A) Read the story and insert the necessary modal verbs (may, can, to be able, must, to have (to), to be (to), should (ought)
The Doctor`s Advice
Mr. Bell felt very bad. Every day he had bad headaches, he…eat and sleep. One of his friends said that Mr. Bell… see doctor Green who always gave his patients good advice. Mr. Bell phoned the doctor and was told to come the next day.
After the doctor had examined Mr. Bell he told the patient that he…go to a village and stay there not less than a month. He also added that Mr. Bell… go to bed early, drink milk, eat a lot of vegetables and fruit and smoke only one cigar a day. “You…follow my advice”, said the doctor, “and in a month you will feel as well as before”. Mr. Bell looked a little surprised when he heard the doctor`s advice and said, “…I ask you?” but the doctor had already invited another patient in and Mr. Bell… to leave not having asked his question.
As you remember Mr. Bell…to come to see the doctor a month later. When the doctor saw him he said: “You look much better now. Has my advice helped you?”
“Thank you, doctor”, said Mr. Bell. “I did everything you had recommended: I went to the country, I ate a lot of fruit and vegetables, drank milk but I … to give up one of your recommendations. You see one cigar a day nearly killed me. It is impossible to begin smoking at my age”.
B) Retell the text in indirect speech.
Ex.10. Work in pairs. Make up your own dialogues, using these words and expressions.
to complain of – жаловаться на; bitter taste in one`s mouth – горький привкус во рту; to breathe deeply – дышать глубоко; to check lungs (heart) – проверять лёгкие (сердце); murmur of the heart – «шумок» в сердце; symptoms of influenza – признаки гриппа; fever – лихорадка; hard to swallow – больно глотать; after-effects – осложнения; shattered nerves – расстроенные нервы; it will pass – это пройдёт; to cough - кашлять; blood test – анализ крови; prescription – рецепт; bad (disordered) digestion – расстройство пищеварения; inherited sickness – наследственная болезнь; sore throat – больное (обложенное) горло; severe headache – мучительная головная боль; shooting (acute) pain – стреляющая (острая) боль; to stand (bear) the pain –переносить боль; to relieve the pain – облегчать боль; mixture – микстура; pills – пилюли; powders – порошки; to take on an empty stomach – принимать натощак; ointment – мазь.
Ex.11. Translate into English.
1. Я плохо себя чувствую. 2. У меня высокая температура. 3. Меня тошнит. 4. Вам следует больше бывать на свежем воздухе. 5. Мне принимать это лекарство 2 или 3 раза в день? 6. У меня болит голова. 7. Вам следует вызвать скорую помощь. 8. Что случилось? 9. Я не совсем вас понял. 10. Вам нужно пройти серьёзный медосмотр.
Тексты для самостоятельной работы студентов
1) Цветкова И.В. Английский язык для школьников и поступающих в вузы. Москва, Глосса, 1996, стр. 203 текст «Health», чтение, перевод, пересказ, задать все типы вопросов, выписать незнакомую лексику.
2) Бонк Н.А. Английский для международного сотрудничества, Москва, 1992, стр. 325-331, чтение, перевод, пересказ текста и выполнение всех упражнений.
Part 4. Моя страна.
Мой город. Достопримечательности.
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text, learn the active vocabulary:
Russia or the Russian Federation (both names are official) is a state located in Eurasia region of our planet (eastern part of Europe and northern part of Asia). Russia is the largest country by land area in the world (11,5% of total Earth land area). The land area of Russia is about 17,075,400 sq. km.; the population is about 141,867,000 (2009).
About 79% of Russians are living in European part of Russia. The country is the ninth by population in the world. Russian people prefer to live in cities and towns (urbanization level is 73%). Russians are the major nation of the population (80%). The official state language of the country is Russian.
Russia borders on 18 countries including Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Byelorussia, the Ukraine, Abkhazia, Georgia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and Northern Korea by land and Japan, the USA by sea.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. Russia has steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena- flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom. Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East. On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental. Russia is very rich in oil, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral and energy resources and is considered as an energy superpower. Also the country has the largest number of lakes, wood and water resources. About 25% of world fresh water resources belong to Russia.
According to the Constitution, which was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993 following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Russia is a federation and formally a semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a representative democracy. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers - the 450-member State Duma and the 176-member Federation Council.
Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Community, the OSCE, and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Russia has the world's 12th largest economy by nominal GDP or the seventh largest by purchasing power parity, with the fifth largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security.
The capital and administrative center of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre and one of the oldest Russian cities.
The total number of cities with the population over 1 million is 11. Among them are Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Omsk, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Rostov-on-Don, and Ufa.
Eurasia - Евразия (материк)
scenery - вид, пейзаж; ландшафт
vegetation – растительность
desert - пустыня
legislative powers - законодательная власть
executive power - исполнительная власть
exercise – осуществлять
temperate – умеренный
great power - великая держава
superpower- высшая власть; сверхдержава
G8 (Group of Eight)- "Большая восьмёрка"
G20 (Group of Twenty) –"Большая индустриальная двадцатка"
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe – Организация по безопасности и сотрудничеству в Европе
Commonwealth of Independent States - Содружество Независимых Государств
GDP (gross domestic product) - валовый внутренний продукт
fresh water - пресная вода
collective security - коллективная безопасность
economic cooperation - экономическая кооперация, экономическое сотрудничество
nuclear weapon - ядерное оружие
scientific – научный
permanent - постоянный, неизменный; долговременный;
maintaining – поддержание; поддерживающий
budget - бюджет; финансовая смета
Exercise 2: Answer the questions:
1. Where is the Russian Federation located?
2. What is the land area of Russia?
3. Where do Russian people prefer to live?
4. What countries does Russia border on?
5. What is Russia rich in?
6. How many types of climate are there on the vast territory of the country?
7. When was the Constitution of the Russian Federation adopted?
8. What role does Russia play in maintaining international peace and security?
Exercise 3: Find the Russian equivalents for the following English words and word combinations:
to be located; the Far East; legislative powers; fresh water; exercise; the head of state; mountain chain; vegetation; collective security; temperate; energy resources; Commonwealth of Independent States; Eurasia; to separate; to be rich in smth.; scientific; scenery; plain; forest; to border on; highland; United Nations;maintaining; superpower; executive power; budget; nuclear weapon.
Exercise 4: Insert the missing words from the text:
1. About 79% of Russians are living in …….. part of Russia.
2. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from …...
3. Russia is very ….. in oil, iron ore, natural gas and other mineral resources.
4. Russia borders …..18 countries.
5. There are several mountain ……. on the territory of the country.
6. The Amur in the Far East flows into the …… Ocean.
7. Russia has …… of the world's forests.
8. Executive power is ……… by the government.
9. The President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of ……..
10. Russia is a great power and a …… member of the United Nations Security Council.
Exercise 5: Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Россия или Российская Федерация - государство, расположенное в Восточной Европе и Северной Азии.
2. Большая часть населения России проживает в городах.
3. Россия обладает крупнейшими в мире запасами минеральных и энергетических ресурсов.э
4. Законодательную власть осуществляет Федеральное Собрание — парламент, состоящий из двух палат.
5. Главой государства является Президент России, избираемый на 6 лет всенародным голосованием.
6. Россия занимает первое место в мире по площади лесов.
7. Всего в России 11 городов с населением более миллиона человек.
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text, learn the active vocabulary:
Astrakhan is a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. The city lies on the left bank of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea at an altitude of 23 metres below sea level. Population: 502,800 (2004 estimate); 504,501 (2002 Census); 509,210 (1989 Census).
Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, rich in sturgeon and exotic plants. The fertile area formerly contained the capitals of Khazaria and the Golden Horde. Astrakhan' itself was first mentioned by travellers in the early 13th century as Xacitarxan. Tamerlane burnt it to the ground in 1395. From 1459 to 1556, Xacitarxan was the capital of Astrakhan Khanate. The ruins of this medieval settlement were found by archaeologists 12 km upstream from the modern-day city.
In 1556, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible, who had a new fortress, or kremlin, built on a steep hill overlooking the Volga. In 1569, Astrakhan' was besieged by the Cossack Ottoman army, which had to retreat in disarray. A year later, the Sultan renounced his claims to Astrakhan, thus opening the entire Volga River to Russian traffic. In the 17th century, the city was developed as a Russian gate to the Orient. Many merchants from Armenia, Persia, India and Khiva settled in the downtown, giving it a multinational and variegated character.
For seventeen months in 1670–1671 Astrakhan was held by Stenka Razin and his Cossacks. Early in the following century, Peter the Great constructed a shipyard here and made Astrakhan the base for his hostilities against Persia, and later in the same century Catherine II accorded the city important industrial privileges.
The city rebelled against the tsar once again in 1705, when it was held by the Cossacks under Kondraty Bulavin.
In 1711, it became a capital of a guberniya, whose first governors included Artemy Petrovich Volynsky and Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev. Six years later, Astrakhan served as a base for the first Russian venture into Central Asia. In 1702, 1718, and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 it was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its people.
Now Astrakhan is a big regional centre. It has become a big industrial, cultural, educational and commercial centre. The main historic peculiarity of Astrakhan is its multinational character: the Russians, the Kazakhs, the Tatars, the Ukrainians, the Kalmyks, the Jews, the Armenians, the Turkmen. More than 150 nationalities and ethnic groups are peacefully neighbouring under Astrakhan sky.
Southern Venice! Astrakhan is sometimes called so for its numerous canals and channels connected with the Volga. Astrakhan may be also called the city of bridges: there are about 50 of them! Modern industrial bridges and small foot bridges, standard ferro-concrete bridges and bridges with elaborate old-fashioned cast-iron lace – they all remain the main feature of “the city on the water”.
Among other advantages of Astrakhan, which make this city attractive, is a rich supply of natural resources: gas, oil, salt, sand, clay, gravel, gypsum, fish, and tillable soil. Astrakhan industry presents diversified structure with high concentration of region potential (56%) including food, light, chemical, woodworking and flour industries, machine building and metal fabricating, building supplies production, water transport, electric power industry. One of the biggest industries is the chemical industry as the region has large deposits of gas and oil. According to the latest researches Astrakhan region possesses the fifth world largest oil deposit. The most important national economy branch in the region is shipbuilding and ship maintenance, which meet the needs of fish, gas and oil industries. Astrakhan plants produce cargo-ships, oil platforms and different kinds of ship equipment. One of the oldest industries is fish industry. Astrakhan is a large world exporter of caviar and various kinds of fish. Agriculture is also worth speaking of. Astrakhan is famous for its tomatoes and water-melons exported all over the country.
Astrakhan is a cultural center, too. There are 5 universities (Astrakhan State Technical University, Astrakhan State University, Astrakhan Medical Academy, Astrakhan Engineering Institute and Astrakhan Conservatory) and more than 30 branches of different institutes and universities. In Astrakhan you can find five theatres, several museums presenting local lore and native traditions and a picture gallery.
But one of the first things that people associate with Astrakhan is lotus, the most beautiful wonder-flower growing in the Volga delta and its lowlands. Lotus fields occupy 5 thousand hectares in delta.
There are a lot of historical places in Astrakhan, especially in the centre of the town. Its quiet streets and old houses are inexplicably attractive. And the sad spirit of old times is flying over them. Thousands of land, water and air routes cross in Astrakhan. The role of Astrakhan as an important Russian port and trade centre on the Caspian Sea is growing.
altitude - высота; высота над уровнем моря
the Golden Horde – Золотая Орда
khanate - ханство; власть хана
up(-)stream - против течения; вверх по течению
steep hill - холм с крутым подъёмом
besiege - осаждать; блокировать, окружать
Ivan the Terrible - Иван Грозный
Cossack – казак
Khiva [Russian xi’va] a former khanate of West Asia
renounce – отказываться; отвергать, не признавать; отказываться подчиняться
the Orient - Восток; страны Востока (особенно Китай и Япония)
retreat - отступать, отходить
hostility - враждебность
disarray - беспорядок; замешательство, смятение
variegated - разнообразный; неоднородный, разносторонний, смешанный
Persian - перс, персиянка; иранец, иранка
plunder - разграблять, разорять, опустошать
Exercise 7: Answer the questions:
1. Where is Astrakhan situated?
2. What is the population of Astrakhan?
3. What is Astrakhan rich in?
4. Who besieged Astrakhan?
5. When was the city developed as a Russian gate to the Orient?
6. Who constructed a shipyard here and made Astrakhan the base for hostilities against Persia?
7. When did Astrakhan become a capital of a guberniya?
8. What places of interest are there in Astrakhan?
9. What industry is well-developed in the region?
10. Why is Astrakhan sometimes called Southern Venice?
Exercise 8: Find the Russian equivalents for the following English words and word combinations:
besiege; altitude; hostility; the Golden Horde; disarray; khanate; up(-)stream; plunder; variegated; steep hill; renounce; retreat; industrial privileges; shipbuilding; a Russian gate to the Orient; places of interest; rebel; venture; at an altitude; merchant; oil deposit; ship equipment; tillable soil; woodworking; peacefully neighbouring; electric power industry; building supplies production; water and air routes; diversified.
Exercise 9: Insert the missing words from the text:
1. Astrakhan is situated in the Volga Delta, rich in ……. and exotic plants.
2. In 1711, it became a capital of a ……, whose first …… included Artemy Petrovich
Volynsky and Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev.
3. Early in the following century ……. constructed a shipyard here.
4. The main historic peculiarity of Astrakhan is its ……. character.
5. But one of the first things that people associate with Astrakhan is …..
6. Astrakhan region possesses the fifth world largest ….. deposit.
7. Astrakhan is a large world …… of caviar and various kinds of …...
8. Xacitarxan was the ….. of Astrakhan Khanate.
Exercise 10: Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Достопримечательностями города являются Астраханский Кремль, музеи,
театры, а также картинная галерея имени Б.М. Кустодиева.
2. В 1556 году Иван Грозный присоединил Астраханское ханство к России.
3. Хаджи-Тархан являлся резиденцией ханов Золотой Орды и считался крупным
4. Астрахань - старейший город Нижнего Поволжья.
5. Наибольшую известность Астрахань получила благодаря рыбной отрасли.
6. Уникальны каспийские виды осетровых рыб, красная рыба и черная икра –
визитная карточка Астрахани
7. Расположение Астрахани на Прикаспийской низменности в дельте реки Волги с богатыми запасами природных ресурсов способствует развитию рыбной, плодоовощной, химической и нефтехимической промышленности, судостроения, туризма.
8. В Астрахани проживают представители более 100 национальностей, мирно соседствуют 14 религиозных конфессий, функционируют 17 обществ национальных культур, 155 общественных объединений.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. The city is located in western Russia and lies in the broad, shallow valley of the Moskva River, a tributary of the Oka and thus of the Volga, in the centre of the vast plain of European Russia. This region is one of the most highly developed and densely populated areas of Russia.
The climate of Moscow is of the continental type, modified by the temperate influence of westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are cold and long, summers are short and mild . The moderate annual precipitation occurs predominantly in the summer months, often in brief, heavy downpours.
Only a small percentage of Moscow's population is employed in the city centre because of the decentralization of workplaces. Industry is the dominant source of employment, followed by science and research. Although Moscow's role in the country's administration is of prime importance, government as a source of employment is relatively minor.
Engineering (production of automobiles and trucks, ball bearings, machine tools, and precision instruments) and metalworking are by far the most important industries. Other important activities include the manufacture of textiles, chemicals and derivative products, and consumer goods (foodstuffs, footwear, and pianos); timber processing; construction; and printing and publishing. Moscow is the headquarters of state insurance and banking organizations.
The pattern of rings and radials that marked the historical stages of Moscow's growth remains evident in its modern layout. Successive epochs of development are traced by the Boulevard Ring and the Garden Ring (both following the line of former fortifications), the Moscow Little Ring Railway, and the Moscow Ring Road. From 1960 to the mid-1980s the Ring Road was the administrative limit of the city, but several areas of the largely greenbelt zone beyond the road have been annexed since then.
The centre of the city and the historical heart of Moscow is the fortified enclosure of the Kremlin. Its crenellated redbrick walls and 20 towers (19 with spires) were built at the end of the 15th century and were partially rebuilt in later years. Within the walls of the Kremlin are located the meeting places of the government of Russia. Among these are the former Senate building (1776-88), the Kremlin Great Palace (1838-49), and the modern Palace of Congresses (1960-61). Other features within the Kremlin include the central Cathedral Square, around which are grouped three cathedrals, all examples of Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early 16th centuries; a group of palaces of various periods; the white bell tower of Ivan III the Great; the Armoury Museum; and the Arsenal (1702-36).
Along the east wall of the Kremlin lies Red Square, the ceremonial centre of the capital. The Lenin Mausoleum stands beneath the Kremlin walls, and the Church of the Intercession, or Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, is at the southern end of the square. The State Department Store, GUM, faces the Kremlin, and the State Historical Museum (1875-83) closes off the northern end of the square.
In the remainder of central Moscow, within the Garden Ring, are buildings representative of every period of Moscow's development from the 15th century to the present. Examples of the Moscow Baroque style, the Classical period, and the revivalist Old Russian style may be found. In the Soviet period streets were widened, and much of the old part of the inner city was demolished and replaced by large office and apartment buildings, government ministries, headquarters of national and international bodies and organizations, hotels and larger shops, and principal cultural centres.
Beyond the Garden Ring is a middle zone dominated by 18th- and 19th-century developments; many factories, railway stations, and freight yards are located there. Since 1960 extensive urban renewal has occurred, producing neighbourhoods of high-rise apartment buildings. The outer zone has been the site of modern factory development and extensive housing construction in the 20th century. Beyond the newer suburbs are areas of open land and forest, together with satellite industrial towns and dormitory suburbs.
Moscow's inhabitants are overwhelmingly of Russian nationality, but members of more than 100 other nationalities and ethnic groups also live there. Population density, though lowered by outward expansion of the city, has remained high because of the vast number of large apartment buildings.
Moscow has a large concentration of educational institutions, and its centres of higher education draw students from throughout Russia. Moscow State University (1755) is the leading educational institution. The city's many specialized educational institutions include the Moscow Timiryazev Academy of Agriculture and the Moscow P.I. Tchaikovsky State Conservatory. Scientific research is conducted by the Academy of Sciences of Russia and many institutions linked to industry. The city's libraries include the V.I. Lenin State Library.
Theatre, music, and art are important in the city's life. The State Academic Bolshoi ("Great") Theatre (1825), Maly ("Little") Theatre, and Moscow Art Theatre are especially renowned. Of the many museums and galleries, the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery are notable.
Few people in Moscow own automobiles, necessitating heavy reliance on public transportation provided by the Metropolitan (Metro) subway, buses, streetcars, and trolleybuses. The Metro system, which reflects the city's street patterns, is known for the elaborate architecture of its stations. Moscow is the centre of the country's rail network, on which freight transport is heavily dependent. Trunk rail lines radiate from the city in all directions to major Russian population and industrial centres, to the Ukraine, Belarus, and Eastern Europe, and to Central Asia. Suburban commuter traffic is facilitated by the Moscow Little Ring Railway (1908) and the Greater Moscow Ring Railway, which link radial lines. Passenger trains connect to destinations throughout Russia and Europe. Moscow is also a major river port and is served by the Moscow Canal. The Volga's various canals link Moscow to all the seas surrounding European Russia. Moscow is the centre of the country's airline network; the Sheremetyevo airport, in the north, handles international flights.
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