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Exercise 1. Read and translate the following text




Astrakhan Engineer Building Institute

After finishing secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Vice-rectors are in charge of the academic and scientific work. Higher educational institutions train undergraduates and graduate students in one or several specializations. The faculties are headed by the Deans. There are departments within faculties.

Institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, teachers training colleges, universities which offer master’s and doctoral degrees programmes.

A.E.B.I is one of the youngest state high school. It was founded in 1992 from the building faculty of Technical University and technical college № 12.

It is very difficult for young institute to survive during these years. Because it is state – subsidized and it has to organize some commercial structures in order to get money for buying everything necessary for studing.

In 1997 the institute got two buildings: the main one for academic purpose and a hostel. Originally there was only one faculty in our institute – industrial and civil construction and only two hundred students. Now there are five faculties, thirteen chairs a library, some laboratories, gyms one thousand and five hundred students in it. There faculties are: industrial and civil construction, heat and gas supply and ventilation, water supply and water leading, architecture and design, applied geodesy.

A lot of professors, doctors of science, assistant professors, candidates of science, experienced lectors train and teach students using know-how technology-through projecting and studing.

It means that each student fulfil his project up to the graduating from the institute only learning all academic subjects perfectly and using these knowledge and scientific research exactly and creatively. Every year in April almost all students of the institute take part in scientific technical conference with their research works and scientific reports.

Winners get diplomas and prizes. During the years of studing students get four diplomas – the worker after the first course, the technician after the third course, the bachelor after the forth course and the constructor-engineer after the fifth course.

The institute has got specialized tenth and eleventh classes for pupils who get primary knowledge of math’s and physics for engineers.

In 2003 the institute got state accreditation and established a specialised council for conferring advanced academic degree in building mechanics.

Soon our institute will have one more academic building for laboratories and faculties.

 

Exercise 2.Vocabulary. Learn by heart the following words

1.education образование

2.language язык

3.shop магазин

4.primary начальный

5.entrance вступительный

6.to enter поступать

7.subject предмет

8.higher education высшее образование

9.secondary education среднее образование

10.to attend посещать

11.term семестр

12.to pass an examination сдать экзамены

13.to fail examination провалить экзамены

14.generation поколение

15.foreign иностранный

 

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. When was your Institute established?

2. What is the most popular faculty in your Institute?

3. How many people are currently enrolled?



 

Exercise 4.Put 5 questions on the text

 

Exercise 5.Chose the antonyms to the words from the column A.

А. 1. to complete 2. after 3. to leave 4. to pass an examination 5.to ask 6. much 7. tomorrow 8. here 9. to graduate (from) 10. evening 11. to receive 12. south   Б. 1. to return 2. to fail in an examination 3. to begin 4. before 5. yesterday 6. little 7. to answer 8. to enter 9. morning 10. there 11. bad 12. north

 

Exercise 6.Think of some questions for the following answers. The answers needn't be true.

1. Almost all the students. 2. Between you and me. 3. During the lecture. 4. Either today or tomorrow 5. Very difficult 6. Foreign 7. My friends 8. I don't think so. 9. In the institute. 10. Never.

 

Discussion.

Now you begin an institute course of English. It is very important to know what you think about it. Is it necessary for a future engineer to study a foreign language?

a) Read pros and cons given below. Think of some more which are important in your opinion.

For Against
1. I can read scientific journals in English as soon as they are published 2. I can speak to foreign colleagues if necessary. 3. I can read English books. 4. I can find out more about the world. 1. It takes a lot of time to learn a foreign language. 2. It is impossible to learn a foreign language. 3. I can read interesting articles when they are translated into Russian. 4. I think it is very difficult to learn a foreign language.

a) Discuss the problem in groups of 3-5 students. You may find the following expressions helpful:

I think ...

Speaking for myself...

I suppose...

I'm sure ...

In my opinion ...

 

My future profession

1. Read and translate the text:

Housing and capital construction is being carried out on a large scale in our country. That is why the building profession attracts many young men and women nowadays. There are many institutes in our country, which train civil and industrial engineers whose profession embraces many fields. A civil engineer constructs and reconstructs residential and industrial buildings, bridges, schools, palaces, museums, theatres, kindergartens and hospitals, power stations, dams, reservoirs and irrigation systems.

Engineers must have a scientific altitude, imagination, initiative and good judgements, obtained by experience and serious work.

They must know mathematics as well as physics and strength of materials. A qualified building worker must be able to read technical drawing. Civil engineers and architects must have some knowledge of sculpture, painting, design and mechanical engineering, geography, city planning, etc.

The successful fulfillment of housing plans in our country is a practical realization of industrialized building method. Nowadays houses are ambled from prefabricated units, which are delivered to the construction site.

Students of building institutes study these new building methods as well as building materials and their use. Students have field courses do practical before graduation. They learn the trade of builder, master professional skills and understand industrial management. They deal with building in warn and humid climates. Outstanding specialists teach them how to build at permafrost, at sea, how to protect buildings from earthquakes, how to preserve environment.

Civil engineers and architects have the main aim - to provide people with all modern conveniences, such as running water, gas, electricity, central heating and so on.

They must create attractive structures. An engineer is engaged to prepare the plan and specifications and usually to supervise the construction of the project. It is the duty of an engineer to design the project, which will most nearly satisfy the needs of the occupants at the lowest practical cost. Civil engineers must not only help to fulfil construction programs but to carry out scientific and research work, to improve building materials and methods.

So as I have been studing in the building institute now, I have to learn various subjects connected with professions of engineers and architects: architectural projecting, drawing geometry, painting, math and so on.

I am fond of art. It is very difficult to say what art is. It has been differently characterized in every epoch of history.

The word art comes from a Latin term meaning ‘skill, way or method’. In ancient times and during the Middle Ages all kinds of trades and professions were known as arts. The liberal arts of the medieval curriculum included music, but neither painting, sculpture, nor architecture, which were numbered among the mechanical arts. Only beginning with the fifteenth century, the term art has taken on as its principle characteristic the requirement of aesthetic appreciation as distinguished from utility.

The word aesthetic arises from a Greek term for ‘perceive’. What perceived aesthetically is ‘beauty’. The ability to embrace human experience and transmit it to the observer distinguishes the work of art. We admire the works of art without knowing anything of their purpose, standing as we do at a totally different moment of history.

There are many works of prehistoric art – like the animals on cave walls and ceiling. We enjoy the works of art that came down to us; the most wonderful are the Seven Wonders of the World, the Old Masters’ works, the Impressionists.

I want to study the works of art of the outstanding painters, sculptors and architects to understand their power over people.

 

2. Answer these questions and add information to the given text:

1. Explain why you entered architectural faculty?

2. Which is your favourite academic subject and why?

3. What means “scientific work” in the institute?

4. How do you think if your going in for scientific work during studying helps in future? Give the reason.

5. What subjects can help you to obtain skills?

6. What kind of practical experiment during classes will be useful for your profession?

7. What kind of architecture are you interested in: design of interiors, reconstruction of ancient buildings, research work in using of new architectural forms or building materials, city planning, design of landscape or anything else?

8. Where do you prefer to work after graduating from the institute: in the institute, on the building site, in the projecting institute, at the firm?

 

3. Find English equivalents to the Russian words:

a scale навык

to attract ощущать

to train иметь дело

to embrace создавать

residential жилец

a bridge цель

a kindergarten вечная мерзлота

a power station оросительная система

a dam пещера

a reservoir требование

an irrigation system детский сад

altitude наблюдатель, зритель

imagination власть

initiative термин

judgement способность

to obtain совершенствоваться

experience цель

fulfillment инициатива

to be ambled охватывать

to deliver спецификация

trade дамба

to master доставлять

management суждение

to deal with защищать

humid жилой

to protect передавать

earthquake стремление

to preserve восхищаться

aim почти

to provide with подготавливать

to be engaged соответствовать

to prepare отличать

specification выполнение

to supervise возникать

to satisfy сохранять

nearly профессия

an occupant хранилище

to fulfil приобретать

to carry out обучать

to improve выполнять

a term воображение

skill мост

to be numbered составлять

requirement электростанция

aesthetic опытный

to arise привлекать

perceive влажный

ability руководство

to transmit осуществлять

observer масштаб

to distinguish обеспечивать

to admire улучшать

purpose эстетичный

prehistoric землетрясение

a cave быть занятым

to enjoy осуществлять контроль

power наслаждаться

permafrost доисторический

to create перечислять

 

4. Find synonyms to the following words: навык (опыт), цель, профессия, обучать, совершенствовать (улучшать).Compose some sentences on the to picof the text using the se words.

 

5. Define which field of mankind’s activity these word combinations belong to:

Construction Education Art Epoch-country
       

Strength of materials, a qualified building worker, technical drawing, mechanical engineering, city planning, housing plan, prefabricated unit, construction site, field course, graduation, professional skill, modern conveniences, running water, electricity, central heating, attractive structure, to design the project, lowest practical cost, construction program, building materials, building methods, architectural projecting, drawing geometry, painting, Middle Ages, liberal art, medieval, curriculum, architecture, century, aesthetic appreciation, utility, Greek, beauty, human experience, Seven Wonders, the Old Masters’ works, the Impressionists.

6. Prove these statements using information from the text and additional one:

1) Housing and capital construction is being carried out on a large scale in our country (Why? In what manner?). 2) Civil engineers and architects must have knowledge of some science and art (What kind of knowledge? What for?). 3) Students of building institute study new building methods, materials and their use (What peculiarities of the builder’s trade?). 4) Civil engineers and architects must create attractive structures with all modern conveniences (What kind? What are differences between these two trades?).

GRAMMAR

THERE + TO BE

Конструкция there + to be (there is\are) указывает на наличие или отсутствие какого-либо не называвшегося ранее предмета или лица в определенном месте. Английскому предложению с конструкцией there is(are) соответствует русское предложение, которое обычно начинается с обстоятельства места. Конструкция there is (are) переводится словами есть, имеется, находится.

После конструкции there is (are) исчисляемые существительные в единственном числе употребляются с неопределенным артиклем, а исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе и неисчисляемые существительные – с местоимениями some, any.

There is a telephone in that В той комнате есть телефон.

room.

There are some students В библиотеке несколько студентов.

in the library.

There aren`t any children В парке нет детей.

in the park.

There is some tea in the box. В коробке есть немного чая.

 

Следует иметь в виду, что если речь идет о местоположении конкретного (известного) предмета, то конструкция there is/are не употребляется.

There is a newspaper on На столе газета.

the table.

The newspaper is on the table. Газета на столе.

В конструкции there is there не имеет самостоятельного значения, поэтому при переводе на английский язык русских предложений, в которых обстоятельство места выражено наречием там, необходимо в конце предложения употребить наречие there:

There are some students there. Там несколько студентов.

Вопросительная форма предложений с оборотом there is (are) строится следующим образом

Общий вопрос:

Is there a map in your room? В вашей комнате есть карта?

Are there mistakes in his dictation? В его диктанте есть ошибки?

Специальный вопрос:

What is there in the bag? Что в сумке?

Разделительный вопрос:

There are some pupils

in the classroom, aren`t they? В классе ученики, не так ли?

 

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится непосредственно после глагола to be. В разговорной речи употребляется сокращенная отрицательная форма глагола to be.

There is not (is n`t) a book На моем столе нет книги.

on my table.

There are not (aren`t) books На моем столе нет книг.

On my table.

Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного, следующего сразу за ним:

There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.

There are two armchairs and a chair in the room.

Present Simple

There is a picture on the wall. На стене картина.

There are pictures on the wall. На стене картины.

Past Simple

There was a picture on the wall. На стене была картина.

There were pictures on the wall. На стене были картины.

Future Simple

There will be pictures on the wall. На стене будут картины.

 





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