Exercise 1. Read and translate the following text
Astrakhan Engineer Building Institute
After finishing secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Vice-rectors are in charge of the academic and scientific work. Higher educational institutions train undergraduates and graduate students in one or several specializations. The faculties are headed by the Deans. There are departments within faculties.
Institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, teachers training colleges, universities which offer master’s and doctoral degrees programmes.
A.E.B.I is one of the youngest state high school. It was founded in 1992 from the building faculty of Technical University and technical college № 12.
It is very difficult for young institute to survive during these years. Because it is state – subsidized and it has to organize some commercial structures in order to get money for buying everything necessary for studing.
In 1997 the institute got two buildings: the main one for academic purpose and a hostel. Originally there was only one faculty in our institute – industrial and civil construction and only two hundred students. Now there are five faculties, thirteen chairs a library, some laboratories, gyms one thousand and five hundred students in it. There faculties are: industrial and civil construction, heat and gas supply and ventilation, water supply and water leading, architecture and design, applied geodesy.
A lot of professors, doctors of science, assistant professors, candidates of science, experienced lectors train and teach students using know-how technology-through projecting and studing.
It means that each student fulfil his project up to the graduating from the institute only learning all academic subjects perfectly and using these knowledge and scientific research exactly and creatively. Every year in April almost all students of the institute take part in scientific technical conference with their research works and scientific reports.
Winners get diplomas and prizes. During the years of studing students get four diplomas – the worker after the first course, the technician after the third course, the bachelor after the forth course and the constructor-engineer after the fifth course.
The institute has got specialized tenth and eleventh classes for pupils who get primary knowledge of math’s and physics for engineers.
In 2003 the institute got state accreditation and established a specialised council for conferring advanced academic degree in building mechanics.
Soon our institute will have one more academic building for laboratories and faculties.
Exercise 2.Vocabulary. Learn by heart the following words
6.to enter поступать
8.higher education высшее образование
9.secondary education среднее образование
10.to attend посещать
12.to pass an examination сдать экзамены
13.to fail examination провалить экзамены
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.
1. When was your Institute established?
2. What is the most popular faculty in your Institute?
3. How many people are currently enrolled?
Exercise 4.Put 5 questions on the text
Exercise 5.Chose the antonyms to the words from the column A.
Exercise 6.Think of some questions for the following answers. The answers needn't be true.
Now you begin an institute course of English. It is very important to know what you think about it. Is it necessary for a future engineer to study a foreign language?
a) Read pros and cons given below. Think of some more which are important in your opinion.
a) Discuss the problem in groups of 3-5 students. You may find the following expressions helpful:
I think ...
Speaking for myself...
I'm sure ...
In my opinion ...
My future profession
1. Read and translate the text:
Housing and capital construction is being carried out on a large scale in our country. That is why the building profession attracts many young men and women nowadays. There are many institutes in our country, which train civil and industrial engineers whose profession embraces many fields. A civil engineer constructs and reconstructs residential and industrial buildings, bridges, schools, palaces, museums, theatres, kindergartens and hospitals, power stations, dams, reservoirs and irrigation systems.
Engineers must have a scientific altitude, imagination, initiative and good judgements, obtained by experience and serious work.
They must know mathematics as well as physics and strength of materials. A qualified building worker must be able to read technical drawing. Civil engineers and architects must have some knowledge of sculpture, painting, design and mechanical engineering, geography, city planning, etc.
The successful fulfillment of housing plans in our country is a practical realization of industrialized building method. Nowadays houses are ambled from prefabricated units, which are delivered to the construction site.
Students of building institutes study these new building methods as well as building materials and their use. Students have field courses do practical before graduation. They learn the trade of builder, master professional skills and understand industrial management. They deal with building in warn and humid climates. Outstanding specialists teach them how to build at permafrost, at sea, how to protect buildings from earthquakes, how to preserve environment.
Civil engineers and architects have the main aim - to provide people with all modern conveniences, such as running water, gas, electricity, central heating and so on.
They must create attractive structures. An engineer is engaged to prepare the plan and specifications and usually to supervise the construction of the project. It is the duty of an engineer to design the project, which will most nearly satisfy the needs of the occupants at the lowest practical cost. Civil engineers must not only help to fulfil construction programs but to carry out scientific and research work, to improve building materials and methods.
So as I have been studing in the building institute now, I have to learn various subjects connected with professions of engineers and architects: architectural projecting, drawing geometry, painting, math and so on.
I am fond of art. It is very difficult to say what art is. It has been differently characterized in every epoch of history.
The word art comes from a Latin term meaning ‘skill, way or method’. In ancient times and during the Middle Ages all kinds of trades and professions were known as arts. The liberal arts of the medieval curriculum included music, but neither painting, sculpture, nor architecture, which were numbered among the mechanical arts. Only beginning with the fifteenth century, the term art has taken on as its principle characteristic the requirement of aesthetic appreciation as distinguished from utility.
The word aesthetic arises from a Greek term for ‘perceive’. What perceived aesthetically is ‘beauty’. The ability to embrace human experience and transmit it to the observer distinguishes the work of art. We admire the works of art without knowing anything of their purpose, standing as we do at a totally different moment of history.
There are many works of prehistoric art – like the animals on cave walls and ceiling. We enjoy the works of art that came down to us; the most wonderful are the Seven Wonders of the World, the Old Masters’ works, the Impressionists.
I want to study the works of art of the outstanding painters, sculptors and architects to understand their power over people.
2. Answer these questions and add information to the given text:
1. Explain why you entered architectural faculty?
2. Which is your favourite academic subject and why?
3. What means “scientific work” in the institute?
4. How do you think if your going in for scientific work during studying helps in future? Give the reason.
5. What subjects can help you to obtain skills?
6. What kind of practical experiment during classes will be useful for your profession?
7. What kind of architecture are you interested in: design of interiors, reconstruction of ancient buildings, research work in using of new architectural forms or building materials, city planning, design of landscape or anything else?
8. Where do you prefer to work after graduating from the institute: in the institute, on the building site, in the projecting institute, at the firm?
3. Find English equivalents to the Russian words:
a scale навык
to attract ощущать
to train иметь дело
to embrace создавать
a bridge цель
a kindergarten вечная мерзлота
a power station оросительная система
a dam пещера
a reservoir требование
an irrigation system детский сад
altitude наблюдатель, зритель
to obtain совершенствоваться
to be ambled охватывать
to deliver спецификация
to master доставлять
to deal with защищать
to protect передавать
to preserve восхищаться
to provide with подготавливать
to be engaged соответствовать
to prepare отличать
to supervise возникать
to satisfy сохранять
an occupant хранилище
to fulfil приобретать
to carry out обучать
to improve выполнять
a term воображение
to be numbered составлять
to arise привлекать
to transmit осуществлять
to distinguish обеспечивать
to admire улучшать
a cave быть занятым
to enjoy осуществлять контроль
to create перечислять
4. Find synonyms to the following words: навык (опыт), цель, профессия, обучать, совершенствовать (улучшать).Compose some sentences on the to picof the text using the se words.
5. Define which field of mankind’s activity these word combinations belong to:
Strength of materials, a qualified building worker, technical drawing, mechanical engineering, city planning, housing plan, prefabricated unit, construction site, field course, graduation, professional skill, modern conveniences, running water, electricity, central heating, attractive structure, to design the project, lowest practical cost, construction program, building materials, building methods, architectural projecting, drawing geometry, painting, Middle Ages, liberal art, medieval, curriculum, architecture, century, aesthetic appreciation, utility, Greek, beauty, human experience, Seven Wonders, the Old Masters’ works, the Impressionists.
6. Prove these statements using information from the text and additional one:
1) Housing and capital construction is being carried out on a large scale in our country (Why? In what manner?). 2) Civil engineers and architects must have knowledge of some science and art (What kind of knowledge? What for?). 3) Students of building institute study new building methods, materials and their use (What peculiarities of the builder’s trade?). 4) Civil engineers and architects must create attractive structures with all modern conveniences (What kind? What are differences between these two trades?).
THERE + TO BE
Конструкция there + to be (there is\are) указывает на наличие или отсутствие какого-либо не называвшегося ранее предмета или лица в определенном месте. Английскому предложению с конструкцией there is(are) соответствует русское предложение, которое обычно начинается с обстоятельства места. Конструкция there is (are) переводится словами есть, имеется, находится.
После конструкции there is (are) исчисляемые существительные в единственном числе употребляются с неопределенным артиклем, а исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе и неисчисляемые существительные – с местоимениями some, any.
There is a telephone in that В той комнате есть телефон.
There are some students В библиотеке несколько студентов.
in the library.
There aren`t any children В парке нет детей.
in the park.
There is some tea in the box. В коробке есть немного чая.
Следует иметь в виду, что если речь идет о местоположении конкретного (известного) предмета, то конструкция there is/are не употребляется.
There is a newspaper on На столе газета.
The newspaper is on the table. Газета на столе.
В конструкции there is there не имеет самостоятельного значения, поэтому при переводе на английский язык русских предложений, в которых обстоятельство места выражено наречием там, необходимо в конце предложения употребить наречие there:
There are some students there. Там несколько студентов.
Вопросительная форма предложений с оборотом there is (are) строится следующим образом
Is there a map in your room? В вашей комнате есть карта?
Are there mistakes in his dictation? В его диктанте есть ошибки?
What is there in the bag? Что в сумке?
There are some pupils
in the classroom, aren`t they? В классе ученики, не так ли?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится непосредственно после глагола to be. В разговорной речи употребляется сокращенная отрицательная форма глагола to be.
There is not (is n`t) a book На моем столе нет книги.
on my table.
There are not (aren`t) books На моем столе нет книг.
On my table.
Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного, следующего сразу за ним:
There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.
There are two armchairs and a chair in the room.
There is a picture on the wall. На стене картина.
There are pictures on the wall. На стене картины.
There was a picture on the wall. На стене была картина.
There were pictures on the wall. На стене были картины.
There will be pictures on the wall. На стене будут картины.
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