Exercise 21. Are the statements true? If they are, answer It is right, if false, say It is wrong and give the true answer
1. Human migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups.
2. The movement of populations in modern times has stopped.
3. People who migrate are called citizens of the country.
4. A technique pioneered by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza has opened a window into the historical patterns of migrations.
5. Voluntary migration has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes.
6. There are seasonal, rural to urban and international migrations.
Exercise 22. Fill in the missing words:
1. Human migration is physical movement by … from one area to another.
2. The movement of … in modern times has continued under the form of both voluntary and involuntary migration.
3. People who migrate are called … more specifically,…, …, or…, depending on historical setting, circumstances and perspective.
4. The pressures of human migrations, whether as … or by … and … have affected the grand epochs in history and in land (for example, the Decline of the Roman Empire).
5. … has been a means of social control under authoritarian regimes yet free initiative migration is a powerful factor in …. and … .
6. In December 2003… was launched with the support of Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and several countries.
7. Different types of migration include:…, …., …. .
Exercise 23. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Переселение людей из одной местности в другую, как индивидуально так и группами, назывaется миграцией.
2. В наши дни движение населения происходит в форме добровольной и невольной миграции.
3. Под невольной миграцией подразумевают работорговлю, торговлю людьми и этническую чистку.
4. Люди, которые переселяются, называются мигрантами, эмигрантами, политическими иммигрантами и переселенцами в зависимости от исторического поселения, обстоятельств и цели.
5. Такие исторические события, как падение Римской Империи и колонизация Австралии и Америки, приписывают к давлению на переселение людей.
6. Вынужденная миграция – это бегство от авторитарного режима.
7. Существуют различные виды миграции: сезонная – в сельском хозяйстве; из сел в город – урбанизация; международная.
Тексты для самостоятельной работы студентов
The term 'Third World' arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned or not moving at all with either capitalism and NATO (which along with its allies represented the First World) or communism and the Soviet Union (which along with its allies represented the Second World). This definition provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on social, political, and economic divisions. Although the term continues to be used colloquially to describe the poorest countries in the world, this usage is widely disparaged since the term no longer holds any verifiable meaning after the fall of the Soviet Union deprecated the terms First World and Second World. While there is no identical contemporary replacement, common alternatives include developing world and Global South and more recently Majority World. However, there are still scholars who use this term on purpose to point out and challenge the huge gap between the poor and rich of the world
“Measure and concept of development”
The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person) (GDP), life expectancy, the rate of literacy, et cetera. The UN has developed the HDI, a compound indicator of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available.
Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth.
The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (LEDCs), "underdeveloped nations" or Third World nations, and "non-industrialized nations". Conversely, the opposite end of the spectrum is termed developed countries, most economically developed countries (MEDCs), First World nations and "industrialized nations".
To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word developing, international organizations have started to use the term Less economically developed country (LEDCs) for the poorest nations which can in no sense be regarded as developing. That is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCs. This may moderate against a belief that the standard of living across the entire developing world is the same.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, and political economy.
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