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Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. The history of Moscow is connected with the history of Russia. In 1237 Moscow fell under the yoke of the Tatars. And it was Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory over the invaders in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.
By the 15-th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan III that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. At that time the Kremlin was rebuilt and the largest Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.
During the Time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky.
In 1812 the Napoleonic army entered Moscow. The city was set ablaze. The army had to retreat. That was a poor substitute for the military triumph in Russia, so much desired by Napoleon.
Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is a political, administrative, economic, educational and cultural centre of the country.
There are many places of interest in Moscow. The city is famous for its historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres. The Historical Museum, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the Tretyakov State Picture Gallery are world famous. Moscow is proud of the Bolshoi, Mali and Art theatres. Moscow is an industrial centre with highly developed engineering, electric, light and chemical industries.
Moscow is a scientific centre too. The Russian Academy of Sciences, the oldest university, many schools of higher learning, colleges and scientific institutions are located here.
Moscow is the country’s largest sports centre. It often becomes a scene of international sports festivals.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct answer.
1. When was Moscow first mentioned in the records?
a) 1380 b) 980 c) 1147
2. Who headed the liberation movement in the 14th century?
a) Prince Dminry Donskoy
b) Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky
c) Ivan III
3. When did Moscow become the capital of Russia?
a) in the 15th century
b) in the 12th century
c) in the 16th century
4. What happened to Moscow in September of 1812?
a) rebuilt b) set ablase с) a great festival was held
Exercise 3.Rearrange the given dates in the proper historical order:
1237; 1380; 1147; 1812; the 15th century
Exercise 4.Write a list of your favourite Moscow sights.
In the 20th century cities grow very quickly. People from villages move to towns and cities. But still some people living in cities dream of having a house in the country. Is it better to live in a big city or in the country ?
b) Read the following pros and cons. Think of some more.
Exercise 3.Find equivalents of Russian words
1.значение a)establishment, b)significance, c)reason
2.маршрут a)route, b)scale, c)channel, d)feature
3.качество a)reason, b)quality, c)member, d)influence
4.решать a)to master, b)to turn, c)to solve, d)to obtain
5.соединять a)to link, b)to clear, c)to care, d)to split
6.средство a)branch, b)improvement, c)means, d)length
7.несколько a)permanent, b)each, c)enough, c)several
8.район a)facility, b)district, c)admission, d)discovery
9.расширять(ся) a)to exist, b)to remain, c)to seat, d)to expand
10.облегчать a)to unite, b)to go on, c)to facilitate, d)to wear
Exercise 4. Find equivalents of Russian words
поэтому to win
расширять that is why
множество, изобилие to facilitate
выиграть used to
ценный to expand
верить to justify
по направлению к to expect
ожидать to believe
удобный to choose
кусок plenty of
Времена английского глагола
Таблица временных форм глагола
ГРУППА ВРЕМЕННЫХ ФОРМ SIMPLE
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