Переведите на русский язык в письменной форме абзацы 1, 2, 5, 6
1. What main activities does foreign trade comprise?
2. What activities do auxilliary types of contract ensure?
3. May contract of sale be concluded verbally in Russia?
4. What contracts are most freguent among basic deals in Russian Federation?
5. Do licence agreements deal with selling and buying physical goods?
a. The Laws of Russian Federation do not recognize the validity of any contract of sale and other agreement concluded verbally.
b. Contracts of sale, contracts for construction work and lease.
c. Importing. exporting. re-exporting activities.
d. They are associated with the successful performance of the basic types of contract.
e. They deal with the sale and purchase of ideas. scientific-technical knowledge in the form of license, patents and know-how.
Подберите английские эквиваленты к следующим русским словам и словосочетаниям.
1) банковские операции a) Deputy director
2) генеральный директор b) Customs activities
3) основные операции c) Supplier
4) вспомогательные операции d) Licence agreement
5) таможенные операции e) Director General
6) рекламное агентство f) Auxiliary activities
7) агентское соглашение g) Know-how
8) заместитель директора h) Basic activities
9) поставщик i) As a rule
10) лицензионное соглашение j) Barter deal
11) секреты производства, k) Agency agreement
технология производства l) Advertising agency
12) бартерная сделка m) Banking operations
13) как правило
Тексты для дополнительного чтения
Text 1. Economic systems
Economic systems are usually defined as either capitalist, socialist or mixed. However it is possible to classify economic systems according to the method of resource allocation and control (market economy or command economy) and to the type of property ownership (private ownership or public ownership).
The ownership of factors of production can be viewed as a continuum from complete private ownership at one end to complete public ownership at the other. In reality, no country belongs wholly at one end or the other. For example, the United States of America is considered to be the prime example of private enterprise, yet the government owns some factors of production and actively produces in such sectors of the economy as education, the military, the postal service and certain utilities.
In market economy, two societal units are very important: the individual and the firm. Individuals own resources and consume products, while firms use resources and produce products. The market mechanism involves an interaction of price, quantity, supply, and demand of resources and products.
The key factors that make the market economy work are consumer sovereignty and the freedom of the enterprise to operate the market. As long as both units are free to make decisions, the interplay of supply and demand should ensure proper allocation.
The market economy has been highly successful in most industrial countries, especially in the United States. A perfect market economy does not exist in the United States owing to three major factors: large corporations, labour unions, and the government. The large corporation can reduce market procedures somewhat by exerting control over the purchase of resources or the resale of products. Because of the large size of the firm and relative smallness of each individual shareholder, there is a wide gap between ownership and control of decision making. Decisions may or may not be strictly motivated by the market.
Labour unions evolved to response to the power exerted by the owners and managers of business over the labour market. Tremendous benefits in terms of salaries, fringe benefits, work conditions have been won by the unions, but market forces have been disrupted seriously. Many unions control entry into the work force and restrict the freedom of workers to change occupations in response to supply and demand.
Centrally Planned Economies
In centrally planned economies the government tries to harmonize the activities of the different economic sectors. In the extreme form of central command, goals are set for every enterprise in the country and must be followed. The government determines how much is produced, by whom and for whom.
At the heart of a centrally planned economy is its blueprint, generally a five-year plan. Based on this overall plan, special targets are set each year for each sector of economy.
By definition, no economy is purely market determined or centrally planned. The United States and the former Soviet Union represent different ends of the spectrum of mixed economies. In practice, however, mixed economies generally have a higher degree of government intervention than is found in the United States and a greater degree of reliance on market forces than is found in the former Soviet Union. Government intervention can be regarded in two ways: actual government ownership of means of production and government influence in economic decision making (J. D. Daniels, L. H. Radebaugh. International Business. Environment and Operations. N. Y.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1989).
to define — определять, давать определение;
definition — определение;
mixed — смешанный;
allocation — размещение, распределение;
allocation of resources — распределение ресурсов;
property — собственность;
ownership — владение, собственность, право собственности;
private — частный;
public — государственный;
postal service — почтовая служба;
utilities — коммунальные службы;
to consume — потреблять;
supply — предложение;
demand — спрос;
adequate — соответствующий;
to purchase — приобретать;
gap — пропасть, разрыв;
to evolve — возникать;
fringe benefits — дополнительные льготы;
Text 2. Government's Role in the Economy
While consumers and producers obviously make most decisions that mould the economy, government's activities have at least four powerful effects on the US economy.
Each level of government provides direct services. The postal system, for example, is a federal system serving the nation, as is the large military establishment. By contrast, the public education systems are primarily paid for bystate, county or city governments.
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