?

a)It /be/ in the car.

b)You /leave in the restaurant/ last night.

3. Why didn’t Tom answer the door bell? I am sure he was in the house at the time.

a) He /be/ in the bath.

b) He /not/ hear the bell.

 

Exercise 4

Translate into English using may or might.

1. Можно мне задать Вам вопрос.

2. Вы можете подождать в коридоре.

3. Он сказал, что мне можно остаться там.

4. Учитель сказал, что мы можем идти домой.

5. Могу я сходить к врачу?

6. Вы можете придти по-позже.

7. Когда мы сможем пойти домой?

 

Exercise 5

Fill in the blanks using must, had to or shall / will have to.

1. I …… go to the bank yesterday to get some money.

2. The windows are very dirty. You ……clean them.

3. You …… learn this grammar rule for the next lesson.

4. I ……get up early tomorrow. I‘ve got a lot of things to do.

5. Come on! We ……hurry. We haven’t got much time.

6. I was nearly late for my appointment this morning. I……run to get there in time.

7. You ……rewrite the exercise once more.

8. We arrived home late last night. We ……wait half an hour for a taxi

 

Exercise 6

Make up sentences using to have to, to be to as modals.

Pattern 1: I have to work very hard.

to leave home early;

to make a report;

to buy a new pen;

to have tea instead of coffee;

to have lunch in the canteen.

Pattern 2: I was to come to the exam at 10 o’clock.

to have an English class on Tuesday ;

to do exercise 5;

to write a composition;

to clean my room.

Exercise 7

Translate into English using to have to, to be to.

1. Мне приходится вставать рано. Я должен быть в институте в 8 часов.

2. Поезд должен прибыть в 12.

3. Мне нужно поговорить с вами .

4. Ей надо было уйти по-раньше.

5. Им не пришлось долго ждать.

6. Нам придётся взять такси.

7. Вам придётся подождать, он сейчас занят.

8. Мне нужно было всё хорошо обдумать.

 

Exercise 8

Chose the right modal verb.

1. You will……speak English in another few months.

a) can b) have c)be able to

2. I ……get up early on Mondays.

a) am able b) have to c) must d) may

3. My sight is going worse. Next year, I am afraid, I …… read without glasses.

a) can’t b)may not c) won’t be able to

4. ……I come in and sit down?

a) can b) may

5. Excuse me, ... you tell me the way to the Houses of Parliament, please?

a) could b) may c) must

6. At home you ... to do ex. 20.

a) must b)had c)were

7. You ... use my book if you need.

a) may b) must c) might

8. I ... find this book yesterday.

a) mustn’t b) couldn’t c) may not

9. You ...find this magazine at any shop.

a) may b) can c) might

 

Test №1. Variant № 1.

 

1. Where is ... your note - book?

a) a (an); b) the; c) -.

2. London is situated on ... River Thames.

a) the; b) a (an); c) -.

3. At all technical institutes ... is an Obligatory subject.

a) a foreign language; b) foreign languages.

4. In summer we eat a lot of ....

a) fruit; b) bruits.

5. More than 10 ... students study at our University.

a) thousands; b) thousand.

6. Can you please repeat that ... ?

a) slow; b) slowly.

7. Your reading is very ....

a) good; b) well.

8. New York is ... city of the USA.

a) the largest; b) the larger; c) largest; d) most largest.

9. They ... the students of our group.

a) am; b) is; c) are.

10. My hair ... clean.

a) am; b) is; c) are.

11. There ... many students in our University.

a) is; b) are.

12. Margie and her sister ... wonderful voices.

a) have; b) has.

13. Does he ... a family of his own?

a) has; b) have.

14. You will ... speak English in another few months.

a) can; b) have; c) be able to; d) ought.

15. ... I speak to Yane, please?

a) could; b) shall; c) must; d) ought.

 

Test №1. Variant №2.

 

1. Mary lives in ... Coronation Street.

a) a (an); b) the; c) -.

2. ... English is the language of international business.

a) a (an); b) the; c) -.

3. You can see new English ... on the blackboard.

a) word; b) words.

4. Last Sunday we went fishing but we didn't catch many ...

a) fish; b) fishes.

5. The population of the U.K. is nearly 60 ... people.

a) millions; b) million.

6. Yane is studying ... for her examination.

a) hard; b) hardly.

7. He wrote his dictation ... .

a) bad; b) badly.

8. I think that he speaks English ... that Ann.

a) bad; b) worst; c) badly; d) worse.

9. I am sorry, I can't come. I ...busy today.

a) am; b) is; c) are.

10. Mathematics ... exact science.

a) am; b) is; c) are.

11. There ... a hair in my soup.

a) is; b) are.

12. The Browns ... a nice house in the country.

a) has; b) have.

13. He doesn't ... any ideas.

a) have; b) has.

14. Noboly answers the phone. They ... be out.

a) should; b) would; c) can; d) must.

15. My sister studies English. She ... already read and speak English a little.

a) may; b) must; c) can; d) need.

 





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