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MOSCOW

Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. The history of Moscow is connected with the history of Russia. In 1237 Moscow fell under the yoke of the Tatars. And it was Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory over the invaders in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.

By the 15-th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan III that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. At that time the Kremlin was rebuilt and the largest Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.

During the Time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky.

In 1812 the Napoleonic army entered Moscow. The city was set ablaze. The army had to retreat. That was a poor substitute for the military triumph in Russia, so much desired by Napoleon.

Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is a political, administrative, economic, educational and cultural centre of the country.

There are many places of interest in Moscow. The city is famous for its historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres. The Historical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous. Moscow is proud of the Bolshoi, Mali and Art theatres. Moscow is an industrial centre with highly developed engineering, electric, light and chemical industries.

Moscow is a scientific centre too. The Russian Academy of Sciences, the oldest university, many schools of higher learning, colleges and scientific institutions are located here.

Moscow is the country’s largest sports centre. It often becomes a scene of international sports festivals.

 

Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer.

1. When was Moscow first mentioned in the records?

a) 1380 b) 980 c) 1147

2. Who headed the liberation movement in the 14th century?

a) Prince Dminry Donskoy

b) Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky

c) Ivan III

3. When did Moscow become the capital of Russia?

a) in the 15th century

b) in the 12th century

c) in the 16th century

4. What happened to Moscow in September of 1812?

a) rebuilt b) set ablase с) a great festival was held

 

Exercise 3.Rearrange the given dates in the proper historical order:

1237; 1380; 1147; 1812; the 15th century

 

Exercise 4.Write a list of your favourite Moscow sights.

Discussion

In the 20th century cities grow very quickly. People from villages move to towns and cities. But still some people living in cities dream of having a house in the country. Is it better to live in a big city or in the country ?

b) Read the following pros and cons. Think of some more.

 

It is better to live in a big city It is better to live in the country
For For
1. Numerous cultural centres. 2. Various sport facilities. 3. Many professions to take. 1. Fresh air and beautiful nature. 2. One can have a lot of physical activity, working in the garden, etc. 3. Actors,even theatres sometimes give their perfomances just in the place you live.
Against Against
1. You suffer from noise and air pollution. 2. You have to cover too long distances every day. 3. You are always in a hurry.   1. It takes a lot of time to get to town. 2. You have to get up very early in the morning. 3. In summer you are very busy working in the fields, in the garden.

Exercise 3.Find equivalents of Russian words



1.значение a)establishment, b)significance, c)reason

2.маршрут a)route, b)scale, c)channel, d)feature

3.качество a)reason, b)quality, c)member, d)influence

4.решать a)to master, b)to turn, c)to solve, d)to obtain

5.соединять a)to link, b)to clear, c)to care, d)to split

6.средство a)branch, b)improvement, c)means, d)length

7.несколько a)permanent, b)each, c)enough, c)several

8.район a)facility, b)district, c)admission, d)discovery

9.расширять(ся) a)to exist, b)to remain, c)to seat, d)to expand

10.облегчать a)to unite, b)to go on, c)to facilitate, d)to wear

 

Exercise 4. Find equivalents of Russian words

поэтому to win

облегчать successful

оправдывать piece

работа feature

расширять that is why

множество, изобилие to facilitate

значение job

позади previous

выиграть used to

ценный to expand

верить to justify

особенность significance

по направлению к to expect

предыдущий valuable

бывало behind

успешный convenient

ожидать to believe

удобный to choose

выбирать towards

кусок plenty of

GRAMMAR

Времена английского глагола

Таблица временных форм глагола

Время Простое Simple Длительное Progressive Завершенное Perfect
Настоящее Present I write Я пишу (вообще, обычно) I am writing Япишу (сейчас) I have written Я (уже) написал
Прошедшее Past I wrote Я (на) писал (вчера) I was writing Я писал (в тот момент) I had written Я написал (уже к тому моменту)
Будущее Future I shall/will write Я напишу, буду писать (завтра) I shall/will be writing Я буду писать (в тот момент) I shall/will have written Я напишу (уже к тому моменту)

 

ГРУППА ВРЕМЕННЫХ ФОРМ SIMPLE





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