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Exercise 2. Change the sentences from active into passive according to the model




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Mode I: They use the safety deposit boxes very often.

Safely deposit boxes are used very often by them.

1. Federal government supervises and charters national banks.

2. This bank is asking ten percent interest.

3. The bank requests a financial statement of the company.

4. Their company takes a long-term loan from the Federal Bank.

5. The (.executive shows the company's expenses.

6. The manager is instructing the secretary.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. Is there a difference between banking systems in the USSR and western countries? What is the difference?

2. What bank services are you familiar with?

3. Do the banks in this country have safety deposit boxes?

4. Whom do the banks make loans to in this country?

5. What kind of loan would you prefer, long-term loan or short-term loan?

6. What prime-rates are available in this country?

7. What does the line of credit of the enterprise depend on?

8. What is a credit letter written for?

9. What can one do with credit reference letter?

Exercise 4.

1. Speak about banking system in the USSR.

2. Make up a dialogue between a between and a customer, who wants to take a long-term ( short-term) loan.

Exercise 5. Translate into English.

1. Государство учреждает коммерческие банки.

2. Если ты хочешь купить товары за границей, ты должен поменять деньги в отделе обмена валюты.

3. Я бы хотел сделать карьеру в банковском деле.

4. Все банки устанавливают проценты на ссуду.

5. Наш бaнк намерен предоставить краткосрочную ссуду этому предприятию.

6. Наименьший процент со ссуды предоставляется при­вилегированным клиентам.

7. Банки могут выпускать аккредитивы и рекоменда­тельные кредитные письма.



8. Я намерен занять крупную сумму денег.

9. Банк считает, что это предприятие платежеспособно и ему можно предоставить заем.

Grammar Exercises

Exercise 1. Make the sentences negative.

Model: This commercial bank had already stopped to exist when the war started.

This commercial bank hadn't slopped to exist yet when the war started.

1. He had already changed currency when ^ rang him up yesterday.

2. They had already chartered the con'- ;commercial bank when 1 organized my private cafe.

3. He had looked over the financial statement by five o'clock yesterday.

4. My brother had made a career in banking when he was 26.

5. He had put all his money on his savings account before the money reform was introduced.

Exercise 2. Put up four questions of different types ( general , special disjunctive, alternative) to each sentence.

Model: They had written a credit reference letter before he left abroad.

1. Had they written a credit reference letter before he left abroad?

2. What had they written before he left abroad?

3. They had written a credit reference letter before he left abroad, hadn't they?

4. Had they written a credit reference letter or a credit letter before he left abroad?

1. He had been a preferred customer for this bank till his business was successful.

2. My parents has settled everything connected with insurance before they retired on pension.

3. He had borrowed the money before I managed to find him.

4. The lawyer had given me investment advice before 1 asked him about it.

5. He had arrived to the conclusion to take a long-term loan when I met him yesterday.


LESSON 9

PRODUCT DFVELOPMENT and PLANNING

Text

The number of new products coming into the market of western countries every year is overwhelming. The major part of these products is not new, but adaptations. It means that these products are not new, they are existing items to which a modification has been made. Only few products are really original or innovations. -For instance a clock-television is an adaptation, but TV-set itself, the refrigerator - each was an innovation.. A great number of 'innovations and adaptations are designed, produced and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of the new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful. But it happens very often that market research hasn't been done carefully.

Even in case larger scale producers do more research and testing there is no sure success. A promising new product may be also robbed of success by unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods. Generally less than one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.

Active Vocabulary

product development развитие производства

adaptation что либо переделанное, приспособленное

modification модификация, видоизменение

innovation нововведение, новшество

patent патент

large scale producer крупный производитель

promising product перспективный продукт

unreasonable price неразумная цена

inadequate недостаточный, не соответствующий требованиям

Comprehension Questions

1. How can you explain the term adaptation?

2. What is an innovation?

3. Give your own examples of innovations and adaptations.

4. Why are many innovations and adaptations manufactured and marketed by small businesses?

5. Why is it so important to obtain a patent?

6. Why does the failure of a new product take place?

Vocabulary Practice




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