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Времена группы Perfect Continuous

(см. таблицу 2.11.)

Задание I. Сопоставьте перевод сказуемых have increased и has been increasing; has been growing и has grown. Укажи­те номера предложений, в которых сказуемые переводятся как: (а) растет (b) вырос (с) возрос (d) возрастает

1. The working people’s real incomes have considerably increased owing to various payments and benefits from the consumption fund.

2. At present the bulk of collective farmers’ incomes comes from the social sector of the collective farms or state en­terprises, whose share has been increasing.

3. Remuneration of the labour in collective farmers has re­cently been growing faster than the wages of factory and office workers.

4. Since the first five-year plans were launched the living standard of the people has immeasurably grown.

Задание II. Из данных ниже предложений выпишите ска­зуемые

а) в Present Perfect и b) в Present Perfect Continuous. Переведите эти сказуемые.

1. We live in an age of rapid scientific and technological progress.

2. Within the lifetime of a single generation the 20th century has seen the appearance of radio and television, the har­nessing of atomic power and the production of synthetic materials.

3. Science has grasped the laws of heredity and devised elec­tronic computers, man has learnt to fly and has entered space.

4. Belarus has been investing more in scientific research, the state planning of research and development has been playing an increasing role because science and the appli­cation of its findings have become a matter of national importance.

Ключи: I— 1 — (с); 2 — (d); 3 — (а); 4 — (b); IIа) — 2 — has seen

увидел; 3 — has grasped познала; has devised изобрела; has learnt научился; has entered вошел; 4 — have become — стали; b) — 4 — has been investing ассигнует (средства); has been playing играет (роль).

Глаголы to be, to do, to have (см. таблицы 2.12.-2.14.)

Задание I. Укажите, в какой функции употреблен глагол “to be” в следующем предложении.

1. The plan is to ensure a further rise in the people s stand­ard of living.

(a) модальный (с) вспомогательный

(b) смысловой (d) связка

Задание II. Укажите, в каком предложении глагол “to be” является


2. Agriculture was the most important in the economy of pre-revolutionary Russia.

3. Oil is continuing to play an important part in the economy.

4 It is in Russia, that the first atomic power station has been built.

5 The country’s foreign trade ties are to expand.


Задание Ш. Укажите, в какой функции употреблен гла­гол “tо have” в

следующем предложении.

6. After World War Two the country had to rebuild its economy.

(а) модальный, (b) смысловой, (с) вспомогательный

Задание IV. Укажите, в каких предложениях глагол “to have” употреблен как вспомогательный:

7 There have been no rent increases for many years.

8. The production of food industry has surpassed the pre-perestroika period.

9. Belarus has its own targets which correspond to the requirements of the time.

Задание V. Укажите, в каком предложении глагол “to do” выполняет

эмоционально-усилительную функцию.

10. When the costs of obtaining gold currency dropped for some reason — as they did, for instance, after the great geographical discoveries which brought a flow of cheap American gold to Europe — prices increased.

11. As a rule, discussions of the tasks set in the next five-year plan do not take place only at a Party congress. Long before a congress opens the tasks are made public for nationwide discussion.

12. Architects did indeed search for new ideas and some came up with remarkable solutions and innovations.

13. Why does surplus capital accumulate in the banks while small producers in town and country are ruined? Why do people’s social needs remain unsatisfied?

14. In the country there were three small export companies which did a small business in lemons.

Задание VI. Укажите, в каких двух функциях употреблен глагол “to do” в следующем ниже предложении.

A danger of terrorism does exist for the United States as it does for all other countries of the world. But the source of the danger is not Russia, but the military crises caused by imperialist policy, mostly the US policy.

(a) смысловой, (b) слово-заместитель, (с) вспомогательный,

(d) выполняет эмоционально-усилительную функцию


Ключи: I — (а); II — 3; III — (а); IV — 7, 8; V — 12; VI — (d), (b);


Задания к разделу 3.

Модальный глагол must и его эквиваленты “to have to и to be to”

(см. таблицу 3.1.-3.2.)

Задание 1. Укажите номера предложений с модальным глаголом 'must' и его эквивалентами:

а) в настоящем време­ни;

b) в прошедшем времени;

с) в будущем времени,

d) Ука­жите предложение, где 'have to' встречается дважды: в прошедшем и настоящем времени.

1. Our workers have been free from the fear of being unemployed. They know that they will never have to go from one factory to another or from one office to another in search for work.

2. People had to study and learn, to acquire technical skills and to master the art of management. That was another task set by the government before the country.

3. Russia was buying large quantities of machines from developed countries. But could it rely on the western market alone?

4. The country had to build new industries and modernize plants.

5. The machine tool industry was to organize the production of new models of machine tools.

6. The engineering industries were to turn out complete sets of equipment for new metal-making works.

7. The output level of 2005 was to be more than doubled.

8. The chairman of the factory trade union committee said that they worked a 41-hour, five-day week but in addition had to work about six or seven Saturdays to cover the num­ber of hours that have to be worked in a year.

9. As in the past the efforts of scientists are to be concentrat­ed on achieving a radical improvement of the production.

10.The country is to build new metal-making plants but the need for more metal is to be met also by more careful and fuller use of the metal already being produced.

11.Commodities must match the better standards people are demanding.

12.The basic principle of socialism was that everything be­longs to the people and had to be used to benefit them.


Ключи: a) —9, 10, 11, 12; b) — 2, 4, 5, 6, 7; c) — 1; d)— 8


Задания к разделу 4.

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