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From the History of Building




Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as peo­ple live in today. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and trees and began to build houses out of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.

Later people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt espe­cially, people learned to use these sun-dried mud. bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.

The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The great­est tomb is the stone *pyramid of Khufu1, king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to conmemorate their kings or pharaohs.

The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for de­coration. Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece.

Whereas the ancient Greeks tried to embody the idea of harmony and pure beauty in their buildings, the Roman architecture produces the impression of greatness, might, and practicalness.

The Romans were great bridge, harbour and road builders. In road works the Romans widely used timber piles. They also erected aqueducts, reservoirs, water tanks, etc. Some of their constructions are used till now. It is known that the manufacture of lime is one of the oldest industries used by man. Lime is a basic building material used all over the world as today so in the ancient world. One of the Romans, Marcus Porcius Cato, gave an idea of a kiln for lime, pro­duction: it's shape and dimensions. They are rough cylindrical or rectangular structures, built of stone in a hillside with an arched opening at the front to enable the fire to be made and the lime to be withdrawn. Such kilns were fired with wood or coal and were ex­tremely inefficient. There are still many remains of kilns in some places of Great Britain as well as roads and the famous Hadrian Wall, which was erected to protect the Romans from the Celtic tribes in the first century A.D. Britain was a province of the Roman Empire for abo at four centuries. There are many things today in Britain to remind the people of the Romans: towns, roads, wells and the words.

By the way, Hadrian, the Roman emperor, was also the one who suggested the absolutely new for that time idea of building the Pan­theon with a dome. He constructed it, and alongside with a number of other outstanding buildings such as the Colosseum and the Baths of Caracalla, it is still there in Rome. Many ancient buildings in Rome were designed by Hadrian as well as by other Roman emper­ors. In a period of 800 to 900 years the Romans developed concrete to the position of the main structural material in the empire.

It is surprising, therefore, that after the fall of the Empire, much of the great knowledge should have disappeared so completely. The knowl­edge of how to make durable concrete has been lost for centuries, *but mention was made of it in the writings of architects from time to time2.

Fusion of Roman and North European traditions in construction was reflected in many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of Nothern Europe. Roman traditions were con­tinued in the architectural form known as Romanesque. London Bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches with its piers resting on broad foundation, which was designed *to withstand the Thames current3.



The Romanian period was followed by other periods each of which produced its own type of architecture and building materials. During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel as a building material.

Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone arid much stronger than they are. The earliest findings of concrete building fragments belonging to prehistoric times were discovered in Mexico and Peru. The Egyptians in the construc­tion of bridges, roads and town walls employed it. There are evi­dences that ancient Greeks also used concrete in the building pur­poses. The use of concrete by the ancient Romans can be traced back as far as 500 B.C. *They were the first to use4 it throughout the ancient Roman Empire *on a pretty large scale5 and many construc­tions made of concrete remain till nowadays thus proving the long life of buildings made of concrete. Of course, it was not the concrete people use today. It consisted of mud, clay and pure lime, which were used to hold together the roughly broken stone in foundations and walls. It was the so-called "pseudo concrete". The idea of such building material might have been borrowed from the ancient Greeks as some samples of it were found in the ruins of Pompeii.

2. Л few explanations to the text

1____ pyramid of Khufu—пирамида Хуфу

2. ...to withstand the Thames current. — ...чтобы
противостоять течению Темзы.

3....but mention was made of it in the writings of architects from time to time— новремяотвремениможновстретитьупоминаниеобэтомвработаархитекторов.

4.They were the first to use... — они первыми использовали

5......... on a pretty large scale— в-довольно широких

масштабах

3. Key vocabulary / expressions „ .

art of building — искусство строить' '
brick [brik]—n кирпич . -

borrow ['borou] — v (from) занимать, заимствовать

concreten['konkrit]- бетон

dome[doum]—купол

dwell [dwel]—vжить, проживать,

embody [im'bodi]—vолицетворять, воплощать .

erect [i'rekt]—v возводить,.строить

find [faind]—v (out) обнаружить, найти

kiln [kiln]—n обжиговая печь, сушильная печь

pile [pail] — nсвая, столб

pillar — nстолб, колонна

remains [ri' meinz] — n остатки, руины

tribe[traib]—племя

5. Translate the extract into Russian

The term "civil engineering" is usually applied to such activi­ties as the excavation and then the construction of different buildings, bridges, roads, docks, harbours and embankments as well as to the water control by dams and reservoirs, canals and aque­ducts, pipelines and the reclamation of land. By the way: What does the international word "reclamation" mean here? Explain it in the most detailed way in Russian.

6. Learn to recognize international words. Give Russian equivalents to the following words without a dictionary

harmony reservoir
tradition manufacture [msnju'fasktfa]
decoration fragment
aqueduct f'aekwidAk]" method
idea period
tank strusture
position arch

7. Find the corresponding Russian meaning of the interna­
tional words given above in ex.5. Start compiling your own
vocabulary of international words.

ex. business -biznis

1)бизнес, торговля, коммерческая деятельность

2)коммерческое, торговое предприятие, фирма

3)(выгодная) сделка

4)дело, занятие, профессия

8. Explain in English the meaning of the following words:

sun-dried mud bricks _.___________ .______

timber piles___________________________

pseudo concrete._______________________

the ruins of Pompeii____________________

 

 

GRAMMAR

Perfects

1.The Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, совершившегося к настоящему моменту, результат которого имеется налицо в настоящем времени. Действие могло совершиться как непосредственно перед моментом речи, так и более отдаленное время в прошлом. При употреблении Present Perfect говорящий обращает внимание собеседника на результат, вытекающий из совершенного действия, а не на время его совершения. Наличие результата связывает совершившееся действие, выраженное Present Perfect, с настоящим.

I have broken my pencil Я сломал свой карандаш.

(Говорящий имеет в виду конкретный результат действия have broken, а именно, что карандаш сломан. Он мог бы это также выразить предложением: My pencil is broken. Мой карандаш сломан.)

2. В зависимости от значения глагола результат действия, выраженного в Present Perfect, может и не быть конкретным, как в приведенных примерах, а выражаться иным образом:

I have not read that book Я не читала этой книги.

(Говорящий хочет сообщить, что книга им не прочитана, т.е. что он не знает ее содержания. Он мог бы это выразить также предложением: I don’t know the contents of that book. Я не знаю содержания этой книги.)

3. Present Perfect употребляется для выражения как однократного действия, так и действия, повторявшегося несколько раз:

I have read that book twice. Я прочитал эту книгу дважды.

I have seen this film three times. Я видел этот фильм три раза.

Примечание. И Present Perfect и Past Simple соответствуют в русском языке прошедшему времени. Однако Past Simple и Present Perfect коренным образом отличаются друг от друга. Past Simple выражает действие, совершившееся в истекшем отрезке времени, констатирует факт совершения действия в прошлом. Поэтому Past Simple употребляется в повествовании. Present Perfect выражает действие, хотя и совершившееся в прошлом, но связанное с настоящим благодаря наличию его результата в настоящем времени. Поэтому Present Perfect употребляется не в повествовании, а в разговоре или сообщении, касающемся положения вещей в настоящее время.

 

Present Perfect Past Simple
I have finished my work and am going home now. Я окончил свою работу и иду теперь домой. The manager has signed the letter. Can you post it at once? Заведующий подписал мое письмо. Не можете ли вы отправить его немедленно? - Has the steamer arrived? - No, it hasn’t - Пароход прибыл? - Нет. I finished my work and went home. Я окончил свою работу и ушел домой. The manager signed letter, and I posted it at once. Заведующий подписал письмо, и я отправил его немедленно. - Did the steamer arrive yesterday? - No, it didn’t. - Пароход прибыл вчера? - Нет.

 

Сводка случаев употребления Present Perfect

1. Действие, результат которого имеется в настоящем (в русском языке соответствует прошедшему времени) 2. Вместо Present Perfect Continuous (в русском языке соответствует настоящему времени) 3. Будущее совершенное действие в придаточных предложениях времени и условия (в русском языке соответствует будущему времени) I have written the letter; here it is.   I have know him for three years.     After I have read the book, I’ll give it to you.   Я написал письмо; вот оно.   Я знаю его три года.   После того, как я прочту эту книгу, я дам ее вам.

 

Exercise 1. Put in the correct verb for:

I’ve done (I/do) all the housework. The flat is really clean now.

A young couple bought (buy) the house next door. But they didn’t live there long.

1. Our visitors ………………………… (arrive). They’re sitting in the garden.

2. There’s still a problem with the television. Someone …………………………. (repair) it, but then it broke down again.

3. …………………………… (I/lose) my bank card. I can’t find it anywhere.

4. The match …………………………… (start). United are playing well.

5. My sister ……… (run) away from home. But she came back two days later.

6. Daniel …... (earn) some money last week. But I’m afraid he’s already spent it all.

7. ……………… (we/plant) an apple tree in the garden. Unfortunately it died.

8. Prices …………………… (go) up. Everything is more expensive this year.

9. Someone ……………………… (run) on the hi-fi. What’s that song called?

10. …………….. (I/phone) the office at eleven to speak to the manager, but he isn’t there today.

11. ………………………… (I/make) a cake. Would you like a piece?

12. The runner Amos Temila ……………….(break) the world record for the 1500 metres in Frankfurt. Then two days later in Helsinki, Lee Williams ran it in an even faster time.

Exercise 2. Things that have happened today are on the radio and TV news. Give the news using the present perfect and past simple:

the Prime Minister/visit Luton University/speak to students there/earlier today

The Prime Minister has visited Luton University. He spoke to students there earlier today.

1. the train drives / go on strike / stop work / at twelve o’clock

2. the Queen / arrive in Toronto / fly there / in an RAF aircraft

3. two men / escape from Parkhurst Prison / get away / during the night

4. the actor Howard Bates / die in a car accident / his car / crash into a wall

5. Linda Jones / win the women’s marathon / run it / in 2 hours 27 minutes.

 

Exercise 3. Complete this letter to a newspaper. Put in the present perfect or past simple:

A few days ago learned (learn) that someone plans to knock down the White Horse Inn. This pub has been (be) the centre of village life for centuries. It …………………………….. (stand) at our crossroads for 500 years. It ……………………………. (be) famous in the old days, and Shakespeare once ……………………………. (stay) there, they say. I ……………………………… (live) in Brickfield all my life. The villagers ………………………………… (know) about the plans for less than a week and already there’s a ‘Save our Pub’ campaign. Last week we …………………………………. (be) happy, but this week we’re angry. We will stop them, you’ll see.

 

Exercise 4. Put in this, last, today or yesterday:

Last month prices went up, but this month they have fallen a little.

1. It’s been dry so far ……………… week, but ………… week was very wet.

2. I went shopping earlier …………. and spent all the money I earned ……….

3. We didn’t have many visitors …….. year. We’ve had a lot more …… year.

4. I don’t feel so tired now. We got up quite late ……… morning. I left really tired …….. when we got up so early.

 

Exercise 5. Decide which word is correct:

I’d like to borrow this book. Has Anna read it yet?

a) done b) for c) just d) yet

1. Ben writes very quickly. He’s ……………… finished his essay.

a) already b) been c) for d) yet

2. What are you going to do? ~ I don’t know. I haven’t decided…………..

a) just b) long c) since d) yet

3. I’ve ……………………………. to London. I went there in June.

a) been b) gone c) just d) yet

4. Have you ………………………….. done any skiing?

a) ever b) for c) just d) long

5. My boyfriend hasn’t rung ………………………………. week.

a) for b) last c) since d) this

6. I haven’t seen that coat before. How ………………………. have you had it?

a) already b) for c) long d) since

7. The girls have ……… to the cinema. They won’t be back until ten o’clock.

a) already b) been c) gone d) just

8. I haven’t seen my parents ………………………………. last Christmas.

a) already b) before c) for d) since

9. This is the first …………………………… I’ve ever lived away from home.

a) already b) since c) that d) time

10. This program me must be new. I’ve ……………………… seen it before.

a) ever b) never c) since d) yet

 

Exercise 6. Some of these sentences are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If the sentence is correct, put a tick (٧) If it is incorrect, cross the unnecessary have of has out of the sentence and write it in the space:

Susan has lost her keys. She can’t find them anywhere. ٧

Christopher has hurt his hand, but it’s OK now. has

1. The directors have arrived half an hour ago, but they didn’t ……..…………

stay long.

2. It’s raining, and Peter has left his umbrella behind, look. ………………..

3. It’s a long time since your friends last visited us. ………………..

4. None of you have called me for weeks. Aren’t we friends ...……………...

any more?

5. We can play tennis now. The others have finished. ………………..

6. The company has bought some land, but then it sold it. ………………..

7. The computer isn’t on now. Someone has turned it off. ………………..

8. Tessa has posted the parcel. It’s on its way to you. ………………..

9. Several bombs have gone off in the city centre. It has happened an hour ago. ………………..

10. Simon has left. He and Oliver have left after lunch. ………………..

 

Past Perfect

The Past Perfect Tense образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to have в форме прошедшего времени (had) и формы причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола: I had worked, he had done.

В вопросительной форме вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим: Had you worked? Had he done?

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола: I had not worked.

Past Perfect употребляется только в повествовании, в рассказах, повестях и т.д. (only in the narrative).

Форма Past Perfect употребляется:

1. когда нужно показать, что данное действие или событие кончилось к какому-то моменту в прошлом.

Определенный момент в прошлом может быть выражен обстоятельством времени с предлогом by (к):

By that time к тому времени

by10 o’clock к десяти часам

by the end of the week к концу недели

by the beginning of last year к началу прошлого года

by 1998 к 1998году

 

They had completed their work by Они закончили свою работу к

12 o’clock. 12 часам.

By the end of the year I had learned К концу года я выучила много

many English words and expressions. английских слов и выражений.

This article had been translated into Эта статья была переведена на

English by 2 o’clock. английский язык к 2 часам.

2. Когда нужно показать, что данное действие или событие предшествовало какому-то другому действию или событию в прошлом. Более позднее действие выражено глаголом в Past Simple:

When we came to the theatre, all Когда мы пришли в театр, все

the tickets had been sold out. билеты были уже проданы.

When I looked out of the window, I Когда я выглянул в окно, я

saw that the rain had not stopped. увидел, что дождь еще не прекратился.

 

Exercise 1. Read about each situation and then tick the right answer:

Two men delivered the sofa. I had already paid for it.

Which came first, a) the delivery, or b) ٧ the payment?

1. The waiter brought our drinks. We’d already had our soup.

Which came first, a) the drinks, or b) the soup?

2. I’d seen the film, so I read the book.

Did I first a) see the film, or b) read the book?

3. The program me had ended, so I rewound the cassette.

Did I rewind the cassette a) after, or b) before the program me ended?

4. I had an invitation to the party, but I’d arranged a trip to London.

Which came first, a) the invitation, or b) the arrangements for the trip?

 

Exercise 2. Add a sentence with the past perfect using the notes:

Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.

She’d just been on holiday. (just/be on holiday)

1. We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

………………………………………………….. (the train / just / go)

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.

………………………………………………….. (the rain / stop)

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.

………………………………………………….. (forget / my ticket)

4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

………………………………………………….. (steal / it / a week before)

5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

………………………………………………….. (not see / her/ for ages)

6. Luckily the flat didn’t look too bad when my parents called in.

………………………………………………….. (just / clean / it)

7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

…………………………………………….. (already / eat / my sandwiches)

 

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in the present perfect (have done) or past perfect (had done):

It isn’t raining now. It’s stopped (stop) at last.

We had no car at that time. We’d sold (sell) our old one.

1. The park looked awful. People ………………….. (leave) litter everywhere.

2. You can have that newspaper. I ………………………….. (finish) with it.

3. There’s no more cheese. We ………………………… (eat) it all, I’m afraid.

4. There was no sign of a taxi, although I……. (order) one half an hour before.

5. This bill isn’t right. They ……………… … (make) a mistake.

6. I spoke to Melanie at lunch-time. Someone ……. (tell) her the news earlier.

7. I was really tired last night. I …………… …. (have) a hard day.

8. Don’t you want to see this program me? It ………………………….. (start).

9. It’ll soon get warm in here. I …………………… … (turn) the heating on.

10. At last the committee were ready to announce their decision.

They ……………………………… (make) up their minds.

 

Exercise 4. Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets:

1. You went to Jill’s house but she wasn’t there. (she / go / out) …She had gone out…

2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before.

(it / change / a lot) …………………………………………..

3. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn’t come.

(she / arrange / to do something else) ……………………………………..

4. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late.

(the film / already / begin) …………………………………..

5. I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time.

(I / not / see / him for five years) ………………………………….

6. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn’t hungry.

(she / just / have / breakfast) ……………………………….

Exercise 5. Read the situation and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in brackets:

1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.

(fly) …He had never flown before, OR He hadn’t flown before. …

2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.

(see) I …………………………………. before.

3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game.

(play) He …………………………………..

4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there

(be) We ……………………

Exercise 6. Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done etc.) or past simple (I did etc.):

1. ‘Was Tom at the party when you arrived?’ ‘No, he …had gone… (go) home.

2. I felt very tired when I got home. so I ……………….. (go) straight to bed.

3. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody …….. (go) to bed.

4. Sorry I’m late. The car ……………………. (break) down on my way here.

5. We were driving along the road when we ………………. (see) a car which. ………… (break) down, so we ……………………… (stop) to see if we could help.

 

Future Perfect

The Future Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в будущем времени (shall have, will have) и формы причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола: I shall have worked, he will have done.

В вопросительной форме первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим: Shall I have worked? Will he have worked?

В отрицательной форме частица not ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола: I’ll not have worked.

The Future Perfect употребляется сравнительно редко, эта форма употребляется в тех случаях, когда нужно показать, что речь идет о будущем действии, которое должно заканчиваться до наступления другого будущего действия или до определенного момента в будущем. Момент, до которого совершается действие, может быть указан:

1. Обозначением времени, таким как by 5 o’clock - к пяти часам, by Saturday - к субботе, by the end of the year - к концу года, by that time - к тому времени и т.п.

We’ll have translated the article Мы (уже) переведем статью к субботе.

by Saturday.

Students will have finished their Студенты закончат учебу к 20

Study by 20 December. декабря.

 

2. Другим будущим действием, выраженным глаголом в Present Simple, в придаточных предложениях времени и условия:

The train will have left by the time Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, как

we get to the station. мы приедем на вокзал.

I’ll have finished this work if you Я уже закончу эту работу, если ты

Come at7 o’clock. придешь в 7 часов.

The Future Perfect не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В этих случаях вместо Future Perfectу потребляется Present Simple или Present Perfect:

We’ll send them the documents Мы пошлем им документы, после

after we have received the goods. Того как получим товары.

 

Exercise 1. Paul wants to be an artist. He’s reading about a famous artist called Winston Plummer:

Winston Plummer was a great artist, who had a wonderful career. He won lots of prizes before he was twenty. By the age of twenty-five he had had his own exhibition. He was the subject of a TV documentary by the time he was thirty. By the age of thirty-five he had become world-famous. He made millions of pounds from his pictures before he was forty.

Paul is daydreaming about his own future career. What does he think?

I hope I’ll have won lots of prizes before I’m twenty.

1. Perhaps ……………………… my own exhibition by the age of twenty-five.

2. I wonder if …………………………………………… by the time I’m thirty.

3. Maybe …………………………………..…………. by the age of thirty-five.

4. I hope ………………………………………...…………. by the age of forty.

 

Exercise 2. How good is your maths? Can you work out the answers?

It’s quarter to six. Melanie is putting something in the oven.

It needs to be in the oven for an hour and half. When will it have cooked?

It will have cooked at quarter past seven.

1. It’s seven o’clock in the evening, and Andrew is starting to write an essay. He writes one page every fifteen minutes. He plans to finish the essay at midnight. How many pages will he have written? He will have written ………………………… pages.

2. It’s Monday morning, and Sarah is travelling to work. It’s twenty miles from her home to the office. How far will she have traveled to and from work by the time she gets home on Friday?

3. Matthew is doing press-ups-one every two seconds. How many will he have done after five minutes?

Exercise 3. Put the verb into the correct from, will be (do)ing:

1. Phone me after 8 o’clock. …………………….. (we/finish) dinner by then.

2. B has to go to a meeting which begins at 10 o’clock. It will last about an hour.

A: Will you be free at 11.30?

B: Yes, (the meeting/finish) by that time.

3. Tom is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues like this, ………… (he/spend) all his money before the end of his holiday.

4. Jane is from New Zealand. She is traveling around Europe at the moment. So far she has traveled about 1,000 miles. By the end of the trip, ……………………………… (she/travel) more than 3,000 moles.

 

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. By the time you get home, you will forget everything I have told you.

2. The train will already have left by the time we come to the station.

3. By this time next week I’ll have finished my work.

4. I’ll have left home by 3 o’clock tomorrow.

5. I’m not sure if he will have the article by the 1st of October.

 

Revise grammar (Perfect) to be ready for the test.

Unit6

Art of building

 

1. Read and translate the text:

Part I

The first houses were built for the purpose of protecting their owners from the weather and, therefore, were very simple – a roof to keep off the rain or snow, and walls to keep out the wind.

The buildings erected now can be divided into two broad classifications: they are either for housing or for industrial purpose.

As far as the material is concerned, the building can be divided into stone (or brick), wood and concrete types. The brick is an artificial material made of clay then burnt to harden it. The natural stone (rubble masonry) is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load. The buildings made of stone or brick are durable, fire-proof and have poor heat conductivity.

The tiers or levels which divide a building into stages or stories are called floors. These may be of timber but in stone buildings they are made of ferro-concrete details in great and small sizes.

The coverings or upper parts of buildings constructed over to keep out rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to the weather, are called roofs. These should tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the construction.

Every building must be beautiful in appearance and proportional in various parts. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple without any excesses.

Any building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating system.

Getting water into the house is called plumbing. The plumbers have also to get the water out after it has been used. The first part of this problem is called water supply and the second one is called drainage or sewerage.

 

2. Translate Russian part of each sentence into English. Add some information to these statements:

1) The first houses were built в целях защиты от погоды. 2) Здания, которые строятся сегодня сan be divided into two broad classifications: они предназначены либо для жилья, либо для промышленных целей. 3) The building can be divided into каменные (кирпичные), деревянные или бетонные типы. 4) The building made of stone or brick are долговечные, огнеустойчивые и имеют высокую теплоизоляцию. 5) Floors may be of timber, но в каменных зданиях they are made of железобетонных деталей. 6) Roofs should tie the wall sand give прочность и твердость сооружению. 7) Интерьер should be planned to suit требованиям жильцов, в то время как экстерьер must be simple without any excesses. 8)Каждое здание should be provided with вода, электричество, вентиляция и heating system. 9) Подача воды в дома называется plumbing. 10) Начальная фаза водопровода называется water supply, а финальная фаза –drain age or sewerage.

 

Part II

Almost everybody saw the construction of a building and *followed its progress with interest1. First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed; after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.

The architect or designer must decide, what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts, which make up the framework, will be and how they will be placed and arranged.

Here are the main parts of a building and their functions.

Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost, to prevent them from sinking and setting which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or may be constructed of a fire-resisting material. Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the walls construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.

Roofs cover the building and protect it from exposure to the weather. They tie the walls and give strength and firmness to the structure.

 

1. Put following word combinations concerning the construction of a building in order according to the text, translate them:

возводить каркас, защитить несколькими слоями краски, выкапывать яму для фундамента, покрывать различными отделочными материалами, возводить стены фундамента ниже уровня земли.

 

2. Correct the statements. Add much more information:

1) The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the size of the walls. 2) Finishing materials, several coats of paint must be carefully designed and proportioned.

3) The architect or designer must decide, what the size of framework, color of the floors, width of walls, quantity of paint’s coats, how they will be mixed and cut.

 

3. Which of these words belong to construction of foundations or floors or roofs:

Foundation Floor Roof
     

to keep from contact with the soil, to divide the building into stories, to cover the building, brick, to prevent from sinking, to carry the weight, to tie the walls, to guard against the action of frost, timber, to protect from exposure of the weather, hollow, to give strength, stone, cracks, a fire – resisting material, firmness, to enclose areas, concrete.

 

Part III

Turnkey construction is the type of assistance in building different facilities. In this case the employer engages the contractor to design, manufacture, test, deliver, install, complete and commission a certain project and the contractor undertakes full responsibility for the project construction and commissioning.

The contractor then undertakes endeavors to conduct a survey and design work, as well as to work out *basic and detailed engineering2 and supply equipment. As a rule, the contractor’s highly qualified specialists are made responsible for doing part or full construction work, carrying out installation, *start-up and adjustment operations3.

After the construction is completed the precommissioning starts, that is testing, checking and meeting other requirements, which are specified in the technical handbooks.

As soon as all works in respect of the precommissioning are completed and the project is read for the commissioning, the contractor notifies the engineer (Project manager) with the message. The contractor begins the commissioning immediately after the engineer does the issue of the Completion Certificate.

The contractor carries out the guarantee test during the commissioning to make sure that project will reach the designed performance.

Operational acceptance of the project takes place when the guarantee test has been successfully completed and the guarantees met. As a rule the contractor supplies spare parts so that the project could normally operate during the maintenance guarantee period.

Turnkey contracts are always long-term undertakings involving several parties, among them foreign and local subcontractors. They are usually won as a result of tenders where the bidders compete for the contract on the terms most fav our able for the customer.

A few explanations to the text:

1. … followed its progress with interest – с интересом следил за его ростом

2. basic and detailed engineering – выполнение проектной документации

3. start-up and adjustment operations – пуско-наладочные работы

 

Key vocabulary/expressions:

basement- фундамент, основание; подвал

beam – балка, балансир

cause – причина, сторона

coat – покрытие

commission- пускать в эксплуатацию

contractor – подрядчик

designed performance – проектная мощность

girder – поясная балка, прогон

precommissioning works – предпусковые работы

spare parts – запасные части

plumbing – водопровод

solid – массивный

hollow –полый, пустой

engage – обязывать

endeavor – стремление

survey - контроль

 

1. Finish these sentences:

1) Turnkey construction ... 2) ... engages the … to design, manufacture, test, deliver, install, complete and commission a certain project. 3) The contractor undertakes full … and then endeavors to conduct … 4) … made responsible for doing part or full construction works … 5) The precommissioning tests, checks and … 6) … notifies the engineer … and begins the commissioning after the issue … 7) The contractor carries out the guarantee … 8) … when the guarantee test has been successfully …

 

2. Step-by-step speak briefly what means “turnkey construction”.

3. Test your own attention. Find English equivalents in the text:

огнеупорный материал ___

бутовая кладка __________

дополнительная нагрузка _

различные отделочные материалы ______________________________

защитить несколькими слоями краски ___________________________

нулевой цикл ____________

сертификат о завершении строительства _________________________

строительство «под ключ» _

проектно-изыскательные работы ________________________________

местные и иностранные субподрядчики __________________________

 

 

5. General understanding. Answer the questions to the text. Using these questions as a plan speak briefly about art of building:

1. What purpose is the natural stone used for?

2. What are the buildings made of stone and brick?

3. Should the coverings tie the walls?

4. What must every building be?

5. What are the main parts of a building?

6. What are their functions?

7. What kind of facilities is constructed on a turnkey basis?

8. What are the responsibilities of the contractor?

9. Why is a turnkey contract a long-term undertaking?

10. How is a turnkey contract usually won?

11. What can the Completion Certificate tell us about?

12. What building professions have you come across in the text?

 

6. Listen to the text “Impressions of Modern Architecture” and answer the questions to the text:

Key-words to the text:

similar – похожий

opportunity – возможность

alike – похожий

remind – напоминать

oblong – продолговатый

building site – стройплощадка

resist – противостоять

 

Test

“Impressions of Modern Architecture”

 

1. Architectural styles are probably similar now because

a) architects have no more natural building materials

b) architects have no opportunities they had in the past

c) architects are all alike or nearly alike.

 

2. If architects are asked to make plans for houses

a) they design wonderful churches and cathedrals

b) they have done some very good work

c) they have to design huge blocks of flats, offices and so on.

 

3. The blocks of flats in our towns are ___ whether the fronts and sides are ___

a) huge boxes- square or oblong

b) another big boxes- found or oval

c) prefabricated- rectangular or triangular.

 

4. Many of new schools are prefabricated, which means that

a) much of the building work is done on the building site

b) much of the building work is done in factories

c) much of the building work is done in the outside.

 

5. Modern buildings look like _______ but they are________

a) occupants inside- alike outside

b) proportionally from top view- simply planned inside

c) boxes from the outside- well planned inside.

 

6. The Imperial Hotel in _______ was designed by _______ architect _______

a) Tokyo- Japanese- Panasonic

b) New-York- American- Frank Lloyd Wright

c) Tokyo- American- Frank Lloyd Wright.

 

7. It was designed to

a) to resist earthquakes

b) to suit the landscape

c) to tie the walls.

GRAMMAR

Numerals

Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество или порядок предметов при счете. Имена числительные делятся на количественные (Cardinal) и порядковые (Ordinal).

Количественные числительные отвечают на вопрос How many? (сколько?)

Порядковые числительные отвечают на вопрос Which? (который?)

Имена числительные бывают простыми (one, two, hundred, thousand, first, second), производными (seventeen, sixty, tenth), составными (seven hundred, six hundred and twenty five),

Дробные числительные

(Factional Numerals)

Простые дроби Десятичные дроби

(Common Fractions) (Decimal Fractions)

1/2 - a (one) half 0.1 – nought point one или point one

1/3 – a (one) third 0.01 – nought point nought one

2/3 – two thirds или point nought one

1/4 – a (one) quarter 2.35 – two point three five

a (one) fourth 32.305 – three two (или thirty two)

3/4 – three quarters point three nought five

three fourth

1 1/2 – one and a half

2 1/3 – two and a (one) third

2 1/4 – two and a quarter

5 3/4 – five and three quarter

 

Обозначение времени

В повседневной речи, если на часах 10 часов. На вопрос What’s the time? (Который час?), мы можем ответить It’steno’clock или Ten или It’s ten. Слово o’clock употребляется только при четком указании часа. It’s nine o’clock (It’s11 o’clock). Когда час известен, мы можем сказать It’s five to (без пяти минут и т.д.) или It’s five past (пять минут …)

It’s five to three. - Без пяти минут три.

It’s five past three. - Пять минут четвертого.

It’s a quarter past ten. - 15 минут одиннадцатого.

It’s a quarter to ten. - Без 15 минут десять и т.д.

Ho: Three minutes to ten. - Без 3-х минут десять.

Twenty-two minutes to eleven. –Без двадцати двух минут одиннадцать.

 

a.m. (=ante meridiem (before midday))

p.m. (=post meridiem (after midday))

для обозначения времени до или после 12 часто в

I’ll meet you at 5p.m.

 

Обозначение дат и чисел

35 B.C. (Before Christ) – до рождества Христова

A.D. 100 = A.D. one hundred – Anno Domini – по-латински (после рождества Христова - in the year of our lord)

Аббревиатура A.D. необходима только лишь в случае обозначения ранних веков, чтобы избежать путаницы.

Pompey died in 48 B.C.

Tiberius died in A.D. 37

The 11th … the 20th century – всегда будет обозначать A.D.

Название годов произносятся 2 частями:

1066 ten sixty-six (10)66

1917 nineteen seventeen (19)17

1901 nineteen hundred and one или nineteen (oh) one

1900 nineteen hundred

Ho: 2000 the year of two thousand.

Если мы хотим сказать о конкретных годах какого-либо века, то:

50 годы 20 века - the fifties = the 50’s = the 50s

Дни и месяцы всегда пишутся с заглавной буквы. Числа выражаются порядковыми числительными, поэтому:

March the tenth, July the fourteenth.

Но, например, 10 марта – March the 10th можно написать как:

March 10, 10 March, 10th of March, March 10th, 10th March, March the 10th.

 

Математические вычисления

= the equals sign - знак равенства

2+2 = 4 можно произнести как:

2 and 2 (или 2 plus2) equals 4,

либо

2 and 2 is four или 2 and 2 are four,

либо

2 and 2 make 4 или 2 and 2 makes 4.

+ (the plus sign) знак «плюс» произносится как plus или and

2 plus 2 makes 4 или 2 and 2 make(s) 4

- (the minus sign) знак «минус» можно произнести как minus, take away, from

9-3=6

9 minus 3 equals 6

9 take away 3 equals 6

3 from 9 equals (is) makes 6

x (the multiplication sign) знак умножения можно произнести как multiplied by, times

9x3=27

9 multiplied by 3 equals 27

9 times 3 is 27

Three nines (nine threes) are 27

: (the division sign) знак деления можно произнести как divided by, over

9:3 = 3

9 divided by (over) 3 equals 3

3 into nine is/goes 3

 

Exercise 1. Write down cardinals:

3; 13; 30; 4; 14; 40; 515; 50; 818; 80; 12; 100; 226; 705; 1,000; 4,568; 6,008; 75,137; 425,712; 1,306,527; 2,032,678.

Exercise 2. Write down ordinals:

1; 11; 21; 2; 12; 30; 13; 3; 4; 14; 40; 5; 15; 50; 6; 16; 60; 8; 18; 80; 9; 19; 90; 7; 17; 70; 100; 103; 208; 425; 705; 1,000; 1,015; 2,100,3,196.

Exercise 3. Write down fractionals:

1/2; 2 2/3; 1/3; 6 3/4; 2/3; 7 1/4; 1/4; 2 1/3; 1.48; 0.2; 0.001; 42.039; 11.507; 3%; 11%; 49%; 100%; 4/7%; 3/8%; 1/2%; 3/7%; 0.2%; 0.95.

Exercise 4. Translate into English:

9 часов утра, полдень, полночь, 11 часов вечера, 6 часов утра, 7 часов вечера, 8 часов 10 минут, 9 часов 15 минут, половина десятого, 10 часов 35 минут, 2 часа 45 минут, 3 часа 50 минут, 5 часов 57 минут.

Exercise 5. Write down “what’s the time”?

00.48 02.38 03.48 04.55 06.18 07.19 08.20 09.24 15.16 16.32 17.53 18.37 19.13 20.41 21.32 22.13 23.54

 

Exercise 6. Write down dates:

47 B.C.; 93 B.C.; 23 B.C.; 1066; 1142; 1334; 1500; 2000; 1901; 1700; 1666; 60-е годы 16 века; 11 апреля 1993 года; 1 февраля 1774 года; 23 августа 1800 года; 13 июня 1402года; 18 марта 1968 года; 31 мая 2000 года.

 

Exercise 7. Write down math calculations:

4+1=5 4x12=48

3+8=11 10x10=100

11+9=20 7x8=56

100+23=123 9x8=72

1248+397=1645 5x5=25

12-4=8 10:2=5

26-13=13 49:7=7

80-31=49 81:9=9

1000-99=1 36:6=6

47-15=32 45:9=5

Exercise 8. Translate into English:

1. Спектакль начинается в половину восьмого.

2. Заседание Исторического общества состоится в пятницу с 2-х до 3-х часов.

3. Этот магазин открыт до 9 часов вечера по пятницам.

4. 11 декабря в пятницу состоится экзамен по английскому языку.

5. Школьная библиотека работает с четырех до половины шестого.

6. Какое сегодня число? – 7 мая.

7. В октябре 31 день.

8. 23 июня попадает на воскресенье.

9. День перед 1 декабря – это понедельник.

10. Последняя суббота в ноябре – 26 ноября.

11. Сегодня четверг, 17 октября. Число через две недели, начиная с сегодняшнего дня, будет 31 октября.

12. Сегодня 8 декабря. На этой неделе в пятницу будет 13 декабря.

13. Какой твой новый телефонный номер? – ‘091-437255’.

14. Мне бы хотелось позвонить по номеру 035-68926.

15. Вот ее адрес: ‘(Mr s. B. Chapman) Миссис Б. Чепмен 4-й этаж 621 Скотт Холл роуд (Scott Hall Rd), Дейнхил (Danehill), тел: 284613.

16. В субботу утром есть очень хороший поезд до Лондона без четверти одиннадцать.

17. Первый поезд до Ливерпуля в среду отправляется из Лидза (Leeds) пятнадцать минут девятого.

18. Каждую пятницу утром до Эдинбурга отправляются 6 поездов.

19. 87% всех этих несчастных случаев вызваны невнимательностью (неаккуратностью) водителей.

20. Только 9% несчастный случаев, проверенных нами, произошли в случае технической неисправности автомобилей.

21. Возможности (для) путешествий были представлены как наиболее важная причина в выборе работы для 8 человек из 60.

22. 154 человека полагали, что зарплата была 3-ей наиболее значительной причиной в выборе работы.

 

Revise grammar (Numerals. Time) to be ready for the test.

 

Unit7





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