Модальный глагол to be Modal verb to be
Если глагол to be употребляется как модальный глагол, то следующий за ним глагол употребляется с частицей to.
Модальный глагол to be переводится как "должен" (в соответствии с планом, указанием и т.д.) Например:
The Group is to come to London on 12 November. Группа должна приехать в Лондон 12 ноября.
В документах модальный глагол to be и следующий за ним глагол часто переводятся одним глаголом в настоящем времени.Например:
The goods are to be delivered before the 25 December
Товар поставляется до 25 декабря.
3. Translate into Russian:
The price is to be understood CIF Sheremetievo.
Payment is to be effected in GBP.
Payment is to be effected under a letter of credit.
The letter of credit is to be established with the first class bank.
The letter of credit is to be established against certain shipping documents.
The letter of credit is to be valid for 60 days.
The letter of credit is to be opened within 10 days.
The Sellers are to send the Buyers an advice of the readiness of the goods for shipment.
4. Translate into English:
5. Translate the Contract starting with the words " The total price.
6. Read as in the examples:
7. Translate into Russian and answer the questions as in the example:
These rules are easy to remember, aren't they?
This Unit was very easy to read, wasn't it?
You know many English words now, don't you?
You like the English language, don't you?
You can translate some papers into Russian now, can't you?
You remember the part of the Contract quoted in this Unit, don't you?
8. Write a similar text of another Contract, changing:
• the names of the companies
• the goods
• the dates
Imagine you are discussing the above contract with the Sellers before it is signed.
Unit forty one
One day after an external visit Vladimir Antonov one of the participants of the Programme decided to go sightseeing by himself. Just to economise time, he decided to go by taxi.
The famous London black taxi cabs can be hailed in the street. Some cabs are now painted different colours and carry limited advertising, but are still bound by the same strict regulations. They are available for hire if the yellow light above the windscreen is lit. All these taxis have meters which the driver must use on all journeys within the Metropolitan Police District. The District covers most of Greater London and goes out to the Heathrow Airport. For longer journeys the price is usually negotiated with the driver beforehand. There is also a minimum payable charge which is shown on the meter when you hire the cab. Passengers are expected to pay extra for large luggage, journeys between 20.00—06.00, at weekends and holidays.
There are over 500 ranks throughout London, including all major hotels and British Rail stations.
Besides black cabs there are mini-cabs which practically render similar services. But they cannot be hailed in the street, they are indistinguishable from private cars. Unlike the black cabs they are not licensed and their drivers do not take the same stringent tests. They are cheaper than black cabs. Usually they are ordered by telephone. They are listed in Yellow Pages.
When Vladimir saw a cab with a yellow light he signaled it to halt:
Vladimir: Excuse me, could you take me to Westminster Bridge?
Driver: Yes, certainly. Get in please. .... Where do you want me to stop?
Vladimir: Near Big Ben or just opposite the Houses of Parliament.
Driver: Good..... Here you are.
Vladimir: How much is it?
Driver: The meter says three forty.
Vladimir: Here it is... Keep the small change.
Driver: Thank you. Good-bye. Enjoy the sights.
Words and expressions
1. Insert prepositions:
Vladimir decided to go sightseeing... taxi.
He hailed a taxi... the street.
The charge is usually shown... the meter.
Mini-cab companies are mainly listed... Yellow Pages.
Mini-cabs are usually ordered... telephone.
Could you take me... Westminster Bridge, please?
Will you stop... Big Ben just... the Houses... Parliament?
2. Insert articles:
... famous London taxi cabs can be hailed in... street.
They are bound by... same strict regulations.
They are available for hire if... yellow light above... windscreen is lit.
... driver must use meters on all... journeys within...
Metropolitan Police District.
... District covers most of Greater London and goes out to... Heathrow Airport.
There is... minimum payable charge which is shown on .. meter when you hire. . cab.
3. Underline the verbs in the Passive Voice and translate the sentences into Russian:
• The famous London black cabs can be hailed in the street.
Some cabs are now painted different colours.
They are bound by the same strict regulations.
They are available for hire if the yellow light above the wind screen is lit.
For longer journeys the price is usually negotiated.
• The minimum payable charge is shown on the meter when you hire the cab.
Passengers are expected to pay extra for large luggage.
Mini-cabs cannot be hailed in the street.
Mini-cabs are not licensed.
They are usually ordered by telephone.
4. Find the answers in the text:
• What place of interest did Vladimir want to see that day?
Did he hire a taxi cab or a mini-cab?
Can taxi cabs be hired only in the street in London?
How many taxi ranks are there in London, approximately?
Where are they located mostly?
What colour are they?
• Do they usually carry advertising?
What helps people to distinguish a free taxi?
What is the function of meters?
Are the prices or fares negotiated with the driver?
Must the driver always use the meter?
When are passengers expected to pay extra?
5. Complete as in the text:
Besides black... there are mini... which.. render similar... But they cannot... in the street. They are indistinguishable from... Unlike the black cabs they are not... and their drivers do not... stringent... They are cheaper... Usually they are ordered... They are listed in...
6. Sum up what the text said about:
the famous London black cabs
mini-cab services in London.
7. Read the following:
where what when why Wednesday
want wish well winter Westminster
Could you take me to Westminstel Bridge, please?
Excuse me, how can I get to Westminster Bridge, please?
8. Complete the dialogue and act out a similar one:
— Excuse me, could you...
— Yes.. Get.. Where do you want me...
— Near... just opposite...
— Good. Here...
— How much...
— The meter says..
— Here it is. Keep..
— Thank you. Good-bye. Enjoy...
9. Make short dialogues as in the examples:
Imagine you are speaking with an English businessman. Tell him about taxi services in your town.
Unit forty two
London and the City
London was not built as a city in the same way as Paris or New York. It began life as a Roman fortification at a place where it was possible to cross the River Thames. A wall was built around the town for defence, but during the long period of peace which followed the Norman Conquest, people built outside the walls. This building continued over the years. In 1665 there was a terrible plague in London which killed too many people. In 1666 the Great Fire of London ended the plague, but it also destroyed much of the city. Although many people who had fled London during the plague returned to live in the rebuilt city after the plague and the Great Fire, there were never again so many Londoners living in the city centre.
These days London has spread further outwards into the country, including surrounding villages. Today the metropolis of Greater London covers about 610 square miles (1580 sq. km), and the suburbs of London continue even beyond this area. Some people even commute over 100 miles (over 150 km.) every day to work in London.
The gradual growth of the city helps to explain the fact that London does not have just one centre, it has a number of centres, each with a distinct character: the Government centre in Westminster, the shopping and entertainment centre in the West End, the financial and business centre called the City.
The City is rather a small area east of the centre which includes the site of the original Roman town. It is an area with a long and exciting history, and it is proud of its independence and traditional role as a centre of trade and commerce. The City of London is one of the major banking centres of the world and you can find the banks of many nations in the famous Threadneedle Street and the surrounding area. Here, too, the Bank of England, the central bank of the nation. is located. Nearby is the Stock Exchange where shares of commercial companies are bought and sold. A little further is Lloyd's, the most famous insurance company in the world.
During weekdays in the City one can see the City gents with their bowler hats, pin-striped suits and rolled umbrellas. This is the 'unifrom' only of those men involved in banking and business in the City.
Words and expressions
1. Translate into Russian:
the plague of 1665
the Great Fire of 1666
Many people fled London during those years.
The city was rebuilt later.
2. Read as in the examples:
3. Choose the correct form of the verb:
London (was not built, did not build) as a city in the same way as many other cities.
First at this place a Roman fortification (built, was built).
Then a wall around the town (built, was built).
People (built, were built) outside the walls during a long period after the Norman Conquest.
This building (continued, was continued) over the years.
The city (was, has been) practically destroyed during the plague and the Great Fire in the seventeenth century.
The city (was, has been) rebuilt later.
4. Complete as in the text:
London was not built as a city in the same...
It began life as a Roman. . to cross the River Thames.
A wall was built around the town for.. but during the long period of peace which followed .. people built outside...
This building continued over .
In 1665. .. plague which killed ..
In 1666 the Great.. ended the plague but it also. .
Many people who had fled London during... returned to live in ...after.. Fire
But there were never again so many Londoners... centre.
5. Insert prepositions:
These days London has spread further outwards... the country.
Today the ... Greater London covers about 1580 square miles and the suburbs. London continue even... this area.
Some people even commute ... 100 miles every day to work ... London
6. Insert articles:
... gradual growth of ... city helps to explain ... fact that London does not have just one centre, it has.. number of centres
Each centre is with.. distinct character ...
Government centre is in Westminster ... shopping and entertainment centre is in ... West End ..
... financial and business centre is called . City.
7. Use the verbs in the right forms:
The City (to be) rather a small area east of the centre.
The City (to include) the site of the original Roman town.
It (to be) an area with a long and exciting history.
It (to be) proud of its independence and traditional role as a centre of trade and commerce.
The City of London (to be) one of the banking centers of the world.
Threadneedle Street (to be) famous for its numerous banks.
Here, too, the Bank of England (to locate}.
Nearby (to be) the Stock Exchange where shares of commercial companies (to buy and sell).
8. Match the names and their description:
9. Find the answers in the text:
Is the City a big area?
Is it located at the site of the Roman town?
Has it been traditionally a centre of trade and commerce?
Are the City gents involved in banking and business?
What 'uniform' do they wear?
Are there many banks in the City?
Is the Stock Exchange also located here?
What is Lloyd's?
10. Sum up what the text said about:
the history of London
the size of the present London
the City of London
its other centres
11. Make short dialogue as in the example:
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