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Part 10. Страны третьего мира. Проблемы миграции





 

Exercise 1. Master the active vocabulary:

developing country развивающая страна

developed country развитая страна

low level of material being низкий уровень жизни

standard of living жизненный уровень

high average выше среднего

Gross National Income годовой национальный доход

per capita на душу населения

advanced economy продвинутая экономика

newly industrialized countries новые промышленно развитые страны

 

Exercise 2. Read the text “Developing country”:

“Developing country” is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well being. There is no single internationally-recognized definition of developed country, and the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries, with some developing countries having high average standards of living.

Some international organizations like the World Bank use strictly numerical classifications. The World Bank considers all low- and middle- income countries as "developing". In its most recent classification, economies are divided using 2008 Gross National Income per capita. In 2008, countries with GNI per capita below US$11,905 were considered developing. Other institutions use less specific definitions.

Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country, are grouped under the term newly industrialized countries.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions:

1.When is a term “developing country” used?

2.Is there a single internationally-recognized definition of developed country?

3.What may vary widely within so-called developing countries?

4.The World Bank uses strictly numeral classifications, doesn’t it?

5.What GNI per capita is necessary not to be considered developing?

6.What is another term of countries with more advanced economies?

Exercise 4.Give the Russian equivalents:

Developing country, a low level of material being, a high average standard of living, the World Bank, low and middle income, Gross National Income per capita, a specific definition, a more advanced economy, newly industrialized countries.

Exercise 5. Fill in the missing words:

1. Developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with…

2. There is no … of developed country.

3. … may vary widely within so-called developing countries.

4. International organizations like the World Bank use …

5. The World Bank considers all … as "developing"

6. In 2008, countries … below US$11,905 were considered developing.

7. Countries with more advanced economies are grouped under the term …

 

Exercise 6. Match the words on the left with the words on the right:

1. a developing country развитая страна

2. a low level of material being уровень развития

3. a developed country высокоразвитая экономика

4. a level of development на душу населения

5. vary жизненный уровень

6. standard of living новые промышленно-развитые страны

7. sign различаться

8. internationally-recognized definition признак

9. income развивающая страна

10. per capita общепризнанное определение

11. Gross National Income низкий уровень жизни



12. advancedeconomy доход

13. newly industrialized countries годовой национальный доход

 

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Развивающая страна - это страна с низким уровнем жизни.

2. Нет общепризнанного определения –« развитой страны».

3. Уровень жизни может различаться в так называемых развивающихся странах.

4. Всемирный Банк считает те развивающие страны, которые имеют низкий или средний доход на душу населения.

5. Считают, что развивающиеся страны имеют годовой доход на душу населения ниже $11,905.

6. Страны с высокоразвитой экономикой называют новыми промышленно-развитыми странами.

Exercise 8. Master the active vocabulary:

Secretary General генеральный секретарь

to define давать определение

environment окружение

United Nations Statistics Division отдел статистики ООН

convention конвенция, соглашение

designation обозначение, название

judgement взгляд, мнение

IMF Международный валютный фонд

stage период, этап, стадия

Commonwealth of Independent States содружество независимых государств

Gross domestic Product валовый внутренний продукт

Gross National Income валовый национальный доход

country in transition страна в разитии

diversification диверсификация, распространение

integration интеграция, объединение

global financial system мировая финансовая система

low income низкий доход

lower middle income доход ниже среднего

upper middle income доход выше среднего

high income высокий доход

preferred привилегированный

 

 

Exercise 9. Read the text “Definition of developed and developing states”

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows. "A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment." But according to the United Nations Statistics Division,

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.

The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia, except for Slovenia, are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.

According to the classification from IMF(International Monetary Fund) before April 2004, all the countries of Eastern Europe (including Central European countries which still belongs to "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions) as well as the former Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included under either developed or developing regions, but rather were referred to as "countries in transition"; however they are now widely regarded (in the international reports) as "developing countries". In the 21st century, the original Four Asian Tigers regions (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) are considered "developed" region or areas, along with Cyprus, Israel, Malta, and Slovenia, are considered "newly developed countries".

The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system."

The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. Low income countries have GNI (Gross National Income) per capita of US$975 or less. Lower middle income countries have GNI per capita of US$976–$3,855. Upper middle income countries have GNI per capita between US$3,856–$11,905. High income countries have GNI above $11,906. The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status."

 

Exercise 10. Answer the questions:

1. How did Kofi Annan define a developed country? What was he?

2. Is there established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system?

3. The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience, aren’t they?

4. What classification system does the IMF use?

5. How does the World Bank classify developing countries?

6. Why is the use of the term “developing country” convenient?

7. Does Classification by income necessarily reflect development status?

Exercise 11. Give the Russian equivalents:

Secretary General, environment, United Nations Statistics Division, Commonwealth of Independent States, IMF, Gross domestic Product, Gross National Income, global financial system, country in transition, to define, convention, diversification, integration.

 

Exercise 12. Give the English equivalents:

низкий доход, доход ниже среднего, доход выше среднего, высокий доход, заявлять, мнение, содружество независимых государств, валовый внутренний продукт, международный валютный фонд, валовый национальный доход, классифицировать, новые развитые страны.

 





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