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Регистрация усредненных вызванных потенциалов





Для изучения таких потенциалов нужна более совершенная техника, чем для регистрации тех психофизиологических пока-



Приложение E. Головной мозг


 


зателей, которые мы рассматривали ранее. Помимо высокого качества записи ЭЭГ, здесь еще требуется усредняющее вы­числительное устройство. Средняя величина может вычисляться по ходу эксперимента или же после его окончания, по магнитной записи ЭЭГ и моментов предъявления стимулов.

Обычно раздражитель дается 20—100 раз. На записи ЭЭГ должны быть отметки точного момента включения каждого раздражителя (усредняется односекундный интервал после всех таких моментов).

Регистрация отрицательного отклонения медленногопотенциала

Поскольку это относительно небольшой и медленно изменяю­щийся потенциал, для его регистрации важно применять стабильные электроды. Даже слабая поляризация электродов может быть ошибочно принята за потенциалы коркового происхождения. Поэтому стандартная процедура измерения сопротивления между электродами с помощью омметра здесь непригодна. Так как омметр подает на электроды кратковре­менный постоянный потенциал, при этом легко может возникнуть нежелательный побочный эффект в виде разности потенциалов между ними. В этих случаях для проверки плот­ности контакта следует использовать прибор для измерения импеданса. Очевидно, что здесь нужен предусилитель постоян­ного тока или предусилитель с очень большой постоянной времени (по меньшей мере в несколько секунд).

В неконтролируемых условиях большинство людей имеет тенденцию в момент нажатия кнопки смотреть вниз (даже при закрытых глазах). В области вертекса в это время могут регистрироваться относительно большие изменения роговично-сетчаточного потенциала. Таким образом, движения глаз легко могут давать артефакт, накладывающийся на медленные корковые потенциалы. Существует ряд электронных систем для одновременной записи электроокулограммы и автомати­ческого вычитания величины роговично-сетчаточного потен­циала. Однако значительно проще, а может быть и надежнее, просить испытуемого фиксировать взор на какой-либо точке и исключать из обработки те случаи, когда появляются за­метные движения глаз.



Ясно, что при регистрации отрицательного отклонения медленного потенциала тоже нужен электронный усреднитель. Обычно бывает достаточно примерно 12 стимулов, и для этой цели можно приспособить устройство для регистрации усред­ненных вызванных потенциалов. Хильярд (Hillyard, 1974) дает хороший обзор этих и других методических проблем.


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Предметный указатель

Адреналин 30, 70 Адренэргическая система 30 Аксон 29 Активация (arousal) 34—35, 96

— глобальная 84

— и формирование комплексной реак­
ции 190—194

— и эмоции 34—35, 70—71, 127—130

— континуум 34

 

— умственная 150
Активная точка 43
Альфа-ритм, блокада 137, 185—186

— и музыка 151

— межполушарная асимметрия 150—151

— обратная связь 183—186

— приятные ощущения, связанные с
ним 184—186

— состояние «альфа» 184
Анаболизм 27, 30, 31

Апокринные железы см. Потовые железы Аритмия см. Сердечная аритмия Асимметрия межполушарная 36, 60 116—

118, 150-152

Атриовентрикулярный узел 76 Аутизм 192 Ацетилхолин 30, 31, 56

Баланс автономной нервной системы см.

Нервная система

Барорецепторная гипотеза 34, 218 Барорецепторы 83—84, 217 Бета-волны 132—135 Биполярная регистрация 43, 109 Бихевиоризм 122 Близнецы 147—148, 158 Большой мозг 24 «Борьбы или бегства» реакция 26—27

30, 32, 191 Брока зона 161 Быстрые движения глаз (БДГ) 118—120

Вдох и выдох (отношение I/E) 94—95 Внешние события, внимание к ним 84— 85, 217

— неприятие 84—85, 217 Волна ожидания см. Отрицательное от­клонение медленного потенциала


Ганглий 28—29 Гиперактивность 191 — 192 . Гипервентиляция 98, 145 Гипертония 81, 82 Гипометаболическое состояние 98 Гипоталамус 89

Гиппус см. Зрачковое беспокойство Глаза 104—120, 223—224





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