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Objective constructions with non-verbals

§ 129. Adjectives and nouns which form the second part of these objective constructions are in subject-predicate relations to the first part and show what the person or non-person expressed by it is or becomes, or what quality it acquired. Because of its meaning the nominal part is often calledan objective predicative.

These constructions may be used after the following verbs:

I. Verbs of mental activity and sense perception, which acquire in this construction the meaning ofjudgement, opinion orconclusion (to appreciate, to believe, to claim, to class, to consider, to condemn, to count, to deem, to esteem, to fancy, to feel, to figure, to imagine, to impart, to interpret, to judge, to look (at, on, upon), to perceive, to picture, to place, to pronounce, to recognize, to regard, to see, to sum up, to take, to think, to view, to visualize, etc.); also after some other verbs (to find, to discover, to welcome, etc.) expressing the same meaning. Occasionally a non-verbal element is introduced by the prepositions as or for.


Hejudged her young and pleasing.

The girlcondemned herself as stupid.

They saw him as the greatest man in Europe.

The townesteemed him as a successful man.

Ifigured you for a good guy.


These constructions may be transformed into object clauses:


I thought it a wonderful opportunity ——> I thought that it was a wonderful opportunity.


He found his life dull ——> He found that his life was dull.


Several verbs of this group (to consider, to deem, to feel, to find, to regard, to suppose, to think, and some others) may take a complex object with the nominal part expressed by a verbal (an infinitive, a gerund) or by a clause. In this case the formal introductory object it is used:

Неthought it useless going to Paris .——> He thought that going to Paris was useless.

I consider it possible to talk to him now.

Theywill think it strange that you should be frightened.

II.Verbs implying that the result of the action will be a new quality, state, social standing, orattitude to the action. These verbs are rather numerous and form several semantic subclasses.


A. Verbs withcausative meaning (to make, to render, to hit, to have, to worry, to scare, etc.)implying

change of state or impression, as in:


This blowmade him crazy.

The sight of the animalscared the boy stiff.

His sudden appearancerendered us speechless.

B.Verbs denoting the action resulting in the change of colour(topaint, to dye, to stain, to tinge, to



Theypainted the door green.

Shehas dyed her hair blonde.

The stormdusted everything grey.

C.Verb denoting actions resulting in the change of social rank, status, function of, or giving

identification to, a person(to appoint, to call, to christen, to elect, to raise, to select, etc.) as in:


Theyelected him President.

Theyappointed him chief in the office.

I’llraise my kid a Catholic.

The parentschristened the boy Paul.

They deliberatelyselected Elizabeth as an ideal mother-substitute.

D.Verbs denoting motion, movement to a different position or state (to bring, to carry, to deliver, to

fing, to kick, to march, to pick, to put, to send, to tear, to toss, etc.).

Shepulled the drawer open.

Itore the letter open.

Christinkicked the door open.

The girlclicked her bag shut.


Most of the verbs in group II have a very general vague meaning, they are often incomplete without the adjective or noun denoting the result of the action. Therefore they are very closely connected with it, forming a set expression:



to make

somebody   something crazy (mad, happy, important, famous, an eager listener, restless, stunned)   invisible (concrete, interesting, handy, certain, clear)


to make oneself agreable (comfortable, cosy)


to set   somebody something free straight


to drive mad (crazy, desperate)


to leave somebody stunned (doubtful, weak, indifferent, blind, crippled)


to keep somebody something busy clean (handy)

to consider somebody something responsible (famous, big, great, unique, a master, charming, pleasing, awful) as possible (extreme, ridiculous, dreadful, a nuisance)


to render somebody something spellbound (speechless, motionless, blind, dumb.) useless (hopeless, unimportant)


to have somebody something as a teacher clear (right, definite)

to count somebody something an enemy (a friend, as the greatest man) as useless (as ugly, as most attractive)

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