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Exercise 11. Complete the sentences





1. Nanotechnology is the study of …................

2. We can directly control matter ....................

3. There has been much debate on the future .................

4. Nanotechnology raises many of the same issues such as …................

5. The advocacy groups and governments debate ….....................

6. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from …......

7. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from …...........

8. Nanoelectronics, nanomechanics and nanophotonics provide ….................

 

Exercise 12. Many words have been used to describe nanotechnology:

 

study, engineering, system, nanoscale, molecule, dimension, components, atomic and molecular scale, investigate, implications, nano-objects, nanophotonics, entities, impact of nanomaterials, toxicity.

Exercise 13.Say four of terms above that you think give the best description of nanotechnology.

 

Exercise 14.Give the English equivalents.

Иметь отношения, материал, распространение, влияние, токсичность, развивать, спираль, разный, величина, общество, гарантировать, сущность, клеточный, обусловленный, подходить, значительный, значение.

 

Exercise 15.Retell the text.

 

Text 3. Collider

Exercise 16. Master the active vocabulary:

The International Linear Collider (ILC) – международный линейный коллайдер

propose -предлагать, предполагать, намереваться

accelerator — ускоритель, акселератор

initial — начальный, исходный

host - множество

beyond — позже, вне, сверх,

current - находящийся в обращение, текущий, поток, течение, поток

to spin - составлять, крутиться, вертеться, описывать круги

circular — круглый, круговой

to emit — испускать, выделять, издавать, излучать

inversely — обратно, путем инверсии, обратно пропорционально

precision — точность

 

Exercise 17.Read and translate the text.

The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator. It is planned to have a collision energy of 500 GeV initially, and, if approved after the project has published its Technical Design Report, planned for 2012, could be completed in the late 2010s. A later upgrade to 1000 GeV (1 TeV) is possible. The host country for the accelerator has not yet been chosen. Studies for a competing project called CLIC are also underway; it seems unlikely that both machines will be built.

The ILC would collide electrons with positrons. It will be between 30 km and 50 km (19-31 mi.) long, more than 10 times as long as the 50 GeV Stanford Linear Accelerator, the longest existing linear particle accelerator.

It is widely expected that effects of physics beyond that described in the current Standard Model will be detected by experiments at the proposed ILC. In addition, particles and interactions described by the Standard Model are expected to be discovered and measured. At the ILC physicists hope to be able to:

· Measure the mass, spin, and interaction strengths of the Higgs boson

· If existing, measure the number, size, and shape of any TeV-scale extra dimensions



· Investigate the lightest supersymmetric particles, possible candidates for dark matter

There are two basic shapes of accelerators. Linear accelerators ("linacs") accelerate elementary particles along a straight path. Circular accelerators, such as the Tevatron, the LEP, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), use circular paths. Circular geometry has significant advantages at energies up to and including tens of GeV: With a circular design, particles can be effectively accelerated over longer distances. Also, only a fraction of the particles brought onto a collision course actually collide. In a linear accelerator, the remaining particles are lost; in a ring accelerator, they keep circulating and are available for future collisions. The disadvantage of circular accelerators is that particles moving along bent paths will necessarily emit electromagnetic radiation known as synchrotron radiation. Energy loss through synchrotron radiation is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the mass of the particles in question. That is why it makes sense to build circular accelerators for heavy particles-hadron colliders such as the LHC for protons or, alternatively, for lead nuclei. An electron-positron collider of the same size would never be able to achieve the same collision energies. In fact, energies at the LEP, which used to occupy the tunnel now given over to the LHC, were limited to 209GeV by energy loss via synchrotron radiation.

Even if the effective collision energy at the LHC will be higher than the ILC collision energy (14,000 GeV for the LHC vs. ~500 GeV for the ILC), measurements could be made more accurately at the ILC. Collisions between electrons and positrons are much simpler to analyze than collisions between many quarks, antiquarks and gluons. As such, one of the roles of the ILC would be making precision measurements of the properties of particles discovered at the LHC.

Exercise 18. Give the Russian equivalents:

 

collision, positrons, initial, precision, accelerators, synchrotron radiation, host, inversely, particles-hadron colliders, The International Linear Collider (ILC), propose, circular, beyond, emit, spin, current.

Exercise 19.Give the English equivalents:

международный линейный коллайдер, предлагать, намереваться, ускоритель, начальный, множество, поток, крутиться, круговой, выделять, точность, столкновения, потеря энергии, выше, свойства.





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