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Exercise 4. Make up the sentences of your own using the words below





 

New Zealand

Island- остров

Indigenous language- местный диалект

Isolation- уединение, изоляция

Descent- происхождение

To certain- полагать

To coin- создать новый термин

Constitutional monarchy- конституционная монархия

Chamber- палата

Powers- полномочия

To elect - избирать

 

New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island), and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. The indigenous Māori language name for New Zealand is Aotearoa. New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation: it is situated about 2,000 km (1250 miles) southeast of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. The total land area, 268,021 square kilometers (103,483 sq mi).

The name New Zealand originated with Dutch cartographers, who called the islands Nova Zeelandia, after the Dutch province of Zeeland. No one is certain exactly who first coined the term, but it first appeared in 1645 and may have been the choice of cartographer Johan Blaeu.British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand.

During its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated by birds, a number of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and the mammals they introduced.

The majority of New Zealand's population is of European descent.

New Zealand is a developed country that ranks highly in international comparisons on human development, quality of life, life expectancy, literacy, public education, peace, economic freedom, ease of doing business, lack of corruption, press freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Elizabeth II, as the Queen of New Zealand, is the country's head of state. Legislative political power is held by the democratically elected Parliament of New Zealand, and executive political power is effectively exercised by the Prime Minister.

The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber.

Parliamentary general elections are held every three years.

Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:

1.What is New Zealand?

2.What is the origin of the name New Zealand?

3.NZ is notable for its geographic isolation, is not it?

4.What is the population of the country?

5.Is Elizabeth II the head of NZ?

6.Is NZ a constitutional monarchy or parliamentary republic?

7.How many chambers are there in the parliament of NZ?

8.What is the total area of the country?

Exercise 6. Give the translation to the English equivalents:

 

An island country, geographic isolation, extinct, human development, expectancy, coined the term, explorer, and elections.

Exercise 7. Give the English equivalents:

Быть расположенным, бесчисленные маленькие островки, занимать высокое место, располагаться, отсутствие коррупции, британский исследователь, точно, палата представителей.

Exercise 8. Insert the missing words:

1.The indigenous … name for New Zealand is Aotearoa.

2.… is notable for its geographic isolation.

3.The majority of New Zealand's population is of …

4.Elizabeth II, … , is the country's head of state.



5.… … … is held by the democratically elected Parliament of New Zealand.

6.The New Zealand Parliament has only one ….

Australia

Commonwealth- содружество

Settlement- поселение

To explore- исследовать

Democracy- демократия

Bicameral- двупалатный

Coral reef- коралловый риф

Simultaneously- одновременно

 

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 language groups of indigenous Australians. After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established during the 19th century.

Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the Indo-Australian Plate. The world's smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith, is located in Western Australia

The population is 22 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. The nation's capital city is Canberra.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level. Although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. There are three branches of government, known as the separation of powers. The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives.

The judiciary is the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.

The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats",

There are two major political groups that form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.

Exercise 9. Answer the following questions:

1.What is Australia called officially?

2.What is Australia’s population?

3.The national capital of Australia is Sydney, is not it?

4.What is Australia’s total area?

5.What is the highest mount in Australia?

6.What is the form of government in Australia?

7.What role does Queen Elizabeth II play in Australia?

8.Whom does the executive power belong to?

9.Whom does the legislative power belong to?

10. Whom does the judicial power belong to?

11. What is the bicameral Parliament?

12. What do you know about the elections of two Houses of Australian Parliament?

Exercise 10. Give the Russian equivalents to these words and word combinations:

 

Mainland, numerous, sporadic visits, penal transportation, approximately, total area, system, distinct, extensive.

Exercise 11. Give the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

Южное полушарие, поселение, языковая группа, провозглашать, само-управляемый, кв.километры, приблизительно, осуществляться, сенат, федеральный.

Exercise 12 . Insert the missing words and word combinations:

1.The Australian … and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 language groups.

2.The … half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770.

3.Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi) is on the … Plate.

4.The world's largest … …, lies a short distance off the north-east coast.

5.The nation's … city is Canberra.

6.The form of government used in Australia is a … with a parliamentary system of government.

7.There are three branches of government, known as the … of powers.

8.The … is the High Court of Australia and other federal courts.

9.The … Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate, and a House of … of 150 members.

 

Great Britain

Kingdom-королевство

To conquer- завоевывать

To subdue- подчинить

To contribute to- способствовать

Domination- гсподство

To win (won won) - завоевывать

Independence- независимость

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated off the Northwest coast of Europe. The UK consists of four parts. They are: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The UK is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The west coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast is washed by the North Sea. The area of the UK is some 244,100 km. Its population is over 57 million people.

English is the official language. Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered most part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the independent tribes in the West and in the North. Other invaders were Angles, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. For many centuries this country was known simply as England. It had a strong army and navy.

Geographically, Great Britain is divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. The highest mountain, Ben Nevis, is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich in mineral and natural resources. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The Severn is the longest river; the Thames is the most important one.

The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, and Edinburgh.

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The powers of the British Queen are limited by the Parliament. The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and House of Commons.

The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has always played an important role in world politics.

Exercise 13. Answer the following questions:

1. Where is UK situated?

2. What parts does the UK consist of?

3. How many centuries has Britain been in making?

4. What country is GB?

5. Is the country rich in mineral and natural resources?

6. The Thames is the most important river of the country, is not it?

7. What are the largest cities of UK?

8. What can you say about the political system of the country?

Exercise 14. Insert the missing words and word combinations:

1. The United … of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated … the Northwest coast of Europe.

2. The UK is separated from the continent by the … and the ….

3. The area of the UK is some … km.

4. … is the official language.

5. … had a strong army and navy.

6. The highest mountain, …, is in Scotland.

7. Great Britain is a constitutional ….

8. The British Parliament … the House of Lords and House of Commons.

 

Exercise 15. Find English equivalents and make up the sentences of your own:

Располагаться, главный, омываться, население, в развитии, завоеватели, племя, делиться на, природные ресурсы, важный, ограниченный, роль.

Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. The UK consists of four parts.

2. The west coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast is washed by the North Sea.

3. Its population is over 57 million people.

4. Other invaders were Angles, Saxons, Vikings and Normans.

5. Geographically, Great Britain is divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain.

6. The Severn is the longest river.

7. The UK of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has always played an important role in world politics.

 

THE USA

To stretch-простираться

Densely-плотно

A canal-канал

Wheat-пшено

Solid-твердый

To adopt- внедрять

Amendment-поправка

Generation- поколение

Ethnic- этнический

Affiliation-присоединение

Especially- особенно

Fertile- плодородный

Tributary- приток

 

The territory of the USA stretches from the Atlantic seaboard, across the central plains, over the Rocky Mountains to the densely populated west coast and then to the island state of Hawaii.

America is the land of physical contrasts including the weather. The southern parts of Florida, Texas, California and the state of Hawaii have warm temperatures year round. The northern states and Alaska have extremely cold winters.

The United States is also a land of rivers and lakes. The northern state of Minnesota is known as the land of 10,000 lakes. The broad Mississippi River is the world’s third river after the Nile and the Amazon. A canal south of Chicago joins one of the tributaries of the Mississippi to the five Great Lakes.

American farmers plant spring wheat on the western plains. They raise corn, wheat and fine beef cattle in the Midwest. Florida and California are famous for their vegetables and food production and the northwestern states are known for apples, pears, berries and vegetables.

A wealth of mineral provides a solid base for American industry.

The United States of America was founded in 1776. The constitution was adopted in 1787. 26 amendments have been introduced since then. The first 10 amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. The Constitution operates today and sets the basic forms of the US government.

At present the population of the USA is about two hundred and thirty nine million. The country was settled, built and developed by generations of immigrants and their children. Many different cultural traditions, ethnic sympathies, racial groups and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA.

There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Dallas, Boston, etc.

There is the Federal government which is located in Washington, D.C. and consists of the president and the Congress and the Federal Court. The legislative power belongs to the Congress which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives comprises 435 members elected for a two year term. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker. The executive power belongs to the President of the USA. The President is also the head of Cabinet- the executive body of the Government. The judicial branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court.

The US national flag- Stars and Stripes- is red, white and blue. Thirteen stripes represent the origin 13 states of the USA, the 50 states represent the current number of states.

Exercise 17. Answer the questions:

1. Where is the US situated?

2. What is the territory and population of the USA?

3. What can you say about the climate of the country?

4. What can you say about the economy of the country?

5. What are the largest cities of the USA?

6. How many branches are there in the government of the USA?

7. Whom does the legislative power belong to?

8. What can you say about the flag of the USA?

Exercise 18. Find in the text English equivalents for these words and word combinations:

Центральные равнины, густо, плотно, температура, крайне, широкий, рогатый скот, ягоды, основные формы, поколение, избираться, орган власти.

Exercise 19. Give Russian equivalents for these words and word combinations:

Seaboard, populate, extremely,join,spring wheat, food production, solid base, develop, make up, comprise, represent.

Exercise 20. Insert the missing words and word combinations:

1. America is the land of … … including the weather.

2. The northern states and … have extremely cold winters.

3. The broad Mississippi River is the … third river after the … and the Amazon.

4. A wealth of mineral provides a … … for American industry.

5. The Constitution operates today and sets the basic forms of the US government.

6. Many different cultural traditions, … sympathies, racial … and religious affiliations make up the people of the USA.

7. There is the Federal … which is located in Washington, D.C.

8. The House of Representatives is headed by the ….

9. The … branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court.

10. The 50 states represent the … number of states.

 

WASHINGTON, D.C.

independent- независимый

with its own laws- со своими законами

a plot of land- участок земли

the Capitol- Капитолий

in honor of- в честь

a discoverer- первооткрыватель

a founder- основатель

sense- смысл

 

The USA is a federal union which is made up of 50 states and one independent district- the District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is the territory of the national capital of the USA. Washington. C. is situated on both banks of the Potomac river, between two states, Maryland and Virginia.

This place was chosen by the first American President George Washington. The plot of land of a hundred square miles was bought from private owners by the state. In 1790 George Washington laid the corner-stone of the Capitol where the Congress sits. The place was called the District of Columbia in honor of Columbus, the discoverer of America.

The capital got the name of Washington after the name of its founder. Washington has been the federal capital since 1800.

Washington is sometimes called the heart of America. It is the place where the federal government works and where each President of the USA lives. Washington is smaller in size than the largest cities of the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Detroit or Los Angeles. The population of Washington is about 11 million people. The buildings in Washington are not very tall because no building must be taller than the Capitol. But in political sense Washington is the center of the country and the most important city of the USA.

 

Exercise 21. Answer the following questions:

1. How many parts is the USA made up of?

2. What is the District of Columbia?

3. How was Washington, D.C. founded?

4. What is Washington famous for?

5. In what sense is Washington the most important city in the USA?

 

Exercise 22. Translate into English:

1. США состоят из 50 штатов и независимого округа Колумбия.

2. Округа Колумбия имеет собственные законы.

3. Место для Вашингтона, расположенного по обоим берегам реки Потомак.

4. Город получил свое название в честь Джорджа Вашингтона.

5. В Вашингтоне работает правительство США, и живут американские президенты.

6. С 1800 года Вашингтон был федеральной столицей.

7. Вашингтон- политический центр США.

 

Exercise 23. Find the English equivalents and make up sentences of your own:

Состоять из, быть расположенным, государство, заложить, по имени, федеральная столица, быть меньше по размеру, в политическом смысле.


London

 

an economic centre – экономический центр

a suburb - окраина

an area - область

a district - район

a port area – портовая территория

nearby - близлежащий

a restaurant - ресторан

a concrete building – бетонное здание

a major city – главный город

outside - вне

headquarter - штаб-квартира





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