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Exercise 13. Read the examples and choose the right answer to the question from the options in the box

• Why do you think there is no article with the underlined nouns?


1. Teenagers have admitted they drop litter...

2. The survey found that boys say that putting rubbish in a bin would make them appear "soft" or "uncool".

3. Water and air pollution affects people's health.



Exercise 14. Read the definitions.


litter- waste such as empty packets, bottles and pieces of paper that people have dropped in the street or in a public place

waste— used, damaged or unwanted matter (materials or substances esp. after it has been used for an industrial process

garbage — esp.AmE, rubbish— esp. BrE waste material e. g. from a house or office to be thrown


Exercise 15. Study the grid of possible word combinations and solve the riddles.

  bin pipe Can
waste + +  
litter +    
rubbish +    
garbage     +
dust +    


1. It is connected to a sink to get rid of dirty water after washing up.

2. They are big and placed outside houses in the backyard. People throw their garbage

into them.

3. We have it in our kitchen to throw away everything that is not needed any more.

4. We can find them on the streets to throw away wrappers, plastic bags etc.

How the greenhouse effect works

Gases like (1) carbon dioxide are important for the Earth's temperature. They let heat from the Sun reach the ground, and keep it there. In this way, they help to keep the Earth's temperature at the ideal level. However, human activities are destroying the natural (2)............of these gases. When we burn fossil fuels like (3).............oil and gas, we produce too much carbon dioxide (CO2). This CO2 collects in the atmosphere and (4)............too much heat. We make the problem worse when we cut down (5).............Living trees absorb carbon dioxide and (6)............ oxygen, but when we cut trees down we release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

Exercise 16. Replace the words in italics with a phrasal verb from the box in the correct form. There are two verbs that you won't need.




1. Our planet is in great danger. We all need to accept and deal with the challenges if we are to avoid disaster.

2. We will probably no longer have enough oil in the next 60 years, so we need to develop renewable energy sources such as wind power.

3. Natural resources like wood and coal are being finished at an ever-increasing rate.

4. We ought to reduce the amount of energy we use; for example,

we should switch off lights when we leave a room.

5. We ought to stop using cars for unnecessary journeys and use public transport instead.


Exercise 17. Underline the correct word in each pair. Then answer the questions with a partner.


1. How many species/forms of birds can you name in English?

2. Which animals may become vanished/extinct in the near future?

3. What kinds of crops are grown/grown up in your country?

4. What do scientists mean by soil/earth erosion and what causes it? Is it a problem in your country?

5. What sort of animals and fish live off the coast/beach of your country, e.g. whales, dolphins?

6. What happens to wildlife if oil tankers dump/drop oil in the seas?

7. Have you had any wildlife catastrophes/misfortunes related to pollution in your country recently?

Exercise 18. Read the text ignoring the gaps for the moment.


1. What information does it give about the causes and effects of global warming?

2. According to the text, what will happen if we don't do something about it now?


Exercise 19. Now complete the exam task. Read the gapped sentences very carefully. Remember, to help you choose the right word, you should:

• pay careful attention to meaning.

• be aware of grammatical patterns such as prepositions after nouns and verbs, and infinitives after verbs.

• look out for collocations and fixed phrases.

• make sure that linking words fit the meaning of the text.


Exercise 20. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

0 A recognized B regarded C registered D represented


The Earth's climate is a very complicated system. What's more, it is now widely (0) .A. that human activity is having an effect on it. The pollution which (1).....from the use of oil and coal in industry, (2).....the increased use of private cars, is causing significant changes in temperature in many parts of the world. These changes often have a knock-on effect on other aspects of the climate, (3).....to things like extreme weather (4).....and rising sea levels.

Studying the changes which are taking (5).....and predicting those that are (6).....to happen in the future is now a major area of scientific research. The information which the scientists (7).....is very useful in helping governments to (8).....the effects of climate change and so be better prepared to (9).....with them. A much more (10).....problem, however, is how to prevent the situation from (11).....worse. This depends on how quickly, and to what extent, the (12).....of pollution in the atmosphere increases. Although many countries have now agreed to try and limit the pollution they create, much more (13).....to be done. If no further action is (14)......then temperatures are set to rise by about 0.2% per decade (15).....the 21st century. Such a rate of warming is greater than anything that has occurred over the last ten thousand years.

A recovers B concludes C results D happens
A as far as B as soon as C as long as D as well as
A leading B causing C finishing D producing
A examples B conditions C cases D instances
A point B part C path D place
A surely B probably C likely D possibly
A provide B progress C prove D propose
A prevent B pretend C predict D prefer
A handle B face C manage cope
A serious B determined C thoughtful D anxious
A going B giving C getting D gaining
A addition B amount C average D account
A needs B wants C wishes D hopes
A held B taken C made D carried
A already B during C while D still


Exercise 21. Read the whole text again and find:

1. four examples of verb + particle or preposition

2. two collocations with take

3. one collocation with have

Тексты для самостоятельной работы студентов:

1. Л.В. Хведченя, Р.В. Хорень «Английский язык для поступающих в вузы», Минск, 1996, стр. 164 – My biography; стр. 170 – My family.

2. И.В. Цветкова, И.А. Клепальченко, Н.А. Мыльцева «Английский язык для школьников и поступающих в вузы», Москва, 1996, стр. 96 – My family; стр. 102 – My friend; стр. 152 – Mozart; стр. 158 – Albert Einstein.

3. И.П. Агабекян, П.И. Коваленко «Английский для технических вузов», Ростов-на-Дону, 2004, стр. 23-25 – My biography after Mark Twain.



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