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Archaic Forms of the Auxiliaries




The forms given in the tables above are those of modern standard English. One may also come across archaic forms, mainly in poetry or texts where an archaic effect is intended.

 

Forms   Grammatical characteristics   Verbs  
dost [dʌSt], [dǝst]   Present indefinite, 2nd person singular     to do  
doth, doeth [dʌθ], ][dǝθ]   Present indefinite, 3rd person singular  
didst [dɪdst]   Past indefinite, 2nd person singular  
art [a:t], [ǝt]   Present indefinite, 2nd person singular   to be  
wast [wɔst], [wǝst], wert [wǝ:t], [wǝt]   Past indefinite, 2nd person singular  
hast [hæst], [hǝst], |ǝst], [st]   Present indefinite, 2nd person singular   to have  
hath [hæθ], [hǝθ], [ǝθ]   Present indefinite, 3rd person singular  
hadst [hædst], [hǝdst], [ǝdst]   Past indefinite, 2nd person singular  
shall [∫ælt], [∫ǝlt], [∫lt] Present indefinite, 2nd person singular   shall  
shouldst, shouldest [∫udst]   Past indefinite, 2nd person singular  
wilt [wɪlt], [ǝlt], [ɪt]   Present indefinite, 2nd person singular   will  
wouldst, wouldest [wudst]   Past indefinite, 2nd person singular  

 

Table of tense - aspect - perfect forms of the verb “to translate” in the Indicative mood (3d person singular)
Time Reference   Aspect   Non-perfect   Perfect  
Present   Common   He works   He has worked  
Continuous   He is working   He has been working  
Past   Common   He worked   He had worked  
Continuous   He was working   He had been working  
Future   Common   He will work   He will have worked  
Continuous   He will be working   He will have been working  
Future in the past   Common   He would work   He would have worked  
Continuous   He would be working   He would have been working  

 

Содержание

Morphology

PARTS OF SPEECH..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

THE VERB..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Formation of verb categories................................................................................................................................................................ 5



Morphological composition.................................................................................................................................................................. 5

Basic verb forms....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Regular and irregular verbs.................................................................................................................................................................. 5

The category of tense............................................................................................................................................................................ 14

The category of aspect.......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

The category of perfect......................................................................................................................................................................... 16

Present tenses......................................................................................................................................................................................... 18

Past tenses............................................................................................................................................................................................... 29

Future tenses........................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

Future in the past tenses....................................................................................................................................................................... 42

The sequence of tenses.......................................................................................................................................................................... 43

The category of voice............................................................................................................................................................................ 46

The category of mood............................................................................................................................................................................ 54

NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS)............................................................................................................................ 70

The Infinitive........................................................................................................................................................................................... 70

Predicative constructions with the infinitive................................................................................................................................... 85

The for-to-infinitive construction....................................................................................................................................................... 85

The objective with the infinitive construction................................................................................................................................. 86

The gerund.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 88

The gerund and the infinitive compared........................................................................................................................................... 95

The gerund and the verbal noun compared...................................................................................................................................... 97

The participle......................................................................................................................................................................................... 98

MODAL VERBS....................................................................................................................................................................................... 114

Can......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 114

May......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117

Must........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 120

To have to, have got to....................................................................................................................................................................... 122

To be to.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 123

Need....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 125

Ought to................................................................................................................................................................................................. 126

Should.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127

Shall....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 128

Will......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 129

Dare........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 131

THE NOUN................................................................................................................................................................................................ 132

Semantic characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................... 132

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 133

Morphological characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 134

The category of number...................................................................................................................................................................... 135

The category of case........................................................................................................................................................................... 144

THE ARTICLE......................................................................................................................................................................................... 147

The use of the indefinite article........................................................................................................................................................ 149

The use of the definite article............................................................................................................................................................ 151

Absence of the article......................................................................................................................................................................... 155

THE ADJECTIVE..................................................................................................................................................................................... 162

Semantic characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................... 162

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 163

Morphological characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 164

Adjectives of participial origin........................................................................................................................................................ 166

Adjectives and adverbs....................................................................................................................................................................... 166

Patterns of combinability.................................................................................................................................................................. 166

Syntactic functions.............................................................................................................................................................................. 168

Substantivized adjectives................................................................................................................................................................... 168

THE PRONOUN........................................................................................................................................................................................ 169

Morphological composition and categorical characteristics.................................................................................................... 170

Subclasses of pronouns and their functions.................................................................................................................................. 170

THE NUMERAL....................................................................................................................................................................................... 182

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 183

Morphological characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 184

Patterns of combinability.................................................................................................................................................................. 184

Syntactic function............................................................................................................................................................................... 186

Substantivized numerals.................................................................................................................................................................... 187

THE STATIVE.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 187

Morphological characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 188

Syntactic function............................................................................................................................................................................... 188

THE ADVERB.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 189

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 190

Morphological characteristics......................................................................................................................................................... 190

Semantic characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................... 192

Syntactic functions and patterns of combinability....................................................................................................................... 192

Positional characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................. 194

MODAL WORDS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 194

THE PREPOSITION................................................................................................................................................................................ 195

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 196

Semantic characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................... 196

Combinability of prepositions.......................................................................................................................................................... 198

Positional characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................. 198

THE CONJUNCTION.............................................................................................................................................................................. 199

Morphological composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 200

Semantic characteristics.................................................................................................................................................................... 200

Combinability of conjunctions and their functions..................................................................................................................... 201

THE CONJUNCTS................................................................................................................................................................................... 203

THE PARTICLE....................................................................................................................................................................................... 205

THE INTERJECTION............................................................................................................................................................................. 206

Syntax

THE SENTENCE...................................................................................................................................................................................... 207

Structural classification of sentences............................................................................................................................................. 208

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE..................................................................................................................................................................... 209

Two-member sentences....................................................................................................................................................................... 209

One-member sentences........................................................................................................................................................................ 209

Elliptical (incomplete) sentences..................................................................................................................................................... 210

COMMUNICATIVE TYPES OF SENTENCES.................................................................................................................................. 211

Declarative sentences......................................................................................................................................................................... 211

Interrogative sentences...................................................................................................................................................................... 212

Imperative sentences........................................................................................................................................................................... 216

Exclamatory sentences....................................................................................................................................................................... 218

NON-SENTENCE UTTERANCES........................................................................................................................................................ 219

NEGATION................................................................................................................................................................................................ 220

PARTS OF THE SENTENCE................................................................................................................................................................. 224

Ways of expressing parts of the sentence........................................................................................................................................ 224

Levels of syntactical analysis............................................................................................................................................................ 227

The subject............................................................................................................................................................................................ 228

The predicate........................................................................................................................................................................................ 233

Structural classification of the predicate....................................................................................................................................... 233

The simple predicate........................................................................................................................................................................... 233

The compound predicate.................................................................................................................................................................... 235

Agreement of the predicate with the subject.................................................................................................................................. 243

The object.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 249

Ways of expressing the object........................................................................................................................................................... 249

Types of object..................................................................................................................................................................................... 250

Objects to adjectives........................................................................................................................................................................... 256

Objects to statives................................................................................................................................................................................ 257

Objects to adverbs............................................................................................................................................................................... 257

The attribute......................................................................................................................................................................................... 257

Ways of expressing attributes........................................................................................................................................................... 257

The position of attributes................................................................................................................................................................... 261

Types of connection between an attribute and its headword..................................................................................................... 262

The apposition..................................................................................................................................................................................... 263

Types of connection between an apposition and its headword................................................................................................. 264

The adverbial modifier....................................................................................................................................................................... 265

Obligatory and non-obligatory adverbial modifiers................................................................................................................... 265

Detached adverbial modifiers........................................................................................................................................................... 266

Ways of expressing adverbial modifiers......................................................................................................................................... 267

Structural classification of the adverbial modifier...................................................................................................................... 268

Semantic characteristics of the adverbial modifier...................................................................................................................... 269

Semantic classes of adverbial modifiers......................................................................................................................................... 269

Independent elements of the sentence............................................................................................................................................. 274

WORD ORDER......................................................................................................................................................................................... 276

The grammatical function of word order........................................................................................................................................ 276

The emphatic and communicative functions of word order........................................................................................................ 280

The linking function of word order.................................................................................................................................................. 282

THE PREDICATIVE COMPLEXES..................................................................................................................................................... 282

The subjective predicative constructions ...................................................................................................................................... 284

The objective predicative constructions......................................................................................................................................... 286

The absolute nominative constructions.......................................................................................................................................... 291

The for-to-infinitive constructions................................................................................................................................................... 294

The gerundial predicative constructions........................................................................................................................................ 295

THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE............................................................................................................................................................ 296

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE............................................................................................................................................................. 297

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE................................................................................................................................................................ 301

Formal indicators of subordination (connectors)........................................................................................................................ 301

Functional classification of subordinate clauses......................................................................................................................... 304

The complex sentence with nominal clauses.................................................................................................................................. 304

The complex sentence with an attributive clause.......................................................................................................................... 309

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause........................................................................................................................... 312

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of place............................................................................................................ 313

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of time.............................................................................................................. 313

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of manner........................................................................................................ 315

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of comparison................................................................................................ 315

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of condition.................................................................................................... 316

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of concession.................................................................................................. 319

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of purpose....................................................................................................... 321

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of cause........................................................................................................... 321

The complex sentence with an adverbial clause of result (consequence)................................................................................ 322

The complex sentence with mutually subordinated clauses........................................................................................................ 323

Pseudo-complex sentences................................................................................................................................................................. 324

Appended clauses (повторы с уточнением)................................................................................................................................. 325

Absolute (or indendent) subordinate clauses................................................................................................................................ 325

Parenthetical clauses (parentheses)................................................................................................................................................ 326

INDIRECT SPEECH................................................................................................................................................................................ 326

APPENDIX I. SOME WAYS OF SENTENCE EXTENSION............................................................................................................ 329

APPENDIX II. SOME SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES OF ANALYSIS................................................................................................. 333

APPENDIX III. SUGGESTED WAYS OF SENTENCE ANALYSIS............................................................................................... 335





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