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a. Chancellor/President

b. Vice president

c. dean of faculty

d. head of department

Названия должностей, которые научные работники могут занимать в государственных и частных исследовательских учреждениях, в том числе и в высших учебных заведениях, в англоязычных странах весьма разнообразны. В ряде случаев они отражают конкретную специализацию: assistant wild life ecologist, biochemist, plant physiologist, research chemist, senior economist.

Позиции исследователей типа research assistant, senior research assistant, research associate, senior research associate, research fellow, senior research fellow и т.д., в названиях которых не обозначена научная дисциплина, встречаются, как правило, в высших учебных заведениях и относящихся к ним научных организациях. Обычно их занимают исследователи, претендующие на получение докторской степени или обладающие ею, что видно из следующего объявления: «Research associate: Applicants should have submitted their Ph. D. thesis or have a recent Ph. D. degree in biochemistry or chemistry».

Если место предназначено только для исследователя с докторской степенью, то в названиях появляется слово postdoctoral: postdoctoral research fellow, postdoctoral research associate, postdoctoral fellow. Еще один пример объявления: «Postdoctoral Senior or Research Associateship: The appointment is for three years and could start in September, 2005. Applicants must have a Ph. D. degree, or have submitted their thesis for Ph. D. before the starting date».



Добавим также, что позиция associate выше по рангу, чем assistant, и предполагает большую самостоятельность в научной работе.

Следует отметить, что научные сотрудники типа postdoctoral fellow или research fellow занимаются исследовательской работой одновременно с повышением своей научной квалификации. Для этой цели им выделяется специальная стипендия (fellowship).

Следует отличать ученого, занимающего позицию research fellow или postdoctoral fellow, от fellow – действительного члена научного общества: Brown B.B., Fellow of the Royal Society.

Слово fellow также используется для обозначения членов совета преподавателей колледжа или университета: «Grey G.G., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford». Такое членство может быть и почетным: «White W.W., Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford».

Если ученый прекращает активную научную деятельность, но не порывает связей с университетом, его называют Visiting fellow: “I’m actually retired and now am called a visiting fellow which means I have no responsibilities and can enjoy myself”.

В высших учебных заведениях англоязычных стран сосредоточены значительные научные силы. Как правило, ученые совмещают научную и преподавательскую деятельность и нередко делят свое время пополам: «I’m a botanist and a professor of ecology. I have what we call a fifty-fifty appointment. Fifty percent teaching. I teach undergraduate and graduate students, and then the remaining time is taken up with research».

Высшее ученое звание в англоязычных странах – профессор professor/full professor (амер.): professor of oceanology, professor of economics, professor of mathematics.

За большие заслуги перед университетом ученый может получить звание почетного профессора (emeritus professor/professor emeritus): «Dr. Green, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of London». Как правило, обладатель этого звания не занимается активной научной и преподавательской деятельностью.

Что касается позиции профессора в вузах России, то она обозначается на английском языке словом professor. Доктора наук, имеющие это звание, могут использовать его для уточнения своего научного статуса относительно своих коллег с кандидатской степенью, например, при представлении зарубежному коллеге: «I’m Professor Petrov and this is my colleague Dr. Ivanov».

На ступеньку ниже профессора в иерархической должностной лестнице в британских вузах стоят reader: “Brown B.B., Reader in Criminal Law, University of Strathclyde”; principal lecturer: “Johnson J.J., Principal Lecturer in Criminal Law. Liverpool polytechnic”; senior lecturer: “Senior Lecturer, University of Birmingham”; в американских университетах – associate professor: “White W.W., Associate Professor of Economics, University of Alaska”.

Вышеприведенные сочетания могут быть использованы для приблизительной передачи позиции доцента в вузах нашей страны.

Иногда для обозначения соответствующего звания на английском языке в европейских неанглоязычных странах употребляется слово docent. В некоторых американских университетах этим словом называют преподавателей младшего ранга, не являющихся постоянными членами педагогического коллектива. Поэтому вряд ли можно считать английское слово docent удачным эквивалентом русскому слову доцент. Если же оно все-таки используется в устной речи, то не будет лишним соответствующее пояснение: «Now I occupy the position of docent which corresponds to associate professor or reader in English-speaking countries».

Следующая категория преподавателей в британских вузах известна как lecturer: “Jones J.J., Lecturer in Land Law, University of East Anglia”, в американских – assistant professor: “Brown B.B., Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Texas”.

В вузах России аналогичную позицию занимает старший преподаватель.

Помимо вышеприведенных аналогов для обозначения этой должности можно употребить сочетание senior instructor. Во всяком случае им иногда пользуются авторы из англоязычных стран, когда они пишут о системе образования в нашей стране.

Заметим, что дословный перевод на английский язык русского словосочетания старший преподаватель как senior teacher может соответственно потребовать дополнительных пояснений, ибо английское слово teacher в основном используется в отношении школьных учителей.

Для обозначения группы младших преподавателей в англоязычных странах используются такие сочетания, как assistant lecturer (брит.) и instructor (амер.).

В нашей стране примерно такую же позицию занимают ассистент и преподаватель. Говоря о своей работе, они могут использовать слово instructor: I am an instructor in English.

Профессор в англоязычных странах, как правило, является одновременно и заведующим кафедрой (head of department): S.S. Smith, D.Sc., Professor and Head of Department, Department of Economics. Таким образом, в круг его обязанностей входит административная преподавательская и научная работа. Говорит заведующий кафедрой экономики одного из американских университетов: «The main part of my responsibilities is administrative, because I have been running the Department of economics. So it takes most of my time. But in addition to that I teach courses. I also supervise the work of graduate students and I try to find some time for my own research».

Несмотря на определенные отличия в организации и функционировании таких подразделений, как кафедра в нашей стране и department в вузах англоязычных стран, эти слова можно использовать в качестве ближайших эквивалентов: кафедра физики – department of physics и наоборот: department of modern languages – кафедра современных языков, но не факультет, как иногда ошибочно переводят сочетания подобного типа.

Слово кафедра нельзя переводить на английский язык как chair, так как данное слово используется лишь для обозначения поста заведующего кафедрой или лица, занимающего эту должность: см., например, два следующих объявления: «The Chair of Economics remains vacant»; «The University of California College of Medicine is seeking a Chair for the Department of Biological Chemistry».

Во главе учебного подразделения типа факультета, называемого в британских университетах faculty (faculty of arts, faculty of science, faculty of law, faculty of economics, etc.), а в американских – college или school (college of fine arts, college of arts and sciences, college of business administration, school of law, school of pharmacy, etc.), стоит dean (декан).

Для передачи позиции декана в высших учебных заведениях можно использовать слово dean, соответственно заместителя декана – sub-dean /associate dean/ assistant dean.

В американских университетах есть ряд должностей, в названия которых входит слово dean: dean of students, dean of university, dean of faculty и т.п., но их функции отличны от функций декана в нашем понимании.

В американских вузах слово faculty обозначается основной преподавательский состав, в то время как в британских используется сочетание academic/teaching staff. В беседе с американскими учеными нужно иметь ввиду особенность употребления слова faculty и в случае необходимости ввести соответствующие коррективы: "When I use the word "faculty" I mean by that a devision of the university and not the teaching staff".

Формально университет в странах с британским вариантом английского языка возглавляет chancellor, изредка посещающий его для участия в торжественных церемониях. Фактически университетом руководит ученый, занимающий пост vice-chancellor. Аналогичную функцию в американском университете выполняет president.

Для передачи позиции ректора вуза кроме вышеприведенных аналогов (vice-chancellor, president) можно воспользоваться и словом rector, которое применяется в европейских странах и будет понятно зарубежным ученым. В устной беседе никогда не помешает краткое пояснение: "The rector of our university, in America you would call him president, is a physicist by training".

По-разному в высших учебных заведениях англоязычных стран называются должности, обладатели которых занимают ключевые административные позиции: Vice president for academic affair, vice-president for research, pro-vice-chancellor и т.д. Ученый, занимающий должность, обозначенную словом provost, фактически отвечает за всю учебную и исследовательскую работу, проводимую в институте: "I was dividing my time between research and administration as Provost for MIT (Massachusetts Institute of technology), a position that put me in charge of all the teaching and research done at the Institute - everything in fact, except the Institute's financial matters and its capital equipment."

Соответственно для обозначения на английском языке позиции проректора в вузе можно воспользоваться сочетаниями: prorector, vice rector или deputy vice-chancellor; проректор по учебной работе - prorector for academic affairs; проректор по научной работе prorector for research.

Что касается научно-исследовательских институтов и других организаций подобного типа, то в названиях должностей, которые занимают их сотрудники, часто встречается слово scientist без указанной научной дисциплины: assistant scientist, research scientist, senior research scientist, principal scientist, senior scientist и т.п. Представляется гидролог, специалист в области поведения рек: "I am a research scientist and my specialty is hydrology, behavior of rivers particularly."

В названиях научных должностей в государственных учреждениях, как правило, присутствует слово officer: scientific officer, senior scientific officer, principle scientific officer, research officer, senior research officer, experimental officer, senior experimental officer. Для передачи на английском языке ученых званий младший и старший научный сотрудник, имеющихся в научно-исследовательских организациях, могут быть предложены различные варианты. Прежде всего заметим, что вряд ли целесообразно использовать в этом случае слово junior (младший), учитывая, что оно практически не встречается в данном контексте в англоязычных странах. Принимая это во внимание, можно предложить следующие пары для обозначения понятий младший научный сотрудник – старший научный сотрудник (без указания специальности): scientific associate – senior scientific associate, research associate – senior research associate, research scientist – senior research scientist или с указанием специализации: research physicist – senior research physicist, research chemist – senior research chemist.О научном статусе участника конференции можно судить и по занимаемой им административной должности: director of institute; deputy/associate/assistant director; head of department/division; head/chief of laboratory; head of group; project director/leader; head of section и т.д. Подбирая английские эквиваленты названиям руководящих научных должностей типа заведующий отделом лабораторией, руководитель группы и т.п., можно использовать нейтральное и ясное во всех контекстах слово head: head of department, head of laboratory, head of group. Использование слова laboratory предполагает, что речь идет о естественно-научной тематике исследований. Поэтому сочетание лаборатория гуманитарных дисциплин можно передать по-английски the humanities group. За названием laboratory/laboratories может скрываться и крупная научная организация (Bell Telephone Laboratories), и ее руководитель (director) соответственно имеет статус директора научно-исследовательского института. Важным показателем научных достижений ученого является вручение ему различных наград (medals, prizes, awards). Особое признание его заслуг в международном масштабе отмечается присуждением Нобелевской премии (The Nobel Prize). Свидетельством заслуг ученого является его избрание в члены ряда научных обществ, например, таких, как Королевское общество (The Royal Society) в Великобритании, Американская Академия наук и искусств (The American Academy of Arts and Sciences), Национальная академия наук (The National Academy of Science) в США и т.п. Соответственно в России высшие научные позиции занимают члены Академии наук (members of the Russian Academy of Science): члены- корреспонденты (corresponding members) и действительные члены (full members/ academicians).
TEXT 2. A Scientific Work of a Post-Graduate and Researcher

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

abandon – бросить, оставить

advance to – развить до

carry on a scientific work – проводить н/и работ

generalize – обобщать

perform an experiment – выполнить эксперимент

recognition of the problem – постановка проблемы

scientific adviser – научный руководитель

set up a hypothesis – выдвинуть гипотезу

solve a question – решать вопрос

substantiate – доказать, подтвердить

supervision – наблюдение, руководство

tackle a problem – заниматься серьёзной проблемой

test in practice – проверить на практике

validity – ценность

Science matters to every one of us. It affects our everyday lives in thousands of different ways, and the scientific advances of today will shape how our lives change in the future.

People around the world are interested in creating wealth, using and adapting technologies for their own needs.

Particularly for the young, science and modernity are inseparable. Images of a modern Russia are unthinkable without science, engineering and technology.

In research institutes, scientific centers, experimental laboratories and departments thousands of research workers and post-graduates carry on fundamental researches. They are solving difficult questions, tackling serious problems, trying to discover new data, new phenomena which in their turn will lead to new discoveries and studies.

The fundamental aims of any science are:

- to describe facts of nature, natural effects

- to generalize them into a theory.

The time of scientific discovery "by intuition" is over- now any scientific work is carried on in accordance with scientific method.

The steps in scientific method can be listed as follows:

1. Recognition of the problem.

2. Collection of information (facts or data).

3. Analysis of data and setting up a hypothesis.

4. Performance of test experiment.

5. Substantiation, modification or abandonment of the hypothesis.

Thus any scientific work begins with recognition of the problem. A researcher must study the problem thoroughly. He gathers the known facts about the problem and analyses them. Then he tries to extend his thinking beyond the known facts and set up a hypothesis. Without hypothesis investigation lacks purpose, and direction. The hypothesis must be proved experimentally. But at first, a researcher must design (plan) his experiment. Only experiment may show whether hypothesis is true or not, whether a scientist should abandon it or advance it to the rank of a theory. Without theories there is no science. A good theory not only explains but helpsto discover yet unknown things. The validity of any theory can be tested in practice. The results of the research become completely scientific when they are published.

A scientific work is carried out under the supervision of a scientific adviser with whom a post-graduate or researcher discusses the results obtained. In order to gain the degree of a Candidate a post-graduate must devote three years to study and research and then defend a thesis.

To obtain a doctorate a Candidate must pursue a course requiring years of research and study and then defend the second thesis on a more

abstract subject.

Scientific research now is dependent to large extent on sophisticated experimental installations. It is impossible to imagine any modern scientific centre without experimental laboratories, without up-to-date experimental facilities: sophisticated electronic installations, computers for performing experiments and collecting information.

 

TASKS

Task 8. Read the text and answer the following questions

1. What are the fundamental aims of any science?

2. What are the steps in scientific method?

3. How can a scientist check his hypothesis?

4. How can the validity of any theory be tested?

5. When do the results of the research become completely?

6. Who supervises a researcher or a post-graduate?

7. What are academic and professional titles?

8. What does scientific research depend on?

 

Task 9. Match the English word combinations in the left-hand column with the Russian equivalents in the right-hand column:

1. to publish2. sphere3. research4. to include5. importance6. to develop7. to collaborate8. enterprise9. scientific adviser10. scientific degree11. to be awarded12. department13. to encounter14. branch15. research team16. data17. to participate18. to take post-graduate courses19. to prove a thesis (dissertation) a) защищать диссертациюb) обучаться в аспирантуреc) опубликоватьd) областьe) быть награжденнымf) включатьg) (научное) исследованиеh) важностьi) кафедраj) встречать(ся)k) исследовательская группаl) данные (информация)m) разрабатыватьn) сотрудничатьo) участвоватьp) ученая степеньq) научный руководительr) предприятиеs) отрасль

 

Task 10. Match the words/word combinations in the left-hand column with their equivalents in the right-hand column that have a similar meaning:

1) device2) research3) technology4) branch5) obtain6) importance7) collaborator8) team9) scientific adviser10) to enable11) thesis12) journal13) to prove a thesis14) to collect15) data16) to encounter17) to be engaged in18) to be through with19) scientific papers20) rapidly a) quicklyb) publicationsc) instrumentd) techniquee) to finishf) to be busy withg) fieldh) to geti) significancej) to come acrossk) informationl) to gatherm) coworkern) groupo) supervisorp) to defend a dissertationq) scientific magaziner) dissertations) to allowt) investigation

Task 11. Match the words that are different in their meaning:

1) theory2) to obtain3) rapidly4) experimentator5) to finish6) to increase7) new8) experienced9) unknown10) wide11) passive12) to enable13) high14) complicated a) simpleb) lowc) practiced) to givee) to disablef) activeg) slowlyh) theoreticiani) narrowj) famousk) to startl) to decreasem) oldn) inexperienced
Task 12. Make up sentences using the given words and word-combinations:1) I took post-graduate courses in Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Methods, and Software. a) Mathematical Analysis; b) Mechanics of the Liquid, Gas and Plasma; c) informatics; d) Thermal Physics and Theoretical Thermotechnics; e) Business Administration; f) Theoretical Physics; g) Biochemistry2) I am to take the candidate examination in English. a) in philosophy; b) in the special subject.3) My scientific adviser received the State Prize. a) got his Ph.D. degree in Moscow; b) made a considerable contribution into Theoretical Physics; c) took part in various scientific conferences and symposia.4) I take part in annual conferences of our university. a) in international symposia; b) in making experiments; c) in delivering lecture in Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Methods, and Software.Task 13. Agree to the statements of your partner.Use the following expressions of agreement:You are right; You are quite (absolutely) right; It is quite true that …; What you say is correct…; I agree entirely with you…; N is definitely right when saying that … .Example: - Mike is a post-graduate student at the department of computer science of the Tyumen State University. - You are quite right. He is a post-graduate student.1) You work under Dr. Petrov, don't you?2) You have graduated from the Tyumen State University, haven't you?3) You take part in the research carried on in your department. Am I right?4) You have published several research papers in journals, haven't you?5) You collaborate with your colleagues. Is it true?6) You have obtained valuable information, haven't you?Task 14. Disagree to the statements of your partner. Use the following expressions of polite disagreement:I'm afraid you are wrong (mistaken); As a general rule you are quite right, but in this case I think…; What you say seems to be general opinion, but…; I agree with you to a certain extent, but…; A large part of what you say is true, but…; I disagree with your assessment…Example: -This research student has already passed all his candidate examinations, hasn't he? - I'm afraid you are mistaken. He has only passed his exam in philosophy.1) His friend has finished the experimental part of his dissertation, hasn't he?2) Your colleagues do not assist you in your research. Am I right?3) The article doesn't contain any valuable information, does it?4) He has taken part in many international scientific conferences, hasn't he?5) My coworker is rather an experimentator than a theoretical, isn't he?6) He didn't use any new method in his research. Do you agree with me? Task 15. Agree or disagree to the following statementsExample: - I know (that) University trains post-graduate students. - Yes, you are right. Besides, our University does research. - No, I see you are misinformed. Our University does not train post-graduate students. It trains only undergraduates.1) I found that almost all collaborators of your department combine activities in research with experimental work.2) I believe you base your experiments on theoretical considerations.3) A doctoral thesis (dissertation) is a serious effort and it must mark a considerable advance in a given sphere of knowledge.4) This branch of knowledge has been rapidly developing in the last two decades.5) Doctoral candidates are not supposed to pass their examination in a foreign language.6) I always discuss the obtained data with my research adviser. Task 16. Answer the following questionsExample: - I work in close contact with my research adviser. And what about you? - I work in close contact with my research adviser, too.1) I work in close contact with the colleagues of our department. And what about you?2) My friend works in close contact with the scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences. And what about your colleague?3) Our University works in close contact with the Moscow State University. And what about yours?4) My scientific adviser works in close contact with the scientists of Germany. And what about your scientific adviser?Task 17. Ask and answer the following questions:1) Ask your partner if he/she wants to take post-graduate courses at the Tyumen State University.2) Ask your partner what the subject of his/her thesis is.3) … if he/she published any articles.4) … where and when he/she published them.5) … if there is much or little material published on the subject of his/hers.6) … if he is engaged in making an experiment. Task 18. Respond by expressing thanks. Change the roles as you go. Use the patterns below:Thank you very much; Many thanks; Thanks a lot; Thank you ever so much; Thank you for the pleasure; That’s very kind of you; You are very obliging; I’m very grateful to you.1) It’s a fundamental and fascinating research. You can take part in it.2) We shall publish your research paper in the next issue of our journal.3) Your report has made a great impression on the head of our department. He wants to offer you a position of a senior research associate in one of our labs.4) You may consult him on the research next Monday.5) Your work is of great theoretical and practical significance. We'll give you additional funds to speed it up.6) You have asked for an interview with the director of the Institute. The director of the Institute will receive you next Friday.Task 19. Make up questions to which the following phrases are the answers. The dialogue is between a research student and his scientific adviserScientific adviser: …?Postgraduate student: Yes, I did. I tried hard to find the necessary information in various journals. But I could find nothing.Scientific adviser: …?Postgraduate student: Yes, of course. I also looked through English literature. But my knowledge of English still leaves much to be desired …!Scientific adviser: …?Postgraduate student: Of course I will! I‘m going to improve my English by attending the English language courses at the university. Task 20. Read the following dialogues and make up your own dialogues by analogy:Dialogue 1Peter: Hello, Mike!Mike: Oh, Peter! Haven‘t seen you for ages! What are you doing here in Tyumen? I know you live in Omsk.Peter: You are quite right. But this year I have become a post-graduate student of the Tyumen State University. Do you remember that I was interested in research work when a student?Mike: Oh, yes, I do. And, of course, you want to carry on research in applied statistics. Am I right?Peter: Absolutely right you are. I have a particular interest in this field of knowledge.Mike: That‘s fine! I congratulate you on a good beginning. They say: "Well begun is half done". I wish you success in your research.Peter: Thanks a lot.Dialogue 2Post-graduate: What is your opinion of my last article?Professor: There is a great deal in it that is new, and a great deal that is true …Post-graduate: Do you really mean …?Professor: … but it, unfortunately, happens that those portions which are new are not true, and those which are true are not new.Dialogue 3Post-graduate: I hear you said my new article was the worst I ever wrote.Professor: No, I didn‘t. I said it was the worst article anybody ever wrote. Task 21. Read the text and find the answers to the following questions:a) What does your research deal with?b) What are you engaged in at present?Taking a Post-Graduate Course.1. Last year by the decision of the Scientific Council I took post-graduate courses to increase my knowledge in Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Methods, and Software. I passed three entrance examinations – in philosophy, English and the special subject. So now I am a first year post-graduate student of the Tyumen State University. I'm attached to the Department of Computer Science. In the course of my post-graduate studies I am to pass candidate examinations in philosophy, English and the special subject. So I attend courses of English and philosophy. I'm sure the knowledge of English will help me in my research.2. My research deals with system modeling and design. The theme of the dissertation (thesis) is "Computer-Aided Tools for…". I was interested in the problem when a student so by now I have collected some valuable data for my thesis.3. I work in close contact with my research adviser (superviser). He graduated from the Moscow State University 15 years ago and got his doctoral degree at the age of 40. He is the youngest Doctor of Sciences at our University. He has published a great number of research papers in journals not only in this country but also abroad. He often takes part in the work of scientific conferences and symposia. When I encounter difficulties in my work I always consult my research adviser.4. At present I am engaged in collecting the necessary data. I hope it will be a success and I will be through with my work on time. TASK 22. Read passage 3 and tell about your research adviser according to the following plan:1) Doctor's degree.2) Scientific publications.3) Participation in the work of scientific conferences. Task 23. Inform your colleague:a) what candidate examinations you have already passed;b) what the theme of your dissertation is;c) how many scientific papers you have published;d) if you are busy with making an experiment. Task 24. Study the text below. Complete the sentencesMy Research Work

I am an engineer. My special subject is ... I combine practical work with scientific research. I am doing research in ... This branch of knowledge has been rapidly developing in the last two decades. The obtained results have already found wide application in most varied spheres of the country's national economy.

I am particularly interested in ... which includes ... . I have been working at the problem for... years. I got interested in it when I was a student. My work is primarily of practical importance, it is based on the theory developed by the collaborators of our department. So I can say that I work in close cooperation with my colleagues. We also closely cooperate with several enterprises of our republic. There are several research teams at our department. The team I work in is headed by Doctor of Technical sciences ... He is my scientific adviser. I always consult him when I encounter difficulties in my research. We often discuss the obtained data.

As I am rather an experimentalist than a theoretician I make use of different equipment .... The obtained data enabled me to define more precisely the theoretical model of .... I have not yet completed the experimental part of my thesis, but I am through with theoretical part. For the moment I have ... scientific papers, some of which were published when I was a student. Two of them were published in the journals of Japan and ...

I take part in various scientific conferences where I make reports on my subject, I willingly partici­pate in scientific discussions and debates. I am planning to finish writing the thesis by the end of next year and prove it in the scientific Council of the ... Institute, I hope to get the scientific degree of a candidate (Master) of Technical sciences.

Task 25. Read the text again to find the answer to the following questions:1. What are you?2. What is your special subject?3. What field of knowledge are you doing research in?4. Have you been working at the problem long?5. Is your work of practical or theoretical importance?6. Who do you collaborate with?7. When do you consult your scientific adviser?8. Have you completed the experimental part of your dissertation?9. How many scientific papers have you published?10. Do you take part in the work of scientific conferences?11. Where and when are you going to get Ph.D. degree (Candidate's degree)? Task 26. Speak about your research work Task 27. Make up dialogues on the following situations. If possible use the terminology of your own field of research The scientific adviser and his post-graduate are discussing the new idea that young researcher has put forward (выдвинул). The post-graduate is very talented and the prominent scientist is eager (очень хочет) to support and stimulate him.Key phrases:· To discuss one's idea; · How very interesting; · Let us see what we can do about it; · there are gaps in (пробелы) your knowledge; · I'll fill up my gap of knowledge in the library; · I want to know everything possible in the field of my research; · it is necessary to consider the facts. Task 28. Use the following situations to start a short talk:1) Your scientific adviser has looked through your paper meant for the conference. He is making some critical remarks now.2) You are upset about your research findings. You can't get any positive result.3) Your friend tries to cheer you up.

Task 29. Answer the additional questions on your research work.




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