Образец титульного листа
ФГБОУ ВПО Кубанский государственный аграрный университет
Регистрационный № 1
Направление 08.03.01 «Строительство»
студент 1 курса Иван Иванович
Ст.преподаватель Ирина Михайловна
v 1. Переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы на английском языке.
The climate of a country is one of the factors that influence the style of its architecture. It can be best illustrated by British residential building. The weather in England is often cloudy and there are few sunny days in the winter season, therefore, as a rule, the windows in an English house are of a large size to catch as much light and sunshine as possible. In the houses built in the past century the windows, besides being large, opened upwards, which is very convenient on windy days?
Since there is much rain in England, typical British houses have high, steep roofs where rain water and melting snow can easily flow down.
Most of the houses have a fireplace which forms the most characteristic feature of an English home and is seldom seen in other European countries.
The plan of an English house also differs from that of the houses where we live. English architects plan some apartments vertically instead of planning them horizontally , so that English family having a separate apartment lives on two or sometimes three floors with rooms connected with a narrow staircase. They find it the most convenient style of apartment. There are usually three rooms in each apartment besides a kitchen and a bathroom: a living room, a bedroom and a dining room.
v Answer the questions:
1. What influences the style of architecture in England?
2. What kind of roofs do typical British houses have?
3. How do English architects plan some apartments?
4. How many rooms are there in each apartment?
Переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы.
The gravitational force on a structure can be divided into dead loads and live loads. Dead loads can be calculated accurately because they rarely change with time and are usually fixed in one place. Live loads are always variable and moveable, so no exact figures can be calculated for these forces.
Structures must also resist other types of forces, such as wind or earthquakes, which are extremely variable. It is impossible to predict accurately the magnitude of all the forces that act on a structure during its life; we can only predict from past experience the probable magnitude and frequency of the loads.
Engineers never design a structure so that the applied exactly equal the strength of the structure. This condition is too dangerous because we can never know the exact value of either the applied loads or the strength of the structure. Therefore, a number called a “factor of safety“ is used. The safety factor is defined as the ratio of the probable strength of the structure and the probable loads on the structure. This factor may range from 1∙1 (where there is little uncertainty) to perhaps 5 or 10 (where there is great uncertainty)
Now answer these questions:
a) Can the loads from the internal partitions of a building be estimated accurately? Why?
b) Can the loads from storage in a building be estimated accurately? Why not?
c) How can an engineer predict the possible loads that will occur on a structure?
d) Why do engineers never design a structure so that the applied loads exactly equal the strength of the structure?
e) When there is great uncertainty about the loads on a structure and the strength of a structure, does an engineer choose a high or low safety factor?
f) When does failure occur?
Вариант № 3
Переведите текст, выполните задания №1, №2
Building materials are used in two basic ways. In the first way they are used to support the loads on a building and in the second way they are used to divide the space in a building. Building components are made from building materials and the form of a component is related to the way in which it is used. We can see how this works by considering three different types of construction:
1. In one kind of construction, blocks of materials such as brick, stone, or concrete are put together to form solid walls. These materials are heavy, however, they can support the structural loads because they have the property of high compressive strength. Walls made up of blocks both support the building and divide the space in the building.
2. In another type of construction, sheet materials are used to form walls which act as both space-dividers and structural support. Timber, concrete and some plastics can be made into large rigid sheets and fixed together to form a building. These buildings are lighter and faster to construct than buildings made up of blocks.
3. Rod materials, on the other hand, can be used for structural support but not for dividing spaces. Timber, steel and concrete can be formed into rods and used as columns. Rod materials with high tensile and compressive strength can be fixed together to form framed structures. The spaces between the rods can be filled with light sheet materials which act as space dividers but do not support structural loads.
Now say which paragraph discusses:
a) planar construction
b) frame construction
c) mass construction
1. Copy and complete this table by putting ticks in the boxes to show the functions of the components:
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