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List of emerging and developing economies





The following are considered emerging and developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Report, October 2009.

 

1. Angola

2. Antigua and Barbuda

3. Argentina

4. Armenia

5. Azerbaijan

6. The Bahamas

7. Bahrain

8. Bangladesh

9. Belarus

10. Belize

11. Benin

12. Bhutan

13. Bolivia

14. Botswana

15. Bosnia and Herzegovina

16. Brazil

17. Bulgaria

18. Burkina Faso

19. Burma

20. Burundi

21. Cameroon

22. Cape Verde

23. Central African Republic

24. Chad

25. Chile

26. China

27. Colombia

28. Comoros

29. Democratic Republic of the Congo

30. Republic of the Congo

31. Costa Rica

32. Cфte d'Ivoire

33. Croatia

34. Djibouti

35. Dominica

36. Dominican Republic

37. Ecuador

38. Egypt

39. El Salvador

40. Equatorial Guinea

41. Eritrea

42. Ethiopia

43. Fiji

44. Gabon

45. The Gambia

46. Georgia

47. Ghana

48. Grenada

49. Guatemala

50. Guinea

51. Guinea-Bissau

52. Guyana

53. Haiti

54. Honduras

55. Hungary

56. Indonesia

57. India

58. Iran

59. Iraq

60. Jamaica

61. Jordan

62. Kazakhstan

63. Kenya

64. Kiribati

65. Kuwait

66. Kyrgyzstan

67. Laos

68. Latvia

69. Lebanon

70. Lesotho

71. Liberia

72. Libya

73. Lithuania

74. Macedonia

75. Madagascar

76. Malawi

77. Malaysia

78. Maldives

79. Mali

80. Marshall Islands

81. Mauritania

82. Mauritius

83. Mexico

84. Micronesia

85. Moldova

86. Mongolia

87. Montenegro

88. Morocco

89. Mozambique

90. Namibia

91. Nauru

92. Nepal

93. Nicaragua

94. Niger

95. Nigeria

96. Oman

97. Pakistan

98. Palau[18]

99. Panama

100. Papua New Guinea

101. Paraguay

102. Peru

103. Philippines

104. Poland

105. Qatar

106. Romania

107. Russia

108. Rwanda

109. Saudi Arabia

110. Samoa

111. Sгo Tomй and Prнncipe

112. Senegal

113. Serbia

114. Seychelles

115. Sierra Leone

116. Solomon Islands

117. South Africa

118. Somalia

119. Sri Lanka

120. Saint Kitts and Nevis

121. Saint Lucia

122. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

123. Sudan

124. Suriname

125. Swaziland

126. Syria

127. Tajikistan

128. Tanzania

129. Thailand

130. Timor-Leste

131. Togo

132. Tonga

133. Tunisia

134. Turkey

135. Turkmenistan

136. Tuvalu

137. Uganda

138. Ukraine

139. United Arab Emirates

140. Uruguay

141. Uzbekistan

142. Vanuatu

143. Venezuela

144. Vietnam

145. Yemen

146. Zambia

147. Zimbabwe

148. Afghanistan

149. Albania

150. Algeria

Developing countries not listed by IMF

· Cuba

· North Korea

Graduated developing countries (Four Asian Tigers & New Euro Countries) - Now considered developed

· Hong Kong (After 1997)

· Singapore (After 1997)

· South Korea (After 1997)

· Taiwan (After 1997)

· Cyprus (After 2001)

· Slovenia (After 2007)

· Malta (After 2008)

· Czech Republic (After 2009)

· Slovakia (After 2009)

· Estonia (After 2010)

 

Text 3

“Typology and names of countries”

Countries are often loosely placed into four categories of development. Each category includes the countries listed in their respective article. The term "developing nation" is not a label to assign a specific, similar type of problem.

Newly industrialized countries (NICs) are nations with economies more advanced and developed than those in the developing world, but not yet with the full signs of a developed country. NIC is a category between developed and developing countries. It includes Brazil, the People's Republic of China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey.



Big Emerging Market (BEM) economies, a label with various meanings. Jeffrey Garten identified, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, Poland, Turkey, India, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China, and South Korea as the Big 10 BEMs.

Countries with long-term civil war or large-scale breakdown of rule of law ("failed states") (e.g. Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, Haiti, Somalia) or non-development-oriented dictatorship (North Korea, Myanmar, Zimbabwe).

Some developing countries have been classified as "Developed countries" such as South Africa, and Turkey by the CIA, and Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Equatorial Guinea, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Trinidad and Tobago by the World Bank.

 

Text 4

“Pre-modern migrations”

 

 

2nd to 5th century Migration Period

Historical migration of human populations begins with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia about a million years ago. Homo sapiens appear to have occupied all of Africa about 150,000 years ago, moved out of Africa 70,000 years ago, and had spread across Australia, Asia and Europe by 40,000 years BCE. Migration to the Americas took place 20,000 to 15,000 years ago, and by 2,000 years ago, most of the Pacific Islands were colonized. Later population movements notably include the Neolithic Revolution, Indo-European expansion, and the Early Medieval Great Migrations including Turkic expansion.

Early humans migrated due to many factors such as changing climate and landscape and inadequate food supply. The evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Austronesian peoples spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some times around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages. It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago. Indo-Aryan migration to and within Northern India is presumed to have taken place in the Middle to Late Bronze Age, contemporary to the Late Harappan phase in India (ca. 1700 to 1300 BC). From 180 BC, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, including those led by the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Indian subcontinent.

From about 750 BC, the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions. In Europe two waves of migrations dominate demographic distributions, that of the Celtic people, and the later Migration Period from the east. Other examples are small movements like ancient Scots moving from Hibernia to Caledonia and Magyars into Pannonia (modern-day Hungary). Turkic peoples spread across most of Central Asia into Europe and the Middle East between the 6th and 11th centuries. Recent research suggests that Madagascar was uninhabited until Austronesian seafarers from Indonesia arrived during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. Subsequent migrations from both the Pacific and Africa further consolidated this original mixture, and Malagasy people emerged.

One common hypothesis of the Bantu expansion

Before the expansion of the Bantu languages and their speakers, the southern half of Africa is believed to have been populated by Pygmies and Khoisan speaking people, today occupying the arid regions around the Kalahari Desert and the forest of Central Africa. By about 1000 AD Bantu migration had reached modern day Zimbabwe and South Africa. The Banu Hilal and Banu Ma'qil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes from the Arabian Peninsula who migrated westwards via Egypt between the 11th and 13th centuries. Their migration strongly contributed to the arabization and islamization of the western Maghreb, which was until then dominated by Berber tribes. Ostsiedlung was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germans. The 13th century was the time of the great Mongol and Turkic migrations across Eurasia.Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). Manchuria was separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, which restricted the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria during the Qing Dynasty, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the Qing started colonizing the area with them later on in the dynasty's rule.

The Age of Exploration and European Colonialism led to an accelerated pace of migration since Early Modern times. In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. In the 19th century over 50 million people left Europe for the Americas. The local populations or tribes, such as the Aboriginal people in Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Japan and the United States, were usually far overwhelmed numerically by the settlers. More recent examples are the movement of ethnic Chinese into Tibet and Xinjiang, ethnic Javanese into Western New Guinea and Kalimantan (see Transmigration program), Brazilians into Amazonia, Israelis into the West Bank and Gaza, ethnic Arabs into Iraqi Kurdistan, and ethnic Russians into Siberia and Central Asia.

 

Text 5

“Modern migrations”

Industrialization

While the pace of migration had accelerated since the 18th century already (including the involuntary slave trade), it would increase further in the 19th century. Manning distinguishes three major types of migration: labor migration, refugee migrations, and urbanization. Millions of agricultural workers left the countryside and moved to the cities causing unprecedented levels of urbanization. This phenomenon began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread around the world and continues to this day in many areas.

Industrialization encouraged migration wherever it appeared. The increasingly global economy globalized the labor market. The Atlantic slave trade diminished sharply after 1820, which gave rise to self-bound contract labor migration from Europe and Asia to plantations. Overpopulation, open agricultural frontiers, and rising industrial centers attracted voluntary migrants. Moreover, migration was significantly made easier by improved transportation techniques.

Transnational labor migration reached a peak of three million migrants per year in the early twentieth century. Italy, Norway, Ireland and the Quongdong region of China were regions with especially high emigration rates during these years. These large migration flows influenced the process of nation state formation in many ways. Immigration restrictions have been developed, as well as diaspora cultures and myths that reflect the importance of migration to the foundation of certain nations, like the American melting pot. The transnational labor migration fell to a lower level from 1930s to the 1960s and then rebounded.

The United States experienced considerable internal migration related to industrialization, including its African American population. From 1910–1970, approximately 7 million African Americans migrated from the rural Southern United States, where blacks faced both poor economic opportunities and considerable political and social prejudice, to the industrial cities of the Northeast, Midwest and West where relatively well paid jobs were available. This phenomenon came to be known in the United States as its own Great Migration.

The twentieth century experienced also an increase in migratory flows caused by war and politics. Muslims moved from the Balkan to Turkey, while Christians moved the other way, during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. 400,000 Jews moved to Palestine in the early twentieth century. The Russian Civil War caused some 3 million Russians, Poles and Germans to migrate out of the Soviet Union. World War II and decolonization also caused migrations.

 

Text 6

“World War”

See World War II evacuation and expulsion and Population transfer in the Soviet Union for World War II forced migrations.

The Jewish communities across Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East were formed from voluntary and involuntary migrants. After the Holocaust (1938 to 1945), there was increased migration to the British Mandate of Palestine, which became the modern state of Israel as a result of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.

Provisions of the Potsdam Agreement from 1945 signed by victorious Western Allies and the Soviet Union led to one of the largest European migrations, and the largest in the 20th century. It involved the migration and resettlement of close to or over 20 million people. The largest affected group were 16.5 million Germans expelled from Eastern Europe westwards. The second largest group were Poles, millions of whom were expelled westwards from eastern Kresy region and resettled in the so-called Recovered Territories (see Allies decide Polish border in the article on the Oder-Neisse line). Hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians (Operation Vistula), Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians and some Belarussians, were expelled eastwards from Europe to the Soviet Union. Finally, many of the several hundred thousand Jews remaining in Eastern Europe after the Holocaust migrated outside Europe to Israel and the United States.

 





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