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Sum up what the dialogue and the text said about driving in Britain





Role play.

Imagine you are speaking with an English businessman. Discuss:

• traffic jams

• speed limits

• parking facilities etc.

Unit forty four

Windsor and Eton

Text

On Sunday morning the group started on an excursion for Windsor by coach.

Windsor lies 34 km west of London and is famous, first and foremost for Windsor Castle, the residence of the royal family Many parts of this historic castle are open to the public while some other parts are always closed and some are closed when the royal family is in residence.

The site of Windsor Castle was fust defended by William the Conqueror in 1070 and for the next 900 years the building was con­tinually enlarged, growing from a medieval castle to a vast and com­plex royal palace.

The most impressive of all the castle buildings is St. Geoige's Chapel, a masterpiece of perpendicular Gothic architecture. The State Apartments, which are closed to the public, comprise 16 rooms, and each is a treasure house of superb furniture, porcelain, and armour The rooms are decorated with carvings by Grinling, Gibbons, ceilings by Venio and works from the royal collections. They include Van Dyck's paintings

The star attraction, open to the public, is Queen Mary's Doll's House, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and given to the nation in 1923. The furnishings are designed at one-twelfth lifesize.

Part of Windsor Central Railway Station has now been converted to a waxworks museum iun by Madame Tussaud's, recreating the scene in 1879 when a special train arrived here to celebrate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. Queen Victoria, the longest ruling monarch in Britain, who lived in 1837-1901, symbolises the unity of the nation, the British Empire and the progress of the nation in the nineteenth centuiy.

After visiting Windsor the group walked to Eton. They went along Thames Street from Windsor Castle down to the river, where Windsor Bridge took them to Eton, Windsor's twin town, on the northern bank. Eton is the home of Eton college, the public school that has produced no fewer than 20 prime ministers. It was term time and they saw a lot of students around, dressed in their distinctive tail coats and wing collars.

Words and expressions

Windsor     Виндзор. Небольшой го­род, муниципальный центр, население около 30,000 чел
Eton     Итон, маленький городок напротив Виндзора
to lie (lay, lied)   лежать, находиться
west   запад
first and foremost   прежде всего
castle [k¸sl] замок
Windsor Castle     Виндзорский замок. Одна из загородных резеден-ций английской короле­вы /короля
residence   резиденция
to be in residence   находиться в своей рези­денции
public   публика, народ
to be open to the public   открыт для посетителей
William the Conqueror     Вильгельм Завоеватель (1027—1087). Будучи гер­цогом Нормандии разбил под Гастингсом англий­ские войска в 1066 г. и стал королем Англии
to enlarge   расширять
medieval   средневековый
vast   обширный
complex   комплекс
palace   дворец
chapel   часовня
masterpiece   шедевр
perpendicular [,pýp@n'dIkjul@] перпендикулярный
Gothic   готический
architecture ['¸kItektS@] архитектура
state   государственный
apartment   комната, (Ам.) квартира
treasure   сокровище
furniture ['fýnItS@] мебель
porcelain   фарфор
armour   вооружение, доспехи
to decorate   украшать
carving   разная работа
ceiling ['sÖlIÎ] потолок
works   работы (произведения искусства)
collection   коллекция
painting   картина
doll   кукла
to design   задумывать, проектиро­
    вать
furnishings   меблировка
lifesize   натуральная величина
at one-twelfth lifesize   1/12 реального масштаба
to convert   превращать
waxworks   восковые фигуры
to recreate ['rekrIeIt] воссоздать
scene   сцена
diamond   бриллиант
jubilee [,³übIl'Ö] юбилей
to celebrate diamond ju­bilee   праздновать бриллианто­вый юбилей
to rule   править
monarch   монарх
to symbolise   символизировать
unity   единство
empire   империя
progress   прогресс
to walk   идти пешком
bank   берег
on the bank   на берегу
northern bank   северный берег
southern bank   южный берег
college ['kolI³] колледж
Eton colledge   Итон-колледж
public school   частная школа
Eton public school=Eton college=Eton   Итон (одна из девяти престижных частных школ Англии)
no fewer than   не менее (чем)
prime minister   премьер министр
term   семестр
student   студент
to dress   одевать
to be dressed   одеваться
tail coat   фрак
wing collar   стоячий воротник с отво­
    ротами

 



Exercises

1. Insert prepositions:

Sunday morning the group started... an excursion .. Windsor ... coach.

Windsor lies 34 km west... London.

Windsor is famous first and foremost. the Windsor Casle.

Many parts of the Castle are open . the public

Some parts are closed when the royal family is residence.

The site Windsor Castle was first defended .. William the Conqueror 1070.

2. Insert articles:

... most impressive of all... castle buildings is St. Georege's Chapel, ... masterpiece of perpendicular Gothic architecture

... state apartments, which are always closed to... public comprise 16 rooms

Each room is treasure house of superb furniture, porcelain and armour.

... rooms are decorated with carvings by famous artists

star attraction open to . public is Queen Mary's Doll House.

3. Choose the correct form:

The site of Windsor (defended, was defended) by William the Conqueror

The building of the Castle (enlarged, was enlarged) continually.

The rooms (decorated, are decorated) with carvings by famous artists.

The furnishings of the Doll's House (design, are designed} at one-twelfth lifesize

Part of the Railway Station (has converted, has been converted) to a waxworks museum

The museum recreates the scene in 1879 when a special train (has arrived, arrived) here to celebrate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

4. Match the names of famous figures and their contributions into the history:

Queen Victoria Madame Tussaud He designed the Doll's House for Queen Mary.
Grinlin Van Dyke Sir Edwin Lutyens William the Conqueror She contributed a lot to the unity and progress of the nation in the nineteenth century. She was the first to establish a wax-works museum.
    He is famous for his superb carvings.
    He is famous for his master-pieces in
    painting.
    He defended Windsor in 1070.

 

5. Read as in the example:

• Example in ten seventy

 

 

6. Complete the sentences:

In 1070 William the Conqueror ...

Queen Victoria was born in...

She died in... at the age of...

In 1879 she arrived in Windsor to celebrate...

In 1923 the Doll's House of Windsor Casle was given to...

7. Translate into Russian:

For the next 900 years the Castle was continuously enlarged growing from a medieval castle to a vast and complex royal palace.

Part of the Railway Station has been converted to a waxworks museum recreating the scene of Queen Victoria's arrival in Windsor.

8. Sum up what the text said about:

Queen Victoria

the history of Windsor Castle

the decorations of the Castle

the Doll's House

the places of the Castle open to the public.

9. Find the answers in the text:

Is Eton far away from Windsor?

How did the participants get there?

What famous college has it got?

How many English prime ministers graduated from Eton?

How are Eton students usually dressed?

Did the participants see any students in the streets of Eton?

Wasit term time?

10. Complete the disjunctive questions:

After visiting Windsor the participants walked to Eton...

They went down to the river and crossed it over the bridge...

Eton is Windsor's twin town...

Eton is the home of Eton college...

About 22 British prime ministers graduated from Eton college...

Eton students wear very curious clothes...

You have never seen Eton students...

Role play.

Imagine you are speaking with an Englishman who is living in Windsor. Ask him a few questions about Windsor and Eton.

Unit forty five

Payments in international trade

Text

On Monday morning the participants resumed their work and listened to the lecture on payments in international trade.

Here is a part of the lecture:

With any form of international trade it is essential to ensure that payment will be received in accordance with the terms of the un­derlying commercial contract. The most secure and established methods of settling international trade transactions are:

• by documentary letters of credit and

• by documentary collection bills.

Documentary letters of credit are opened by the importer's bank with a bank in the exporter's country, usually the importing bank's correspondent in the exporting country. Exporters submit to the bank in their country all the shipping, insurance and other docu­ments specified in the letter of credit issued by the importer's bank. If the documents are in order the bank in the exporting country will credit the exporters with the proceeds. The proceeds are reim­bursed-by the importer's bank in due course.

Documentary collection bills are presented to the importer's bank or its correspondent by the exporters together with all the shipping, insurance and other documents, specified in the contract. If the documents are in order the importers instruct their bank to pay and they collect the shipping documents then.

There are a few ways of transferring money from bank to bank. In the recent past these ways were:

• mail transfers and

• telegraphic transfers.

Now these two types of messages are practically replaced by SWIFT messages. SWIFT stands for the Society for Worldwide Inter­bank Financial Telecommunication. It is a network serving now more than 3,000 banks in about 100 countries. It speeds up payment messages between banks immensely. If sending and receiving banks are both 'logged-in', a message can be delivered in under 20 seconds. Over 1 million messages are sent every day via the computers of SWIFT and its member banks.

The role of correspondent banks is permanently growing. They facilitate and expedite international payments. A correspondent bank is one which carries a deposit balance for another bank lo­cated in another city or country and engages in an exchange of services with that bank.

Words and expressions

essential [I'senS] важный, значительный
it is essential to do something     необходимо/важно сде­лать ...
to ensure   обеспечить
in accordance with ...   в соответствии с ...
underlying   лежащий в основе
secure   надежный
established   широко используемый, утвердившийся
method   способ, метод
to settle   оплатить
documentary   документарный, с при­
    ложением отгрузочных
    документов
collection bill     инкассовое поручение: бан­ковский документ — инст­рукция получить платеж в краткий установленный срок или в пределах дан­ного срока получить обос­нованный отказ платель­щика от платежа
to submit   представлять, передавать
to issue ['Isjü] выпускать, открывать
to credit somebody with something     кредитовать кого-либо чего-либо
exporter   экспортер
proceeds   средства, выручка
to reimburse [,rÖ:Im'býs] возмещать, платить
due   должный, причитающийся
in due course   должным образом
to present   представлять, предъявлять
together with   вместе с
to be in order   быть в порядке
in the recent past   в недавнем прошлом
mail   почта
mail transfer   почтовый перевод
to replace   заменять
SWIFT [swIft] СВИФТ — Международ­ное общество межбанков­
    ских (финансовых) теле­
    коммуникаций
to stand for   обозначать
wordwide   всемирный
to speed up   ускорять
to be logged-in   (тех) быть включенным в
    систему
second   секунда
member   участник, член
member bank   банк, вошедший в/ под­ключившийся к СВИФТ

 





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