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Прошедшее простое время (Past Indefinite)

Past Indefinite правильных глаголов (regular verbs) об­разуется с помощью окончания ed, добавляемого к инфи­нитиву без частицы to:

Iinvited them to the conference room.

He/ Sheinvited them to the conference room.

Weinvited them to the conference room.

TheyInvited us to the conference room.

Past Indefinite неправильных глаголов (irregular verbs) образуется не по правилам и обычно указывается в сло­варях в скобках после инфинитива. Далее указывается 3-я форма глагола, необходимая для образования Present Perfect. Неправильные глаголы следует заучивать сразу в трех формах. Например:

To go — went — gone to take — took — taken

To have — had — had to speak — spoke — spoken

To meet — met — met to see —saw — seen

Вопросительная форма для правильных и неправиль­ных глаголов в Past Indefinite образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did:

Did you invite them to the conference room9

- Yes, I did./ No, I didn't.

Did he/ she invite them to the conference room?

- Yes, he/she did/No, he/she didn't.

Did they meet in the conference room?

- Yes, they did./No, they didn't

Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью вспомо­гательного глагола в отрицательной форме did not {didn't):

Ididn't invite them to the conference room.

He/ Shedidn't invite them to the conference room.

Wedidn't meet in the conference room.

Theydidn't go to the conference room.

Прошедшее простое время (Past Indefinite) выражает действие, происшедшее или происходившее в прошлом.


Mr. Hill met the group at the airport.

They didn't go to London by taxi.

Did they have any problems?


1. Read the following irregular verbs:

Инфинитив Простое прошедшее время 3-я форма (причастие прошед­шего времени)
• to be was/ were been
to come came come
to make made made
to speak spoke spoken
to meet met met
to see saw seen
to take took taken
to keep kept kept


2. Write down the following regular verbs in Past Indefinite:

• to fill • to specialise
to fill in to train
to distribute to work to provide to study
    to enjoy


3. Underline the verbs in the following sentences and say in what tenses they are used:

• Are you on business in London?

How long have you been in London?

I was in London in 1996.

• We have just had lunch. They are still having lunch.

We had lunch at 8 o'clock.

• He works as a manager.

He is working at this company.

He worked at this company from 1990 to 1995.

• He speaks fluent French.

He is now speaking English.

He spoke for 3 hours at the conference.

4. Underline the answers true to the text:

• On what floor was the conference room, where the participants met, located? On the ground floor. On the first floor. On the second floor.
• Did Mr. Hill speak for a long time? He said only two wolds. He said a few sentences. He spoke for two hours.
• About what did Mr. Hill speak? About himself only. Only about his company. About his company and himself.
• What did the group do after Mr. Hill introduced himself? They asked him a lot of ques­tions. They introduced themselves.
• What paper did Mr. Hill distribute then? The Programme. The Rooming List. The Timetable.
• What tour did the partici­pants make then? A panoramic tour of London. A tour of Madame Tussaud's. A tour of the Tower of London.
• Did the participants make any pictures? Yes, they did. No, they did not want to. No, they did not have any cameras.


5. Read the following:

word, words, to word, wording

to work, worked, work, works, worker, working

with me, with them, with us, with a camera, with their cameras

Many of them make pictures with their cameras.

6. Insert prepositions:

Let me say a few words ... myself and the company who is the or­ganiser ... this Programme. I'm Doctor ... Economics. ... the recent past I worked ... a foreign trade company and then ... a bank. Now I specialise ... business management and ... training businessmen ... East European countries. ... some time I worked ... Poland and Hungary. Now I'm closely cooperating ... Russia.

7. Insert articles:

• I'm working for IMD. It's ... well established company specialis­ing in business training. ... company also provides financial con­sulting. Here before you there are booklets on ... history and scope of activities of our company. I'll be grateful if you could introduce yourself in just ... few words.

• Thank you for ... nice reception and for ... good beginning of ... Programme. I hope ... Programme will be ... success and we shall learn .. lot of things.

• I'm ... financial manager of ... department in ... commercial bank in Moscow.

8. Complete these short speeches and act out similar ones:

• Ladies and gentlemen! First let me say a few words about myself and the company . My name is David Hill. I'm . . In the recent past ... Now I specialise. . For some time I worked ...

• I'm working for .. It's a well established .. The company also provides ... Here before you there are booklets ... You ... keep ... Now I'll be grateful ... introduce yourself ...

• Let me first thank you for ... I hope .... success ... My name is Oleg Pilov. I'm .. manager .. bank ... And I'm especially interested ... foreign transactions for small ...

ü speech — речь

9. Role play

Imagine you are the Organiser of a training programme for foreign participants in Russia.

• Write down the main points of the opening speech.

• Make the opening speech.

ü role play — ролевая игра

ü to imagine — представить (себе)

Unit nineteen

Trade finance


Next morning after having breakfast at the self-sevice bar of the hotel restaurant the participants went to the conference room to have a lecture on Trade Finance.

There was a folder on the big round table for each participant with the material relating to the lecture.

Here is one of the sheets of the file:

Trade finance

à Trade needs finance

à This must come from either the trader or from a lending in­stitution.

à If the trade is international then the amount of finance is noimally greater

à In general, trade is handled on credit

à The buyer pays for the goods at a specified time after receipt

à If the trade is international then delivery time adds to the de­lay in payment

à This adds to the need for finance

à Also in international trade the buyer uses one currency, the seller another

à This requires an organisation with facilities for changing cur­rencies

à On both counts the Bank is the best source of finance


Thus this page gave the most important hints on the subject.

And Mr. Hill, the lecturer, explained and developed each state­ment. The participants sometimes interrupted him and asked questions. Sometimes Mr. Lvov came to help when there was a problem of speaking or understanding.

The lecturer devoted some part of the lecture to financing small business companies who usually enjoy better terms, reduced taxes and other facilities especially during the first years oftheir work.

Words and expressions

nineteen   девятнадцать (числ.)
finance   финансы
to finance   финансировать
next   следующий
next morning   на следующее утро
next evening   вечером следующего дня
next week   на следующей неделе
next lesson   на следующем уроке
breakfast ['brekf@st] завтрак
to have breakfast   завтракать
folder   папка, скоросшиватель
on   на
round   круглый
table   стол
on the table   на столе
file   папка, досье
to need something   нуждаться в чем-либо
the need for something   потребность в чем-либо
to come from   приезжать из
(came — come)    
either ... or ... ['аID@...'þ] или или
trader   зд. продавец
to lend (lent — lent)   предоставлять кредит
institution   организация
lending institution [InstI'tjüSn] кредитная организация
amount   сумма
great [greIt] великий, большой
greater   еще больший
Then the amount of fi­nance is greater.   В этом случае сумма фи­нансирования увеличива­ется
in general   в целом
to handle   обращаться с, иметь дело
    с, вести
credit   кредит
on credit   на условиях кредита, в
to handle trade on credit   вести торговлю, исполь­зуя кредит
buyer [baI@] покупатель
goods   товар,товары
These goods are very good.   Этот товар очень хоро­ший
receipt [rI'sÖt] получение
delivery   поставка
delivery time   срок поставки
delay   задержка
payment   платеж
delay in payment   задержка платежа
to use   использовать
currency ['kör@nsI] валюта
to require   требовать
organisation   организация
facilities [f@'sIlItIz] средства, возможности,
to change   менять
on both counts   в обоих случаях
best   лучший
source [sþs] источник
the best source of fi­nance   наиболее выгодный ис­точник финансирования
thus   таким образом
to give (gave, given)   давать
hint   намек, совет
the most important hints   наиболее важные советы
subject   предмет, вопрос
hints on the subject   советы по данному во­просу
to explain   объяснять
to develop   развивать (ся)
statement   заявление, утверждение; отрицательный отчёт
to interrupt   прерывать
to understand (understood, understood)     понимать
to devote   посвящать
to devote something to   посвящать что-либо чему
something /somebody   или кому-либо
better   лучше
to reduce [rI'djüs] уменьшать (ся)
tax   налог
reduced taxes   сокращенные, умень­шенные налоги



1. Read the following:

• morning • understanding

during financing

having changing

speaking lending

• next morning, next evening

• after having breakfast

after having lunch

after having dinner

before having dinner

• There was a problem of speaking English.

There was a problem of understanding English.

It was a lecture on financing small business companies.

They enjoyed better terms during the first years of their work.

2. Underline the answers true to the text:

• When did the participants go to the conference room to have the first lecture? The next morning. The next afternoon. The same day the group came to London.
• What material was prepared for the participants? A video cassette on the topic of the lecture. Material relating to the lecture. A video cassette with sights of London.
• To what topic or subject was the first lecture de­voted? To banks. To trade finance. To management.
• Who was the lecturer? Mr. Hill. Another Englishmen. An American economist.
• Why did the participants interrupt the lecturer? To ask questions. To explain some statements to the other participants. To develop some statements for the other participants.
• What did Mr. Lvov do during the lecture? He didn't speak. He only read the material in the folder. He helped the participants to speak English and understand the lecturer.  
• About what aspects of small business did the lecturer speak? Only about some better terms during the first years of business. Only about reduced taxes dur­ing the first years of business. About better terms, reduced taxes and other facilities especially during the first years of business.  


3. Translate into English:

Затем они отправились в конференц-зал.

М-р Хилл читал лекции "Финансирование торговли".

Перед каждым участником была папка с материалами.

Иногда участники прерывали м-ра Хилла и задавали вопросы.

Андрей помогал им, когда у них возникали затруднения с английским языком.

Лектор посвятил часть лекции малому бизнесу.

Он говорил о более выгодных условиях, сниженных налогах и других льготах.

4. Match English and Russian sentences:

Trade needs finance. В обоих случаях лучшим ис­точником финансирования являются банки.
This must come from either the trader or from a lending institution Для торговли необходимо финансирование.


If the trade is international then the amount of finance is normally greater. Оно (финансирование) должно исходить от продавца или финансовой организации.
In general, trade is handled on credit. Покупатель оплачивает товар в указанный срок после по­лучения товара.
The buyer pays for the goods at a specified time after receipt. Это увеличивает потребность в финансировании торговли.
This adds to the need for fi­nance Если это внешняя торговля, то сумма финансовых средств обычно увеличивается.
On both counts the bank is the best source of finance. Обычно торговля осуществ­ляется с использованием кредитов.


5. Insert articles:

Finance must come from either ... trader or from .. lending in­stitution.

If tiade .. is international then ... amount of finance is normally gieatei.

. buyei pays for ... goods at ... specified time after receipt.

If .. trade is international then delivery time adds to ... delay in payment.

Also in international trade ... buyer uses one currency, .. seller another.

6. Insert prepositions:

In general trade is handled ... credit.

Then delivery time adds ... the delay ... payment.

This adds ... the need ... finance.

This requires an organisation ... facilities ... changing cuiiencies. . both counts the bank is the best source ... finance.

7. Translate into English:

папка с материалами Торговля осуществляется с

использованием кредитов.

папка (скоросшиватель) источник финансирования

финансирование торговли в указанное время

продавец после получения

покупатель задержка платежа

в кредит валюта

8. Sum up what Mr. Hill said about:

ü sum up — суммировать

• trade finance in general

• financing small business companies

9. Agree or disagree:

Small business companies pay reduced taxes in Russia.

10. Role play:

Imagine you are a lecturer. Speak on financing small business companies in Russia

Unit twenty



The next day the session was devoted to the United Kingdom

Banking Sector.

Here is the short summary of the lecture:

The UK Banking Sector
Retail Banks
Discount Houses
British Merchant Banks
Other British Banks
American Banks
Japanese Banks
Other Overseas Banks
In addition there are 92 Building Societies


à Retail Banks: They render numerous services for private customers and have extensive branch networks in the UK. They participate dnectly in the UK clearing system.

à Discount Houses: They are mostly engaged in discounting bills of exchange for the corporate sector.

à British Merchant Banks: These are wholesale banks handling big money for private and corporate customers. They are engaged in mergers, take-overs and acquisitions. They also provide consulting services.

à Other British Banks: Comprise all other UK registered banking institutions and certain banks in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. They are controlled by UK companies or individuals.

à American Banks: Comprise the branches and subsidiaries of US banks.

à Japanese Banks: Comprise the branches and subsisdiaries of banks based in Japan.

à Overseas Banks: Comprise the branches and subsidiaries of non- American or non- Japanese banks and Consortium banks. These are jointly owned by other financial institutions, one of which must be based overseas.

à Building Societies: In the past they mostly extended mortgage loans, but nowadays they also widely practice taking in deposits and they practically operate as banks.

Words and expressions

twenty   двадцать (числ.)
banking   банковское дело
The lecture was devoted to banking.     Лекция была посвящена банковскому делу
retail   розничный
retail bank   банк, обслуживающий мелких клиентов
discount   скидка; учет (векселей)
discount house   учетный дом — фир­ма/банк, занимающийся учетом векселей и опера­циями на денежном рынке
merchant ['mýtS@nt] купец
merchant bank   торговый банк — банк, специализирующийся на финансировании внеш­ней торговли, а также на операциях на рынке ка­питалов, организации слияний и поглощений фирм и предприятий, различных консультаци­онных услугах
thirty one   тридцать один (числ.)
one hundred and sixty seven   сто шестьдесят семь (числ.)
Japanese [,³p@'nÖz] японский
overseas     за морем, зарубежом, за границей
two hundred and ninety   двести девяносто (числ )
total   общий, итоговый; итог, итого
five hundred and ninety   пятьсот девяносто (числ )
to build (built, built) [bIld, bIlt] строить
society [s@'saI@tI] общество
building society   строительное общество — учреждение, специализи­рующееся на привлече­нии сбережений населе­ния и кредитовании жи­лищного строительства
to render   оказывать
numerous ['njüm@r@s] многочисленный
services   услуги
extensive   обширный
branch   отделение, ветвь
networks ['netwýks] сеть
branch networks   сеть отделений
extensive branch net­works   разветвленная, широкая сеть отделений
to participate   участвовать
clearing     клиринг — расчеты путем взаимного зачета требо­ваний (платежей)
clearing system   клиринговая система
to be engaged in something   заниматься чем-либо
to discount   учитывать
bill   вексель, банкнота, доку­мент о признании долга
to discount bills   учитывать вексели
bill of exchange     переводный вексель — при­каз выплатить предьявите­лю определенную сумму
corporate   корпоративный — отно­
    сящийся к компаниям
wholesale ['houlseIl] оптовый
wholesale bank     оптовый банк — банк, специализирующийся на крупных операциях
money   деньги
merger   слияние двух или более компаний для образова­ния одной новой
take-over     поглощение одной ком­панией другой (часто во­преки ее желанию)
acquisition [,{kwI'zISn] приобретение
to comprise   включить
certain   определенный
the Channel   пролив Ла-Манш
island   остров
Isle of Man   остров Мэн
subsidiary [s@b'sIdj@rI] филиал
to be based   находиться
consortium   консорциум
jointly   совместно
to own   владеть
to be owned by somebody   находиться во владении кого-либо
to extend   простираться
loan   кредит
to extend a load   предоставлять кредит
mortgage ['mþgI³] ипотека, ипотечный кре­дит — передача кредитору права на недвижимость в качестве залога за полу­ченную ссуду
nowadays   сейчас
widely   широко
to practice doing some­thing   использовать практику чего-либо
deposit   депозит — 1) вклад денег в кредитном учреждении; 2) краткосрочная меж­банковская ссуда
to take in deposits   принимать депозит
to operate   работать; управлять
to operate as banks   работать как банк



1. Read the following:

• the next day in the past other banks • the Channel Islands the Isle of Man the United Kingdom the corporate sector


• They are engaged in mergers.

They are engaged in take-overs.

They are engaged in acquisitions.

They are mostly engaged in discounting bills.

• Here is the short summary of the lecture.

There are ninety-two building societies in the UK.

These are wholesale banks.

2. Find answers in the text and read these sentences:

To what topic was the lecture devoted?

How many retail banks are there in Britain?

How many discount houses are there?

How many merchant banks are there?

How many other British banks are there?

What foreign banks are located in the UK?

How many building societies are there in Britain?

2. Translate into Russian:

• banking • merchant banks
banking sector overseas banks
retail banks building societies
discount houses clearing system
to discount bills acquisition
private customer consulting services
corporate customer branch
corporate sector subsidiary
merger mortgage
take-over mortgage loan


4. Match terms and definitions:

retail banks banks extending mortgage loans, taking in deposits and providing other banking services
discount houses banks serving private customers
merchant banks banks serving private and corporate customers with big money
building societies banks discounting bills of exchange


5. Complete as in the text:

There are a few types of foreign banks based in Britain. They are American, Japanese and other overseas banks.

American banks ...

Japanese banks ...

Overseas banks ...

6. Insert articles:

... next day ... session was devoted to ... United Kingdom Banking Sector. Here is ... short summary of... lecture.

... UK Banking Sector comprises retail banks, discount houses, merchant banks, foreign banks, building societies and other banks.

7. Insert prepositions:

Retail banks render numerous services ... private customers and have extensive branch networks ... the UK. They participate directly ... the UK clearing system.

Merchant banks are wholesale banks. They handle big money ... private and corporate customers. They are engaged ... mergers, take­overs and acquisitions.

8. Complete the sentences:

Discount houses are mostly engaged in discounting ...

American banks comprise the branches ...

Japanese banks comprise ...

In the past British building societies mostly extended mortgage ... but nowadays they also ... as banks.

9. Underline the verbs and translate the sentences into Russian:

Other British banks comprise all other banking institutions regis­tered in the UK and banks in a few islands. They are controlled by UK companies or individuals. Overseas banks are foreign banks ex­cluding (исключая) American and Japanese banks. They comprise the branches and subsidiaries of those banks and Consortium banks too. All these banks are owned by other financial institutions. One of the owners of every bank must be based overseas.

10. Role play:

Imagine you are the lecturer. Speak on the types of banks in Great Britain.

11. Agree or disagree:

Types of banks in Russia are similar to those in Great Britain.

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