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Ability, Likelihood and Permission

Can, Could

Exercise 252.

Fill in the blanks with сап/can't or be (not) able to in the proper form.

1. He___speak English rather fluently, but that time he___say a word. 2. He has never___speak in public. 3.1 used to___speak German very well. 4. You ___marry her, but you___make her love you. 5.1___ do it on Friday, but I___do it next week. 6.___you give me a lift to the station, please? 7.1 used___eat a kilo of sweets for supper. 8.1 have never___ride a bicycle. 9. You___see him at the meeting. He was ill. 10. I'd like ___ski very well. 11. Luckily I___find a taxi. 12.1 ___drive when I was fifteen. 13.1___hear somebody running. 14. He did not want to go there, but we___to persuade him. 15. She sighed. I___feel her hands shaking.


Exercise 253.

Open the brackets with could (expressing a possibility) or could have (expressing a possibility that did not happen) and make all necessary changes.

1. A car is pulling up. It could (be) Lucy. 2. He could (get) a credit, but he did not prepare all the documents in time. 3. Why didn't you ask me? I could (do) it for you. 4, He could (be) there tomorrow. 5. They could (be) there yesterday. 6. Why are you so depressed? He could (tell) a

lie. 7. You should have told us about your delay. We could (cancel) our meeting. 8. He could (do) it if he tries. 9. Somebody has called on you today. — It could (be) a friend of mine. 10.1 think he could (commit) a crime, but he's got an alibi. 11. The train arrives at 11.30. She could (come) at noon. 12. Yesterday I saw him driving at a very high speed. He could (crash).


Exercise 254.

Express your surprise and disbelief using can/could.

A in interrogative sentences.

Example: He is working now. — Can/Could he be working now?

1. He was at the party yesterday. 2. They are in Germany. 3. He has broken his leg. 4. They were sent to prison. 5. She got married. 6. He studies at Cambridge University. 7. She has been practicing the violin for five years. 8. He has made an interesting report. 9. He has won a lot of money in the casino. 10. They will go to the Canaries next summer. 11. He has passed his English exam. 12. She will be forty in June. 13. She is stubborn. 14. He was a cruel man.

В in negative sentences.

Example: He bought a new car.— He can't/ couldn't have bought a car.

1. You are mistaken. 2. They forgot about the meeting. 3. He is writing a new novel now. 4. She has bought a new fur coat. 5. He had an accident. 6. Mary will invite the Jones to her place for the weekend. 7. They upset our plans. 8. She wastes a lot of time. 9. Mr. Fox is a reliable person. 10. She is making a cruise now.


Exercise 255.

Translate into English.

I. He может быть, чтобы он был дома вчера в это время. 2. Неужели он сказал вам об этом? 3. Возмож­но, он и заходил к ним, когда был в Москве. 4. Он мог бы сделать это, но не захотел. 5. Неужели он отказался ехать туда? 6. Не может быть, чтобы оп спал еедчас. 7. Не может быть, чтобы они уехали, не попрощавшись с нами. 8. Не может быть, чтобы она вам так ответила. 9. Он мог бы приехать завтра. 10. Не может быть, что он столкнулся (collide) с другой машиной. Он такой осторожный водитель. 11. Вряд ли он забыл о своем обещании, я напоминала ему об этом вчера. 12. Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро, она слишком трудна для него. 13. Они смогли бы подняться на вершину, но им помешала погода. 14. Вряд ли они поженятся; они слишком разные люди. 15. Разве мог кто-нибудь поду­мать, что он выиграет матч?

May, Might

Exercise 256.

Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb may /might.

1, Under the law you are allowed to make one photocopy for your personal use but you can't make multiple copies. 2. This is possibly the reason why they have refused to join us. 3. Perhaps I will have to take her to hospital; it is possible she has broken her arm in the accident. 4. It is possible he did not have her phone number. 5. When the World Cup was shown on TV, I was allowed to stay up late and watch it. 6. Perhaps your friend will help you, but I don't believe it. 7. Maybe they did not know that the problem was so urgent. 8. Would you mind my smoking here? 9. Why didn't you come? I needed your help badly. 10. Perhaps she has made a mistake, but I am not sure of it. She is a very punctual person.


Exercise 257.

Fill in the blanks with may /might or can/ could and make all necessary changes.

1. You___(warn) me about it beforehand. 2. The weather is changing. It___(start) raining. 3. No, he___ (not hear) your name. We tried to speak in a whisper. 4. He___(not hear) your name. That's why he did not say anything. 5. She ___ (not notice) us. We were standing too far away. 6. She___(not notice) us though we were standing beside her. 7.___I use your name as a referee? 8. She___(not hear) the news, that's why she looks as if nothing had happened. 9. She___(not hear)

the news, nobody___tell her about it. 10. The professor says that I___(rewrite) the essay. 11.___I use your phone? 12. He___(help) them when they were in trouble. 13.___he (say) it? No, it's not like him. He is a man of few words.


Exercise 258.

Choose the right variant.

1. О don't like the way you study. I think you___harder!

a) might have worked

b) might work

c) could work

d) could have worked

2. Let's wait a little. He___.

a) may have come

b) could have come

c) may come

d) might have come

3. She ___ of the plan herself. Somebody has suggested it to her.

a) can't have thought

b) may not have thought

c) can't think

d) may not think

4. They___our telegram, that's why they did not meet us.

a) couldn't have received

b) can't have received

c) may not have received

d) may not receive

5. She___my letter! — Don't be so angry with her.

She___it by mistake,

a) may not read, may do

b) cannot read, can do

c) might not have read, can't have done

d) can't have read, might not have done

6. He___it. I don't believe you.

a) is not able to say

b) might not say

c) can't have said

d) might not have said


Exercise 259.

Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs making necessary changes (you may have several variants).

1. He is in the garden. He___(read) a newspaper in the summerhouse. 2. Her son ___ (get) into trouble yesterday. I've seen him today and he looked quite happy and gay. 3.1 don't remember him well but it seems to me he___(be) in charge of the Finance department last year.

4. He___already (get) used to driving on the left. He has been living in London for a year. 5. He___(receive) an emergency call, that's why he is out. 6. They___(not take up) this problem. It has been already solved. 7. Where is Mr. Black? — He___(receive) a foreign delegation.

They ___(come) at two o'clock. 8. Why haven't the Smiths arrived yet? — They ____ (lose) their way. They don't know the road well. 9. You___(introduce) me to your wife long ago. 10. He „___ (buy) a new car. He is deeply in debt. 11. He ___(buy) a new car, but I am not

sure. 12. They___already (arrive). Look, the windows are open. 13. Where is John? — He___(smoke) in the corridor. 14.1 think for your children's sake you___ (do) it. 15. You___(buy) this book for me. You know I have wanted to have it. 16. A wife___(obey) her husband, the Bible says. 17. You,___(wait) for me, I knew the road well and found my way myself. 18. Judging by his papers on the writing table he___(work) for several hours.

19.___it (be) Nick? He has changed a lot. 20. They___ (not know) of the plane's delay, otherwise they did not come at 2 o'clock.


Exercise 260.

Find and correct the mistakes if any.

1.1 must not dress in my best. When I came, everybody was wearing jeans and T-shirts. 2. He must have known that she needed his help. 3. He had to have an accident in the thick fog. 4. You should phone her long ago. I am sure she is looking forward to your call. 5. With your knowledge of the language you may read the article. 6.1 may not imagine Mary teaching students. She used to be so impatient. — You know time changes people. She is able to become quite different. 7.1 am sure you might have done it much better. You did not try. 8.1 was so angry, I must have thrown my boot at him. 9. May you do me a favour, please? 10. May I ask you to do me a favour, please?

Exercise 261.

Translate into English using the modal verbs.

1. Что здесь происходит? Не могли вы бы вы ска­зать, в чем дело? — Должно быть, полиция ловит опасного преступника (criminal), и поэтому здесь нельзя прейти. 2. Он мог бы объяснить мне с самого начала, как это важно. 3. Тебе следует поторопиться. Мы можем опоздать. 4. Какой скучный фильм я посмотрел! Не сто­ило ходить в кино, я мог бы посмотреть что-нибудь по телевизору. 5. Тебе следовало бы сесть на диету (go on a diet) еще полгода назад. Посмотри на себя! Ты поправи­лась (gain) на 3 килограмма. Тебе нельзя есть сладкое. 6. Неужели она потеряла мой номер телефона? 7. Поче­му он молчит (keep silence)? — Может быть, он не рас­слышал ваш вопрос. Не могли бы вы его повторить? 8. Ты должен уважать (respect) своих родителей. 9. На­верное, он сегодня не придет. Уже восемь часов, а он должен был прийти в семь. 10. Вряд ли они уже верну­лись. Они там впервые и могут задержаться (stay long).


Test 6

Choose the right variant.

1. "They___an excellent vacancy last week. You ___an opportunity of getting it," he reproached me.

a) had, mustn't miss

b) have had, might not have missed it

c) had, shouldn't have missed

d) were having, couldn't miss

2. He had to earn___living at___an early age,___?

a) ___, such, hadn't he

b) his, such, didn't he

c) himself, so, hadn't he

d) to, so, didn't he

3. We___a camera because we never___a chance to use it.

a) might not have taken, had

b) should not have taken, have had

c) needn't have taken, had

d) mustn't have taken, had had

4. The line is busy; somebody___on the telephone now.

a) should be speaking

b) should have been speaking

c) must be speaking

d) can't be speaking

5. You___this! See how___she is.

a) ought not to say, distressing

b) ought not to have said, distressed

c) won't be able to say, distressing

d) cannot have said, distressed

6. He says that nothing___, because it is too___. But I don't believe a single word___; they___us.

a) should do, lately, of him, mustn't have failed

b) can't be done, late, of his, oughtn't fail

c) mustn't be done, lately, of him, shouldn't have failed

d) can be done, late, of his, can't have failed

7.1 managed to come here at half past six. But I___. They___.

a) needn't have hurried, had already left

b) needn't hurry, have already left

c) mustn't have hurried, had already left

d) shouldn't hurry, have already left

8. If she doesn't take care of___, she___have a nervous breakdown and___to hospital.

a) hers, may, should go

b) her, can, need to go

c) herself, may, may have to go

d) herself, must, must go

9. He___his wallet himself, it___.

a) might lose, couldn't be stolen

b) may have lost, can't have been stolen

c) could have lost, must not have been stolen

d) ought to lose, shouldn't be stolen

10. You___a message at least! We___for two hours.

a) should send, waited

b) must have sent, were waiting

c) could send, have been waiting

d) might have sent, had been waiting

11. The only trouble is that I___my exams in spring and___them now.

a) couldn't have taken, must have

b) couldn't take, must have

c) mustn't have taken, must have had

d) can't take, must have had

12. The plane___at 5 a.m. and in this hurry-scurry she___the tickets on the table.

a) had to take off, can leave

b) was to take off, must have left

c) was to take off, needn't leave

d) must have taken off, shouldn't leave

13. Why___he take the scandal on himself? It is not

a) must, fairly

b) may, fair

c) should, fair

d) could, fairly

14. You___to him. His information is___.

a) shouldn't listen, misled

b) needn't have listened, misleading

c) can't have listened, misled

d) mustn't have listened, misleading

15. It is not worth___ to___bed if he___at five.

a) to go,___, have to get up

b) going, the, must have got up

c) to have gone, the, is to get up

d) going,___, doesn't have to get up

16.They have made me___that I___selfish about it.

a) think, may have been

b) to think, must be

c) thinking, might have been

d) thought, should have been

17. It___late when I___home; there were no people in the street.

a) must have been, was going back

b) must be, am going

c) can't have been, was going

d) could not have been, went

18. You___worry, you___always rely on me in this matter.

a) must not, need

b) need not, may

c) can, need not

d) should, must

19. You___this device. It___dangerous.

a) couldn't have touched, may be

b) must not touch, may be

c) shouldn't have touched, ought to be

d) needn't touch, must have been

20.1___my job. I___you before.

a) needn't have put off, should ask

b) shouldn't have put off, need to ask

c) needn't have put off, should have asked

d) shouldn't put off, should ask

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