AROUND THE WORLD IN 222 DAYS
The history of modern tourism began on 5 July 1841, when a train carrying 500 factory workers travelled from Leicester to Loughborough, twelve miles away, to attend a meeting about the dangers of alcohol.
This modest excursion was organized by Thomas Cook, a young man with neither money nor formal education. His motive was not profit, but social reform. Cook believed that the social problems of Britain were caused by widespread alcoholism. He believed, travel would broaden the mind and distract people from drinking.
The success of Cook's first excursion led to others, and the success of the business was phenomenal. In 1851, Cook launched his own monthly newsletter, Cook’s Exhibition Herald and Excursion Advertiser, the world’s first travel magazine; by 1872, the newsletter was selling 100,000 copies а month and its founder was treated as a hero of the modern industrial age.
When Thomas Cook reached the age of sixty-three, there was still one challenge ahead of him: to travel round the globe. The idea of travelling 'to Egypt via China' seemed impossible to most Victorians. Cook knew otherwise. In 1869 two things happened that would make an overland journey possible: the opening of the Suez Canal and the completion of a railroad network that linked the continent of America from coast to coast.
He set off from Liverpool on the steamship Oceanic, bound for New York. Throughout his travels, his traditional views affected most of what he saw, including the American railroad system. Although impressed by its open carriages, sleeping cars, on-board toilets and efficient baggage handling, he was shocked that men and women were not required to sleep in separate carriages.
Japan delighted him. It was a land of 'great beauty and rich fertility,' where the hotels served 'the best roast beef we have tasted since we left England'. Cook and his party toured the city of Yokohama in a caravan of rickshaws. “We created quite a sensation”, he wrote.
Cook's love of Japan was equalled only by his hatred of China. Shanghai, the next port of call, offered "narrow and filthy streets which were full of ‘pestering and festering beggars'. After twenty-four hours there, Cook had seen enough.
He travelled to Singapore and as he set off across the Bay of Bengal, Cook was full of confidence, feeling that he understood 'this business of pleasure'. But nothing he had seen in Shanghai could have prepared him for the culture shock of India.
He wrote:’’ At the holy city of Benares we were conducted through centers of filth and obscenity”. From the deck of a boat on the Ganges he saw the people washing dead bodies, before burning them on funeral piles beside the river. He found these scenes “revolting in the extreme”.
By the time Cook left Bombay for Egypt, he was showing signs of tiredness. On 15 February 1873, while crossing the Red Sea, he wrote to The Times that he would not travel round the world again. “After thirty-two years of traveling, with the view of making traveling easy, cheap, and safe for others I ought to rest “. In Cairo, he felt seriously ill for the first time.
Cook arrived home in England after 222 days abroad. Although he never attempted another world tour, he continued to escort parties of tourists to continental Europe throughout the 1870s, and did not cease his seasonal visits to Egypt until the late 1880s. He died in July 1892 at the age of eighty-three.
EXERCISE 3. Cook visited many places. The following place names are mixed up. Reorder the letters in each word and write the place names in the order he visited them. The first one has been done for you.
Bya fo Baglne Bersean
Crioa Nwe Ykro
Add the missing words to this puzzle.
1.When you get to your ____________ you'll be met by our representative.
2.If you want to choose a holiday the best wav to start is to read a _________________.
3.Hiring transport (for example, a plane) for a special purpose.
4.Every year the villagers celebrate their ___________________ with fireworks, a procession, and a huge meal.
5.You'll need to change your money into local____________________.
6.If you don't want to eat the hotel food you could always go __________ and prepare your own meals.
7.The environment, including the countryside, historic buildings, etc., seen as something good to be passed on to future generations.
8.Place where people regularly go for holidays.
9.Short visit, often no longer than a day, returning to the place you started from.
10.A list of places to be visited on one journey.
11.I want to see everything in the city, so I've booked a ______________ tour on an open-top bus.
12.For some countries you need to have a _________________ before you're allowed in.
13.Building in which collections of rare objects are exhibited.
Part 3. У врача.
Ex.1. Read the text attentively and be ready to answer the questions after the text.
The laws of health
One of the first duties we owe to ourselves is to keep our bodies in perfect health. If our body suffers from any disorder, our mind suffers with it, and we are unable to make much progress in knowledge, and we are unfit to perform those duties which are required of us in social life.
There are certain laws of health which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that even a child can learn them. A constant supply of pure fresh air is indispensable to good health. To secure this, nothing impure should remain either within or near our homes, and every room in the house especially the bedrooms, should be properly ventilated every day.
Perfect cleanliness is also essential. The whole body should be washed as often as possible. The skin is full of minute pores, cells, blood vessels and nerves. It “breathes” the way the lungs do. Therefore it should always be clean.
Besides its importance to health, there is a great charm in cleanliness. We like to look at one who is tidy and clean. If the skin is kept clean, the teeth thoroughly brushed, the hair neatly combed, and the finger-nails in order, we feel pleased with the person, even though his (her) clothes may be coarse and much mended.
A certain amount of exercise is necessary to keep the body in perfect condition. All the powers (mental and bodily) we possess are strengthened by use and weakened by disuse. Therefore labour and study should succeed each other. The best way of getting exercise is to engage in some work that is useful and at the old and the young to do morning exercises with the windows wide open in your room or, if possible, in the open air.
Remember that exercises warm, invigorate and purify the body. Rest is also necessary to the health of both body and mind. The best time for sleep is during the darkness and stillness of the night.
Late hours are very harmful to the health as they exhaust the nervous system. We should go to bed early and get up early. It is a good rule to “rise with the lark and go to bed with the lark”.
Most essential to our body is food. Our body is continually vesting, and requires to be repaired by fresh substance. Therefore food, which is to repair the loss, should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.
Be moderate in eating. If you eat slowly, you will not overeat. Never swallow your food wholesale – you are provided with teeth for the purpose of chewing your food – and you will never complain of indigestion. We should abstain from everything that intoxicates. The evils of intemperance, especially of alcohol, are too well known.
Intemperance excites bad passions and leads to quarrels and crimes. Alcohol costs a lot of money, which might be used for better purposes. The mind is stupefied by drink and the person who drinks will, in course of time, become unfit for his duties. Both health and character are often ruined.
Thus we must remember that moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and study, regularity in exercise, recreation and rest, cleanliness and many other essentials lay the foundations for good health and long life.
1. Are there certain laws of health which deserve particular attention?
2. Why should the skin be always clean?
3. What is there in cleanliness besides its importance to health?
4. What is necessary to keep the body in perfect condition?
5. Labour and study should succeed each other, shouldn`t they?
6. What is the best way of getting exercise?
7. What exhaust the nervous system?
8. What can you tell about food?
9. What does intemperance lead to?
10. What must we remember?
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