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Степени сравнения прилагательных




Прилагательное в английском языке не имеет категорий рода, числа, падежа. Его единственными словоизменительными формами являются формы степеней сравнения (Degrees of Comparison). Степени сравнения образуются главным образом от качественных прилагательных.

Прилагательное имеет три степени сравнения: положительную (the Positive Degree), сравнительную (the Comparative Degree), превосходную(the Superlative Degree).

1. Если форма прилагательного в положительной степени состоит из одного слога, форма его сравнительной степени образуется при помощи суффикса – er, а форма превосходной степени при помощи суффикса – est, которые прибавляются к основе формы положительной степени.

 

Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная

степень степень степень

 

strong stronger (the) strongest

(сильный) (сильнее, (самый сильный.

более сильный) сильнейший)

long longer (the) longest

(длинный) (длиннее) (самый длинный)

 

2. Двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на гласный звук или словообразующий сонат:

happy happier (the) happiest

(счастливый) (счастливее) (самый

счастливый)

pretty prettier (the) pretties

(прелестный) (прелестный) (самый

прелестный)

narrow narrower (the) narrowest

(узкий) (уже, более (самый узкий)

узкий)

clever cleverer (the) cleverest

(умный) (умнее) (самый умный)

simple simpler (the) simplest

(простой) (проще) (самый простой)

более простой)

Двусложные прилагательные, несущие ударение на втором слоге:

complete completer (the) completest

(совершенный) (совершеннее, (самый совершенный)

Более совершенный)

polite politer (the) politest

(вежливый) (вежливее, (самый вежливый)

Более вежливый)

Но также: more polite, (the) most polite.

3. Все многосложные и некоторые двусложные прилагательные образуют степени сравнения при помощи moreиmost:

Hopeful more hopeful (the) most hopeful

Beautiful more beautiful the) most beautiful

(красивый) (красивее, (самый красивый)

более красивый)

4. От некоторых прилагательных формы степеней сравнения образуются особо, и эти прилагательные нужно сразу запоминать во всех формах

 

Особые случаи образования степеней

Сравнения прилагательных

Положительная степень Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень
Good Хороший Better Более хороший, (the) best самый хороший
Bad плохой Worse Более плохой (the) worst самый плохой
Little маленький Less Меньше, меньший (the) least самый маленький
Much (many) много More больше (the) most больше всего, самый большой
Far дальний Further farther дальше (the) furthest (the) farthest Самыйдалекий

 



Прилагательное old имеет две формы степеней сравнения older – (the) oldest, elder – (theeldest).

Формы elder и eldest употребляются только в функции определения для обозначения старшего по возрасту в семье, а также старшего по рангу. Во всех остальных случаях употребляются формы older и (the) oldest.

My elder brother is four years older than Jam.

При образовании степеней сравнения соблюдаются следующие орфографические правила:

Big – bigger – (the) biggest

Red – redder – (the) reddest

2)конечное немое е опускается:

brave – braver – (the) bravest

nice – nicer – (the) nicest

3) конечная буква у, если ей предшествует согласная, переходит в i:

busy – busier – (the) busiest

easy – easier – (the) easiest

буква у не меняется, если ей предшествует гласная:

dry-drier-driest

 

Exercise 1. Compare these materials. Make sentences:

Example: 1. Paper is more combustible than glass.

1. paper/ glass – combustible

2. rubber/ steel – rigid

3. glass/ wood – brittle

4. steel/ gold – expensive

5. wood/ concrete – heavy

6. steel/ lead – hard

 

Exercise 2. Complete these sentences. Use the comparative of the words in brackets + than

Model: Her illness was more serious than we at first thought.(serious)

1. Sorry I am late. It took me … to get here … I expected. (long)

2. My toothache is … it was yesterday. (painful)

3. She looks about 20, but in fact she is much … she looks. (old)

4. The problem is not so complicated. It is … you think. (simple)

5. Your English has improved. You speak a lot … you did when we last met. (fluently)

6. Health and happiness are … money. (important)

7. We always go camping when we go on holiday. It is much … staying in a hotel. (cheap)

8. I like the countryside. It is … and … living in a town. (healthy\peasful)

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with a superlative and preposition.

Model: It is a very nice room. It is the nicest room in the hotel.

 

1. It is a very cheap restaurant. It is … the town.

2. It was a very happy day. It was … my life.

3. She is a very intelligent student. She … the school.

4. It is a very valuable painting. It … the gallery.

Exercise 4. Translate into English

1. Лучшие студенты нашего института поедут в Лондон в следующем году.

2. Кремль является самым красивым архитектурным сооружением в нашем городе.

3. Команда КВН нашего института является одной из самых известных.

4. Расстояние между Москвой и Санкт-Петербургом меньше, чем от Москвы до Астрахани.

5. Астрахань – один из красивейших городов России.

Unit3

1. Read and translate the text:

 

OUR COUNTRY RUSSIA

Our country Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It lies both in Europe and Asia. Its territory covers 17.075 million square km.

The population of Russia is 146.5 million, of which 83 per cent are Russians. There are 21.030 towns and cities in this country. Moscow is its capital. 8.879.000 people live in Moscow.

The country is bounded by many countries on the land and it is washed by three oceans. The largest seaports are Murmansk, St.Petersburg, Vladivostok and Novorossiysk.

The climate of our country greatly differs from one part to another. The western part of the country is warmer in summer then the eastern part. The climate on the Black Sea is subtropical. Some northern and southern parts are very cold or very hot. In general we can say that winters are cold, windy and snowy, and summers are hot and dry. Autumn brings rains and fogs. The coldest point of the northern hemisphere where temperatures are minus 70C is located in Siberia.

Some parts of the country are covered with mountains and hills. Large regions in the north, south and in the east are not very good for man and few people live there. It is difficult to develop agriculture in these regions, but many young strong and optimist minded people go there to build new towns, railways, plants and canals.

Russia has many rivers. Twenty-two of them are more then one thousand kilometers long. They flow into seas or oceans carrying ships and boats to large and small parts to develop new industrial centers. The most important river of the European system is the Volga which takes the first place in Europe for length and for size of its basing. The rivers of the European part of the country are joined by a network of excellent canals forming a deep-water shipping system that connects the White, Baltic, Caspian, Black and Azov Seas. Western Siberia has some of the greatest rivers in the world, including the Ob- Irtysh system and the Jenissei. There are about 250 thousands lakes in the country. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world (1.620).

Russia is very rich in natural resources such as oil, iron ore, gas, copper, lead, zinc, rare metals, phosphorities, diamonds and gold. Many branches of industry are developed in the country: ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, the automobile industry, the electronic and radio engineering industry, the gas industry, the medical industry, etc. The main branches of development in agriculture are cattle-breeding, poultry farming, gardening and vegetable growing.

The Russia Federation is a presidential republic. The president is the head of state and elected directly by the people.

The Federal Assembly represents the legislative branch of power. It is made up of two houses: the Federation Council and the Duma which makes laws. The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The Supreme Court represents the judicial branch of power.

Our scientists have already made a great deal of outstanding discoveries which have greatly influenced world science and helped mankind to achieve greater progress in understanding the world around us. One cannot help mentioning the launching of the great man-made Earth satellite and the first flight of man into outer space, the construction of the first atomic station and atomic ice-breaker, the development of lasers, etc. Today, lasers are used in electronics, medicine, communication, in the automobile industry, in agricultural and industrial machine buildings.

The laser measurement of distances has become a new method in the exploration of the Earth-Moon system. It will give us a better understanding of the laws governing the movements of the Earth and the Moon. Automatic manipulators, or robots, are very much spoken about these days. This is because more and more robots are used to make people work easier. The latest working robots can “see” and can “be talked to”. A lot of robots have been built in our country for industry, transport, medicine, agriculture. Progress in technology will continue and the time will come when most of the industrial operations being performed by robots.

The cultural development of each nation is based on its own cultural heritage and is enlarged through its contacts with cultural achievements of the other peoples. These are about 1300 museums in Russia, one of the world’s famous being the St. Petersburg Hermitage. It would be hard to find a town in Russia that does not have its own theatres. The Russian theatrical and musical arts have world fame. The whole world knows about the brilliant actors and ensembles, theatres and bands-the Bolshoi Theatre, the Mali Theatre, the Vahtangov Theatre, the Moiseyev Dance Ensemble, the Obraztsov puppet theatre, etc. A wide network of public libraries, clubs, houses and palaces of culture provides a high level of cultural development of the people. The centres help to broaden the cultural horizonts and to develop artistic abilities. Young people who show interest in amateur art go in for painting, dancing or singing. They attend drama, dance, ballet or singing groups at special clubs.

The development of physical culture and sport is made possible due to improving sports facilities which include a great number of first – class stadiums, sport fields, grounds, gyms, swimming-pools, skating – rinks, etc. Millions of people go in for track-and-field athletics, volley-ball, foot-ball, skiing, figure skating, etc. Practically none of the international competitions is conceivable without the participation of Russian sportsmen.

Today 66 kinds of sport are practiced in our country including tradition types of the national sports.

 

1. Find English equivalents to the Russian words:

покрывать development

население length

процент few

столица in general

граничить (иметь границы с) to provide

отличаться governing

в общем fame

мало conceivable

развивать to influence

строить to elect

впадать to build

длина achievement

размер to include

объединять network

сеть to perform

превосходный exploration

избирать deal

вклад discovery

выдающийся level

открытие movement

влиять to be bounded

человечество capital

достигать to cover

развитие heritage

исследование to enlarge

движение famous

управление population

измерение per cent

выполнять to differ

наследство size

увеличиваться to develop

достижение excellent

знаменитый mankind

слава outstanding

обеспечивать ability

уровень participation

способность to achieve

посещать, заниматься to attend

включать to join

мыслимый to flow

участие measurement

 

2. Define which field of mankind’s activity these words belong to:

national economy natural resources industry agriculture Power science culture sport
                   

agriculture, oil, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, cattle-breeding, state, launching, puppet theatre, facilities, iron, poultry farming, satellite, swimming-pool, railways, automobile, Federal Assambly, library, represent, cooper, legislative, ship, lead, electronic, executive, outer space, gyms, boat, zinc, radioengineering, rare metals, ice-breaker, skating-rinks, basing, Federation Council, deep-water shipping system, law, phosphorities, amateur art, Federal Government, diamonds, Supreme Court, gold, gardening and vegetable growing, track-and- field athletics, judicial, competition.

 

3. Answer the questions to the text:

1. Where is Russia situated? 2. How many people live in Russia? 3. How many towns and cities are there in Russia? 4. What oceans wash Russia? 5. Why is the western part warmer in summer then the eastern part? 6. What is weather like in autumn, spring, winter and summer in Russia? 7. Why do only a few people live on the suburbs of Russia? 8. What is the Volga River famous for? 9. What is the aim of forming a deep-water shipping system in the European part of Russia? 10. Is there any shipping system like European one in Asian part of Russia? 11. What natural resources is Russia rich in? 12. What represents the legislative branch of power? 13. The Federal Government represents the judicial branch of power, doesn’t it? 14. What represents the judicial branch of power? 15. What is the aim of science? 16. What great discoveries in science do you know? 17. What area of lazer’s using do you know? 18. Where can people use robots? 19. What provides a high level of cultural development of the people? 20. Why none of the international competitions are conceivable without the participation of Russian sportsmen?

 

4. Insert the missing words:

1. There are … in our country. 2. The largest seaports are … 3. Optimist minded people go to Siberia to … 4. Twenty-two rivers in Russia are … 5. Lake Baikal is … 6. Many branches of industry are developed in Russia … 7. The Russia Federation is … 8. The Federal Assambly is made up … 9. Outstanding discoveries helped … 10. The lazer measurement of distance … . 11. More and more robots are used to … 12. The cultural development of each nation … . 13. There are … in Russia. 14. The whole world knows about … 15. The development of physical culture and sport is … .

5. Using information from the text, the table from ex.2 compose a dialog for 8 students, discussing national economy, natural resources, industry, agriculture, power, science, culture, sport.

6. Divide the text about Russia into some logical parts give the title to each of them and speak about the main information about your motherland according your plan.

7. Listen to the text and answer the questions to the test “UK Political system”:

Key-words to the text:

chamber – палата

initiating – внесение предложений

directing – управление

local authority – местная власть

public corporation – общественное объединение

determine – определять

independent – независимость

derive – брать, заимствовать

support – поддерживать

appoint – назначать

constituency – избирательный округ

hereditary – наследственный

 

Test

“UK Political system”

 

1. What form of government is there in Great Britain?

a. parliamentary democracy

b. constitutional parliament

c. monarchy parliament

 

2. What are the organs of government in Britain?

a. public corporations and local authorities

b. Parliament, the judiciary, the executive

c. the supreme authority

 

3. What elements does the British Parliament consist of?

a. Prime Minister and the cabinet

b. national policy and government departments

c. the House of Lords, the House of Commons, the Queen

 

4. What is the legislature?

a. chambers

b. government

c. Parliament

 

5. What does the executive consist of?

a. Queen and her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition

b. Prime Minister, the Cabinet and ministers

c. The House of Commons and the House of Lords

 

6. Were does the Government derive its authority from?

a. House of Commons

b. Parliament

c. House of Lords

 

7. How often must a general election be held?

a. every year

b. every five months

c. every five years

 

8. Who becomes a leader of Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition?

a. leader and “Shadow Cabinet”

b. “Shadow Cabinet”

c. “Shadow Cabinet” and ministers

 

9. What is the peculiarity of the British Constitution?

a. constitution

b. general election

c. customs, traditions

 

8. Compose a dialog about the differences in political systems of Russia and Great Britain. Imagine that one of you is a member of Russian Duma and another one is a member of British Parliament. Speak about the head of the government, constitution, legislature, executive and judiciary.

 





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