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TEXT 1. Postgraduate Education




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Postgraduate education (or graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor's degree generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education.

The organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, and also in different institutions within countries.

In some programs in the traditional German system, there is no legal distinction between "undergraduate" and "postgraduate". In such programs, all education aims towards the Master's degree, whether introductory (Bachelor's level) or advanced (Master's level). The aim of the Bologna process is to abolish this system and to create the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention.

In most countries, the hierarchy of post-graduate degrees is as follows:

1. Master's degrees (Postgraduate)

These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science, then Master of Philosophy, and finally Master of Letters (all formerly known in France as DEA or DESS before 2005, and nowadays Masters too). In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a Master's is the terminal degree. In the UK, Master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught Master's include the MSc and MA degrees which last 1 year, whereas the Master's by research degrees include the MRes (Master of Research) which also lasts 1 year (the difference compared to the MA/MSc being that the research is much more extensive), and the MPhil (Master of Philosophy) degree which lasts 2 years.

2. Doctorates (Postgraduate)

These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates.

An academic doctorate can be awarded as a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy), or as a DSc (Doctor of Science). The Doctor of Science degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Dr.sc.math (Doctor of Mathematics), Dr.sc.agr. (Doctor of Agricultural science), DBA (Doctorate in Business Administration) etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the PhD or 'junior doctorate', and the 'higher doctorates' such as the DSc, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a PhD and DSc.



In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the U.S., the master's degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master's degree almost disappeared. In the second half of the 19th century, however, U.S. universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master's degrees parallelling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by European model.

Russia is in the process of migrating from its traditional tertiary education model, incompatible with existing Western academic degrees, to a modernized degree structure in line with Bologna Process model. (Russia co-signed the Bologna Declaration in 2003.) In October 2007 Russia enacted a law that replaces the traditional five-year model of education with a two-tiered approach: a four-year bachelor degree followed by a two-year master's degree.

Postgraduate diploma structure so far retains its unique Soviet pattern established in 1934. The system makes a distinction between scientific degrees, evidencing personal postgraduate achievement in scientific research, and related but separate academic titles, evidencing personal achievement in university-level education.

There are two successive postgraduate degrees: kandidat nauk (Candidate of science) and doktor nauk (Doctor of science). Both are a certificate of scientific, rather than academic achievement, and must be backed up by original/novel scientific work, evidenced by publications in peer-reviewed journals and a dissertation defended in front of senior academic board. The titles are issued by Higher Attestation Commission of the Ministry of Education. A degree is always awarded in one of 23 predetermined fields of science, even if the underlying achievement belongs to different fields. Thus it is possible to defend two degrees of kandidat independently, but not simultaneously; a doktor in one field may also be a kandidat in a different field.

Kandidat nauk can be achieved within university environment (when the university is engaged in active research in the chosen field), specialised research facilities or within research and development units in industry. Typical kandidat nauk path from admission to diploma takes 2–4 years. The dissertation paper should contain a solution of an existing scientific problem, or a practical proposal with significant economical or military potential. The title is perceived as equivalent to Western Ph.D.

Doktor nauk, the next stage, implies achieving significant scientific output. This title is often equated to the German or Scandinavian habilitation. The dissertation paper should summarize the author's research resulting in theoretical statements that are qualified as a new discovery, or solution of an existing problem, or a practical proposal with significant economical or military potential. The road from kandidat to doktor typically takes 10 years of dedicated research activity; one in four candidates reaches this stage. The system implies that the applicants must work in their research field full time; however, the degrees in social sciences are routinely awarded to active politicians.

Academic titles of dotsent and professor are issued to active university staff who already achieved degrees of kandidat or doktor; the rules prescribe minimum residency term, authoring established study textbooks in their chosen field, and mentoring successful postgraduate trainees; special, less formal rules apply to professors of arts.

 

TASKS

Task 1. Mark these statements T(true) or F(false) according to the information in the text. Find the part of the text that gives the correct information

1. The organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries.

2. The aim of the Bologna process is to abolish this system and to create the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout the world.

3. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a Master's is the first degree.

4. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy), or as a DSc (Doctor of Science).

5. Russia follows now the traditional tertiary education model which is incompatible with existing Western academic degrees.

6. The postgraduate degrees such as kandidat nauk and doktor nauk are both a certificate of academic, rather than scientific achievement, and must be backed up by original/novel scientific work.

7. Typical kandidat nauk path from admission to diploma takes 2–10 years.

8. Academic titles of dotsent and professor are issued to active university staff who already achieved degrees of kandidat or doctor.

Task 2. Look through the text and find:

a. two-word expression referring to a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having a prescribed course of study worthy of his or her admission to the degree;

b. two-word expression that refers to the degree typically study English, history, geography, other of the humanities, philosophy, social sciences, fine arts;

c. two-word expression that means the degree typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences;

d. two-word expression that means a postgraduate research degree but is a lesser degree than a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.);

e. two-word expression referring to a first post-graduate scientific degree in some former Eastern Bloc countries, such as Russia and Ukraine, which is awarded for original research that constitutes a significant contribution to a scientific field;

f. two-word expression that means a higher doctoral degree, the second and the highest post-graduate academic degree in the Soviet Union, Russia and in many post-Soviet states. Sometimes referred to as Dr. Hab.

Task 3. Read the text again, look through the words and phrases in italics and try to explain their meaning. Complete the sentences

1. ………………… is named after the Bologna Declaration, which was signed in the Italian city of Bologna on 19 June 1999 by ministers in charge of higher education from 29 European countries. Today, the Process unites 47 countries – all party to the European Cultural Convention and committed to the goals of the European Higher Education Area.

2. …………………is, in some countries, the highest academic degree in a given field of study. This phrase is in common use in the United States, but is not universal in an international context: the concept is not in general use in the United Kingdom, for example, and the exact definition varies somewhat between those countries where the terminology is used.

3. ………………… – tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education and training beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States. Historically, civilian tertiary education was divided between a minority of traditional wide curriculum universities and a larger number of narrow specialisation institutes (including art schools).

4. ………………… or thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.[2 In some countries/universities, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used as part of a bachelor's or master's course, while ………………… is normally applied to a doctorate, while in others, the reverse is true.

5. ………………… is the highest academic qualification a scholar can achieve by his or her own pursuit in several European and Asian countries. Earned after obtaining a research doctorate, such as a PhD, ………………… requires the candidate to write a professorial thesis based on independent scholarship, reviewed by and defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that for the doctoral …………………. .

 

Task 4. Read the text above again and answer the questions. Give extensive answers to the questions. Use the following expressions to start your answers:

I assume that…; To my mind…; There is no doubt that…;

True enough it’s…; As I see it…; That goes without saying…;

It seems to me there can be no two opinions about this…

1. What can you say about the structure of postgraduate education in different countries? Is it common or various?

2. What are the main ideas of the Bologna process? Pros and cons.

3. What is the hierarchy of post-graduate degrees in most countries?

4. Is there any difference between Master's degrees in different countries and in the UK in particular?

5. Is there any distinction between a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) and DSc (Doctor of Science)? Prove your point.

6. Do you think theEuropean model offers students better oportunities in comparison with the British model? Give your reasons.

7. How can you describea modernized degree structure in Russia? What is the difference of a new one in comparison with its traditional tertiary education model?

8. Does the postgraduate diploma structure in Russia retain its unique Soviet pattern so far? When was it established?What postgraduate degrees can you name?

9. How can thekandidat nauk degree be achieved? What should the dissertation paper contain? What Western degree is considered the equivalent to this title?

10. How can thedoktor nauk degree be achieved? What should the dissertation paper contain? What Western degree is this title often equated to?

11. What academic titles are issued to university staff who already achieved degrees of kandidat or doktor?

Task 5. Sum up what the text above says about:

· The Bologna process.

· The hierarchy of post-graduate degrees in most countries.

· British model.

· Postgraduate diploma structure in Russia.

 

Task 6. Read the additional information on the similarities and differences in a scientist’s status in different countries. Discuss the problems that can follow the misunderstanding of them




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