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The Founding of Wedgwood

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It was in 1759 that Josiah Wedgwood — the "Father of English Pottery" — founded the Wedgwood firm. By 1766, Wedgwood had prospered sufficiently to build himself a house and a splendid new factory which he named Etruria. During his lifetime (1730-95), J. Wedgwood invented and produced a wide range of table ware and ornamental wares. Wedgwood's greatest achievement and contribution to the British pottery industry was his development and production of cream coloured earthenware. Later it was known as Queen's Ware. Inexpensive and beautiful this new tableware was within reach of all people and its success was immediate and world-wide. The most famous commission of all was a dinner and dessert service for Empress Catherine II of Russia. The service consisted of 952 pieces which were decorated with paintings of 1244 different English scenes. Five bone china was first made by the firm in 1812-22 and has been made by the company ever since. Fine bone china is made from three main raw materials — china stone, china clay and oxbone. It is the bone (reduced to a fine ash) that gives china its whiteness, translucency and above all its amazing strength.

Test Your Knowledge

Ex 342. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of tenses in them

1. It's not age that matter. It's the spirit. 2. — And you, Henry? How's life treating you? You're looking well enough. — I'm doing fine. — I see you're keeping yourself busy. The old garden's looking as lovely as ever. 3. People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. 4. — Have you come to any definite conclusion yet? — No, I'm still feeling my way. 5. What have you been up to all day while I've been away? 6.1 wish you would go, we've been getting on each other's nerves lately. 7. She felt that a little break like that was what she'd been needing all those years. 8. When did you actually arrive? 9. The rain was falling in sheets. 10.1 was perky again as if I'd just been given a booster shot of vitamins. 11.1 had to be in Bulgaria in six days or my visa would lapse. 12. He looked at me with the expression of a man who had just lost his job and had his car stolen and now had learned that his wife had run off with his best pal. 13. Irene said she had been reading a lot since she had been working in the library. 14. Will you be waiting for me while I am in the Army?


Ex 343. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

1. Now I (read) a short story about a young actor, who follows his heart (but not his head) to Paris in search of the secrets of life and love. 2. This book is for Bob, who (mean) all the world to me. 3. She just (crack) the shell of the hard-boiled egg and now (peel) it. 4. The old grandfather clock (stop) in 1990 and not (work) since. 5. What you (do) tonight? You (make up) your mind where to go? 6. You (look) so pale! What's the matter? You (see) a ghost? 7. Where you (get) that black eye? You (fight)? 8. They (move) to the country last year so that their children (grow up) away from the city traffic. 9. The road through the city centre (repair) at the moment so we (take) the longer way which seldom (use). 10. When you (listen) how he (speak), you (understand) what his brother (mean). He not (change) at all since we last (meet) him. 11. Much later, when we (finish) dinner and (drink) wine near the fireplace, Andrew (rise) to make a toast to everybody's health. 12. The snow (stop) falling by the time they (arrive) in New Milford, and the sun (shine) in the brilliantly blue sky. 13. The baby, due in January next year, (raise) in America. 14.He (beat) by his rival in the presidential elections. 15. You (use) your computer this afternoon? — I not (decide) yet. 16. Henry's wife served the meat which (marinate) in wine and fresh herbs.


Ex. 344.Retell the following jokes in indirect speech

1. Many years ago when the rivers were clean and our Earth was not polluted Old Joe was sitting on the river bank fishing. The catch was good, there was nobody around and Old Joe was very happy. "Nobody will see me fishing here," he said to himself. He was about to go home already when suddenly he heard a man's voice over his shoulder asking "Have you caught anything?" "Only forty trout," answered Joe. "I guess you don't know who I am," continued the voice. "I am the fishing inspector here, and you are breaking exactly six laws." But Joe was not at a loss. "I guess you don't know who I am either," he said. "I am the biggest liar in this country."

2. Harry came to his mother one morning while she was having her breakfast, and said to her, "No one at my school likes me, Mother. The teachers don't, and the children don't. Even the cleaners and the bus drivers hate me."

"Well, Harry," his mother answered, "perhaps you aren't very nice to them. If a few people don't like a person, he or she may not be responsible for that; but if a lot of people don't, there's usually something wrong, and that person really needs to change." "I'm too old to change," Harry said. "I don't want to go to school." "Don't be silly, Harry," his mother said, going towards

the garage to get the car out. "You have to go. You're quite well, and you still have a lot of things to learn. And besides that, you're the headmaster of the school."


Ex. 345.Read the following just for fun

I am a poet, though few know it. I have been writing poetry since I was eight years old. Here is some of it:

1. Teacher's a fool, down with skool! My form teacher was very cross with me only because I didn't know how to spell "school", of course!

2. Latin is a language as dead as dead can be; First it killed the Romans and now it's killing me!

3. When I die, bury me deep; bury my history book at my feet. Tell the teacher I've gone to rest and won't be back for the history test.

4. I eat my peas with honey; I've done it all my life. It makes the peas taste funny but it keeps them on the knife.

Ex 346.Use the right form of the verbs in brackets

Returned Hospitality

A well-to-do young Cambridge University student took a year off to visit his relatives in Australia, who (deport) some two centuries earlier. They lived in humble circumstances in Melbourne but when the posh Pom arrived, he (treat) like a royalty. He (stay) for six months though he originally (say) it (be) "just a week or so", and during the entire period he never even (offer) to help with the household chores. They (take) him to all the sights, (go) to the opera and to the beach — all for no gratitude whatsoever.

Naturally, the family (be) intensely annoyed by this relative's manner, and when he announced the date when he (leave), they (can) not help feeling great relief. Before leaving, just for manners' sake, he suggested that the family (may) look him up and his rich widowed mother in their huge country house when they (visit) England later that year.

So, when the Aussies — mum, dad, and two young kids (arrive) at Heathrow, they immediately (ring) up the man who (stay) with them. His mother answered the phone and as soon as she (understand) who they (be), she (croon) that they really (must) come up for tea. To say the least, this was alarming to them — they (expect) (put) up at least for a week after the hospitality they (extend) to her obnoxious son.

However, they (decide) to travel to the mansion, deep in the Yorkshire dales, that very day. But the journey was a nightmare. The weather was horrid, wet and windy. Worse, their relatives' village (be) not on any map and they (have to) ask a dozen people in the locality before they (get) the right directions. Finally, just before 11 p.m., they (reach) the place and (be) thrilled in anticipation of what they (discover) about their forebears. The door (open) by a lady, who (tell) them to leave their bags in the car for the moment. She (lead) them by candlelight to a dim dusty study with a real fire which (glow) on one side, and explained how expensive electricity (become) in this day and age. The mother (disappear) and soon (come) back with a plate of ginger cake and a pot of tea and listened abstractedly to their description of the journey with a soppy fixed smile.

Half an hour later, she (stand up), (clasp) her hands together, (say) "Well" and (begin) walking towards the door. The family looked at each other — was she saying they (should) (go) and (get) their bags from the car now? But then their worst fears (confirm). The woman simply thanked them for coming and, without ceremony, (show) them through the door and out into the rain-drenched night.


Ex 347. Read the story and retell it in indirect speech

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