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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА N 2




1. Многофункциональность окончания -s.

2. Особенности перевода определений, выраженных именем существительным.

3. Порядок слов в английском повествовательном предложении.

4. Времена группы Continuous (действительный залог).

5. Времена группы Continuous (страдательный залог).

6. Многозначность that, those, one, ones, it.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 1

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, определив по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова. оформленные окончанием -s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

1) показателем третьего лица единственного числа в Present Simple (Present Indefinite);

2) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

3) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. The region supplies the country with fuel and energy.

2. They produce modern machines for all branches of the national economy.

3. The country's economic development is one of the important tasks of our new government.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. The reporter spoke about the fulfillment of the Food Programme in the region.

2. Economic development plans provided for the development of the key industries of Siberia.



3. Students carry out their laboratory tests in modern well-equipped laboratories.

3. Составьте предложения из следующих слов, руководствуясь правилом о порядке слов в английском повествовательном предложении.

1. 1) has, 2) many, 3) now, 4) the region, 5) factories.

2. 1) no, 2) the area, 3) coal deposits, 4) has.

3. 1) methods, 2) develop, 3) of, 4) modern, 5) production, 6) scientists and engineers.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Electronics is becoming very important in various branches of industry.

2. We shall be waiting for you at the bus-stop at 5 o'clock.

3. Numerous questions are being considered by the commission.

4. When he came to Baku in 1962 the first metro line was being built.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов that, those, one, ones.

1. The changes that take place during the freezing of a liquid are opposite to those that take place during the melting of the solid.

2. Your doctor does not agree with the opinion that your disease is incurable.

3. Those experimental methods were known in the 18th century.

4. That the sun is a star is a very important fact.

5. One gram of water will dissolve almost 5 g of zinc chloride.

6. To understand this matter thoroughly one must have knowledge of reaction rate.

7. Hydrogen consists of particles, each one is made of 2 hydrogen atoms.

8. They study organic processes and inorganic ones.

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их. учитывая различные значения слова it.

1. It is known that the device works well.

2. It was not easy for the operator to start the engine.

3. It is the crystalline conductivity that is decreased.

4. If atoms cannot be seen it does not mean that they do not exist.

5. An atom is made of protons, neutrons and electrons, the number of which can be easily calculated in it.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно второй абзац текста "Surprising Money".

Sodium

Sodium carbonate was known at a very early stage in human development but no distinction was drawn between sodium and potassium salts. In the sixteenth century the Arabs introduced the name "natron" into Europe for sodium carbonate, as distinct from "nitrum" for potassium nitrate. They also supplied the word alkali to the ashes of plants, but did not distinguish between the ashes of land plants, which contained potassium carbonate, and those of sea and salt-marsh plants, containing sodium carbonate.

A distinction between these two classes of ash was made in 1736.

Sodium metal was isolated in 1807.

Sodium is a very reactive metal, it is not found free in nature. It is, however, present as a silicate in many minerals and from these rocks it finds its way into the soil in the process of weathering and thence into the sea.

Sodium is a soft white metal which can easily be cut with a knife. The melting-point of the metal is low, 98 degrees C; it boils at 883 degrees C. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Sodium reacts very readily with acids. Sodium dissolves in mercury, to form amalgams.

Sodium hydroxide is used in soap manufacture, and in the dye and artificial silk industries.

Surprising Money

Have you ever heard of "coins" so heavy that it takes several men to carry them? It's too surprising but you'll find such coins on the Island of Yap, In the East Pacific Islands. They are made of stones with hole in the centre. The natives still use them as money.

These coins are probably the heaviest and the biggest known. The lightest and the smallest were the gold coins used in Southern India at the beginning of the last century. They were "pin-head" size.

What Is the Origin of the Dollar Sign?

Historians are not certain how the United States began using the $ as a dollar sign. The probably explanation is that it comes from a design marked on old Spanish coins called "pieces of eight." Before Americans had their own dollars, they used this Spanish coin for a silver dollar. One side of the coin was stamped with the symbol of Philip V of Spain - a ribbon winding around the two Pillars of Hercules, Gibraltar and Ceuta. The $ formed by the ribbon around each pillar may have led to the dollar sign, $. Dollars became America's official currency in 1792.

VIII. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. Who introduced the name "natron" into Europe? 2. When was a distinction between the two classes of ash made? 3. What is sodium? 4. What are the heaviest coins made of? 5. When did dollars become America's official currency?

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их. Определив по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

1) показателем третьего лица единственного числа в Present Simple (Present Indefinite);

2) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

3) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Our engineers' work helps to achieve great results in the development of heavy industry.

2. The development of these deposits has great economic effect.

3. This problem needs a special approach.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. Our University pays great attention to computer education.

2. Well-known architects and economists took part in the discussion of a new long-term town-building programme.

3. This instrument allows to determine all parameters of coal quality.

3. Составьте предложения из следующих слов, руководствуясь правилом о порядке слов в английском повествовательном предложении.

1. 1) were, 2) industrial, 3) in, 4) enterprises, 5) there, 6) the region, 7) no.

2. 1) close, 2) established, 3) the, 4) Academy, 5) contacts, 6) scientists, 7) with,

8) foreign.

3. 1) problem, 2) in detail, 3) this, 4) studied, 5) they.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол—сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. This problem is being discussed by many scientists both in our country and abroad.

2. He was carrying out his experiments when I entered the laboratory.

3. The experiments were still being made in some laboratories when the new term began.

4. They will be testing a new automatic driving system tomorrow.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов that, those, one, ones.

1. The speaker touched upon only one important problem - the state of higher education in Great Britain.

2. The training of oil engineers includes a comprehensive study of general subjects as well as specialized ones.

3. One can get higher education in colleges and universities.

4. These experimental methods are similar to those known before.

5. It should be mentioned that metals in solid state are crystalline.

6. Gases take the volume and shape of the vessel that contains them.

7.That this liquid can be evaporated to dryness there is no doubt.

8. The conduction of an electric current by a solution differs from that of an electric current by a metal.

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слова it.

1. It is the development of chemical processes that his report deals with.

2. Though this subject was very difficult for him he mastered it well.

3. It was interesting for the students to solve this problem.

4. It is necessary to translate this text.

5. It was his best speech.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно второй абзац текста Cars Can Drink And Drive.

Cars Can Drink and Drive

Seriously though, a Volkswagen Beetles (popular type of Volkswagen car) is part of modern technology - part of the search for new fuels to replace oil. It runs on a mixture of petrol and alcohol - called gasohol. And it's one of six million cars in Brazil now using that fuel. Brazil is already in the post-petro­leum age. Some of the trains in Brazil even use gasohol. And the steel factories there will soon run on gasohol.

It is quite easy to make alcohol. All you need is sugar cane and vegetable matter. And Brazil has a lot of land on which to grow vegetable matter. The government of Brazil plans to export alcohol and the technology to make gasohol. So instead of importing petrol costing five billion dollars a year, one day Brazil's exports of fuel may be worth more than her imports.

So far, alcohol is more expensive than petrol. But it is a cleaner fuel and cars get a better mileage from it. And experts believe that soon it will be cheaper than petrol.

Brazil believes that gasohol is one of the fuels of the future. And even the US is now spending money on programmes to develop the production of gasohol. "This is one area of energy research in which the Brazilians have an advantage over everyone else," said a US official to Newsweek magazine. "There are a lot of things for us to learn from Brazil."

Where Does the Word "Dollar" Come From?

The word "dollar" has been in use since the 16th century in England and was used very early on in the United States to refer to the currency that was used by settlers. Its history begins in Europe.

Dollar is the English word for "Thaler" which German speakers will recognize as the silver coin used in Austria. This silver coin was originally made from silver mined in Joachim's Thal -that's Joachim valley in Germany.

Meanwhile, the currency often used in the British colonies in North America was a Spanish coin - the peso, or eight reals also known as "pieces of eight". This coin they called a dollar. So the term was used in America for two centuries before the British colonies became independent at the end of the 18th century.

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What kind of fuels is this text about? 2. Why do they say that it is quite easy to make alcohol? 3. What are the advantages of gasohol? 4. What is the origin of the English word "dollar"? 5. How long has the world "dollar" been in use in England?

ВАРИАНТ 3

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, определив по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

1) показателем третьего лица единственного числа в Present Simple (Present Indefinite);

2) признаком множественного числа имени существительного.

3) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Nominally a question of economics, development policy actually affects Washington's relations with its allies, with the Third World and with the oil-exporting countries.

2. Ford and Toyota are deep into discussion about a possible partnership to produce a Toyota car or van in one of Ford's assembly plants.

3. Once she got an offer, but the wages were only fourteen shillings a week.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. But the strongest of all the arguments is the huge profits the car owners have been making over the years.

2. The Treasurer introduced a Bill to implement the Goverment's plan to give prefential taxation treatment to life insurance companies.

3. Sanyo Electric expects to show record profit and sales figures for the ending year next Nov. 30, company president said on Tuesday.

3. Составьте предложения из следующих слов, руководствуясь правилом о порядке слов в английском повествовательном предложении.

1. 1) produces, 2) every, 3) 5,000, 4) the factory, 5) day, 6) cars

2. 1) paper, 2) beautiful, 3) make, 4) craftsmen, 5) in, 6) object, 7) Japan, 8) of

3. 1) these, 2) mail, 3) tomorrow, 4) the secretary, 5) letters, 6) will.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Around us people were talking German, Italian and English.

2. He felt with satisfaction that he was being stared at.

3. A year from new I'll be earning more than a dozen men in the Railway Mail. You wait and see.

4. Two bags were at this moment being loaded aboard a flight for Milwaukee.

 

5. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов that, those, one, ones.

1. He performed that part of the work efficiently.

2. That steel, unlike cast iron, does not expand on solidification is a well-known fact.

3. Show us the size of the wire that must be used in the distri­bution system.

4. The mixture is identical with that mentioned above.

5. One has to be careful while testing the new machine.

6. The simplest kind of lever is one in which the arms are of equal length.

7. It is found that for the best hearing conditions the reverbe­ration time should be between one and two seconds.

8. To facilitate the assembly of the small units into more complex ones in the workshop. It is advisable that the units should be based on a common dimension.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слова it.

1. It is the positive particle in the nucleus which was given the name of the "proton".

2. When a ray of any kind strikes an atom, it may knock an electron out of the atom.

3. It is important that the test be repeated.

4. It is one of the inert gases and it is monatomic.

5. When the electron is by any means torn away from the hydrogen atom, the nucleus alone remains with a single positive charge of electricity on it.

 

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно второй абзац текста Niobium.

Niobium

Here is a short story about niobium or columbium. In 1801 Charles Hatchett, an English chemist, analyzed an ore sample which had been sent to the British Museum from the United States. He named it "columbium" after Christopher Columbus. And the columbium-ore was given the name of "columbite".

But in 1844 this metal or metallic element was rediscovered by Rose. And because it looked like tantalum it was named "niobium" after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus, and the mytholo­gical goddess of tears.

But the new name (niobium) was not immediately accepted. And only after more than 100 years of controversy, it was adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1950.

Today American scientists refer to the metal as "niobium". But, most American metallurgists and producers of the metal use the name "columbium". For many years niobium was not only useless, but it was, in fact, a nuisance. Chemists looked upon it as an impurity in the ores of important metals.

In recent years metallurgists discovered that niobium was an excellent alloy for strengthening many kinds of steel, and that in resistance to heat and corrosion it was a miracle-metal.

Now niobium is beginning to be used in making synthetic silk, as well as in aircraft industry.

But since it is still a rare metal its uses are limited.

Is it found in many parts of the world? Not at all. Deposits of columbite, its ore, are worked in Australia, Africa (Nigeria and Congo-Kinshasa), in the Kola Peninsula (Russia), Canada, Brazil and Norway.

It's Interesting To Know

Ever since oil was discovered in the Sahara and other desert areas, the engineers have been troubled by one thing - sand! It blows into the pipes which bring the oil from the desert to the ports for shipment, and causes the pipes to become clogged!

So you'd imagine that the last thing an oil engineer wants is sand! But, believe it or not, people are actually digging the stuff up on the beaches of Norway and exporting it to - of all places - the Sahara desert! The reason? Because Norwegian sand is very fine and has been found to be the best possible material for cleaning out oil pipes which have been clogged by the much coarser sand of the Sahara! So sand has to be sent thousands of miles to cure the trouble which has been caused by - sand!

It's a strange world, isn't it?

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. When was niobium discovered? 2. Where is it used? 3. Where can deposits of columbite be found? 4. What trouble has sand been causing since oil was discovered in the Sahara desert? 5. Why do people export Norwegian sand to the Sahara desert?

 

 

ВАРИАНТ 4

1. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, определив по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:

1) показателем третьего лица единственного числа в Present Simple (Present Indefinite);

2) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;

3) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

1. Scientists' international ties help develop both science and friendship among people.

2. The development of machine building determines progress in other branches of the national economy.

3. High temperature influences the rate of this reaction.

2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. Oxford, famous for its oldest university in Britain, is now one of the most important centers of the motor-car industry.

2. The scientists developed new synthetic rubber products.

3. Our university library supplies the students with books and necessary information about them.

 

3. Составьте предложения из следующих слов, руководствуясь правилом о порядке слов ванглийском повествовательном предложении.

1. 1) chemistry, 2) she, 3) on, 4) every, 5) lectures, 6) day, 7) attends.

2. 1) they, 2) not, 3) laboratory, 4) in, 5) work, 6) the, 7) did, 8) yesterday.

3. 1) year, 2) will, 3) he, 4) from, 5) next, 6) graduate, 7) Institute, 8) the.

 

4. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную ферму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The problem of the structure of matter is constantly occupying the minds of many scientists.

2. Professor N. was being listened to with great attention.

3. Now everything is being done to make the experiment in time.

4. Today scientists are still looking for the substance as a source of energy.

 

5. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов that, those, one, ones.

1. One may expect that this substance dissolves easily in water.

2. Only one out of 100 million atoms of radium decomposes per second.

3. In the laboratory students learn to build modern plants and reconstruct old ones.

4. The solid that was used is highly soluble in water.

5. The density of ice is lower than that of liquid.

6. These words have much broader meanings than those indicated in the dictionary.

7. That the atmosphere is a mixture and not a chemical compound is proved in this chapter.

8. It is known that mass is a quantity of matter that makes a body.

 

6. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слова it.

1. It is very difficult for some people to master a foreign language.

2. This discovery was not a new one, but still it was very interesting.

3. It was very important to solve the problem in time.

4. It was the Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens, who offered an explanation for this phenomenon.

5. Try to answer all the questions, it is very important.

7. Прочтите и устно переведите тексты. Переведите письменно два последних абзаца текста It's Interesting To Know.

New Detergent Is Made From Sugar

A new detergent made from sugar is now testing the industrial market in the south of England. Tate and Lyle, scientists who devised the new product, believe that it may be the forerunner of a whole new chemical industry based on sugar rather than oil or coal.

The production of the detergent, which has been patented in 30 countries, is very simple. Sugar is reacted directly with tallow - a product made from animal fats - at the right temperature and with a catalyst, to produce a brown solid. There are no by-products of the reaction, so no need for expensive separation.

Because sugar is a minor component in the reaction and tallow is a low-cost product, Tate and Lyle believe that the new detergent can compete on price with conventional ones.

Tate and Lyle have also produced from sugar a range of chemicals which are being tested for pharmaceutical activity, and a sugar-based polyurethane foam similar in properties to conventional foam but fire-resistant. They believe that the scope for a sugar-based chemical industry is enormous and will have the advantage of being based on a renewable resources rather than on declining stocks of oil.

It's Interesting To Know

When were pennies first used in Britain? It was about AD 765 that Offa, King of Mercia, introduced the penny into England.

Pennies were the only coins in use in Britain for the next 500 years. There were a few halfpennies too, obtained by cutting the penny in half.

They really were half pennies!

Pennies then were made of silver and after a while looked very worn and battered as people used to chip little bits off the edges, melt them down and make a small lump of silver which they could sell.

You may have heard of pieces-of-eight - the pirates' gold -but there are many coins, like the groat or the noble, which might sound strange to us now. It seems surprising to think that there was once a quarter-farthing.

The gold noble struck in the royal (or noble) metal, depicted Edward III standing in a ship. It is thought that this design commemorated the naval battle of Sluys.

Since ancient Greek and Roman times coins were struck to
commemorate important people, events or even buildings, like the
Roman Colosseum.

Some modern examples are the crown-piece struck in 1951 to mark the Festival of Britain, and another in 1953 when Queen Elizabeth was crowned, showing the Queen on horseback.

The particular design, the kind of metal, give valuable information about why they were struck, the countries they came from, the kind of people who used the coins.

8. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. Who devised a new detergent made from sugar? 2. Is the production of the detergent simple or complex? 3. What is tallow? 4. What do Tate and Lyle think of the future of a sugar-based chemical industry? 5. What were pennies made of?

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