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3.2.4. В каждом абзаце найдите предложение, выражающее его основную мысль. Озаглавьте каждый абзац.


3.2.5. Составьте план текста на русском языке.


3.2.6. Переведите составленный план на английский язык.


3.2,7. Напишите краткое изложение текста на английском языке.


3.2.8. Прочитайте диалог. Выучите его и разыграйте по ролям.


A: The weather is wonderful today!

B: It is a lovely day, isn’t it?

A: Yes, the weather is wonderful today.

B: Delightful.

A: Yesterday the weather was much worse, wasn’t it?

B: Yes, it was.

A: All in all, the weather has been up and down this summer.

B: Delightful.

A: In France the weather is always worse than in England, don’t you find?

B: Oh, right you are!



Раздел 3.3.


3.3.1. Прочитайте текст и определите, к какой возрастной категории относится автор повествования:



we would wake up – мы бывало просыпались

at the bottom of the bed – в ногах кровати

in the years up until then – в предыдущие годы до этого возраста

dip in - зачерпнуть

a sit-down meal – застольe


Christmas at my parent’s house was quite a big event, I mean for the children especially, and I remember when I was very small it was so exciting. We would wake up at 6 o’clock or earlier on Christmas morning, and immediately look at the bottom of the bed, where there would be a pillow case, not a stocking (which was good because you can get more presents into a pillow case) at the bottom of the bed, which supposedly Father Christmas had brought. It was full of little present and fruit and nuts and all kinds of little things. Mine was always very exciting, I think my mum had very original ideas, I don’t remember when we stopped getting them, I suppose I was about fifteen, but in the years up until then we used to get them, in some form. However, towards the end they got smaller and smaller, so that in the end it was just a sock, maybe with an orange and a walnut in it.

As I got older, the big parties used to be on Christmas Eve, on the 24th, when all my cousins would come around – actually, four cousins, a boy and three girls – and maybe some of their respective boyfriends and girlfriends, and my two brothers with their girlfriends. It would start at maybe 8 o’clock in the evening, and we’d make a big punch, which consisted of red wine, vodka, orange juice and fruit, and put it in the hall so people could dip in and have a drink if they wanted to. We would also have a cold buffet with crisps, chicken, sausages and quiche, so it wasn’t a sit-down meal but just snacks really. When everyone had had enough punch to drink, we started playing games, just silly party games that people play in England. For example, we used to play “pass the orange”, where you have two teams, and you all stand in a line and have to pass the orange under your chin to the next person, who would take it under their chin. It sounds really boring, but for some reason it gets really funny, because it’s quite difficult, as the orange tends to travel down your chest. Then we would also play charades, where again you have two teams and you think of a film, a book, a play or a TV program, and you give the title to the other team who then have to act it. It’s quite simple but also quite difficult, as there are lots of different signs you can use, but you mustn’t speak. That would go on all evening.

After that, there’s Christmas Day, the 25th, which is supposed to be the big day, the big event. While the turkey was being cooked in the morning, everyone would open their presents, and then usually hang around in the kitchen and annoy my mum who’d be trying to cook. We would have a turkey with bacon on the top, which was really nice, and sausages, stuffing – two kinds of stuffing, chestnut stuffing and a kind of sage and onion stuffing – roast potatoes, sprouts, gravy, and bread sauce, which my cousin really liked. Afterwards, we’d have Christmas pudding, which is an incredibly rich, very sweet, very heavy pudding made from all kinds of dried fruit, like raisins and sultanas, with a lot of alcohol in it. You pour brandy over the top and set fire to it, so it comes into the room alight, on fire, and then you eat it with brandy butter, which is made of butter, sugar and brandy, I think, all mixed up. We also had mince pies, which are small dried fruit-filled pies. So it’s an incredibly heavy meal. Everyone eats that for about an hour, and then we have to watch the Queen’s speech, which I think is at two o’clock, and a kind of tradition. My father insists that we all have to sit down and watch the Queen as she speaks for five or ten minutes about the year that’s gone by, and than, usually, everyone just carries on watching television all afternoon.

The Christmas weather in England is so uninspiring, either rainy or cold, so after such a huge meal people just sit down, flop in front of the television and watch old films until evening. When evening comes, we have tea. We have a cup of tea and some Christmas cake – a very rich, heavy cake which my aunty Patty always makes, with sultanas, raisins, nuts, cherries and all kinds of dried fruit in it. After that, nobody does anything other than maybe open a few more presents, if there are any left, or play with the children, to keep them entertained until it’s time for them to go to bed.


3.3.2. Письменно переведите текст со словарём.


3.3.3. Выберите заголовок, наиболее соответствующий содержанию текста:


Christmas Presents

Christmas Eve


Christmas Meals


3.3.4. Ролевая игра. В международном студенческом лагере вы оказались в одной комнате со студентами из разных стран. Расспросите друг друга о традициях и обычаях народов ваших стран.



* Грамматика: модальные глаголы: can, may, must, need и их эквиваленты

* Словообразование

* Текст: English Cuisine And National Character


Раздел 4.1


4.1.1. Прочитайте предложения, задайте общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ.



You can do it now. Can you do it now? You cannot do it now.


1. They can do her a favour. 2. He must stay here too. 3. You may take this book. 4. You could come to see me the day before yesterday. 5. He should go there. 6. You should speak louder. 7. The library ought to be open now. 8. He might go there yesterday. 9. He can swim and dive very well. 10. She may visit them.



4.1.2. Прочитайте предложения с модальным глаголом can, поставьте их в форму Future Indefinite и Past Indefinite, используя эквивалент и внося необходимые изменения.



He can do the work today. He will be able to do the work tomorrow. He could do the work yesterday. He was able to do the work yesterday,


1. Everybody can see that. 2. I can finish my report today. 3. You can translate without the dictionary. 4. They can go now. 5. In a year he can speak German. 6. I can write it myself. 7. Marry can ski very well. 8. She can lend me a dictionary for a week. 9. He can go there at once. 10. Ann can read very fast.


4.1.3. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол can (could).


1.Я уже могу делать эти упражнения. 2. Мы можем начать работу сейчас же. 3. Она не может перевести текст без словаря. 4. Они не могли заниматься английским в прошлом году, они были очень заняты. 5. Он не мог поехать за город в прошлые выходные. 6. Боб может очень хорошо чинить машины. 7. Она может купить нам несколько книг? 8. Вы видите то дерево? 9. Не можете ли вы помолчать минутку? 10. Я мог хорошо кататься на лыжах, когда был мальчиком.


4.1.4. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя to be able to.


1. Я надеюсь, что ккоро смогу поехать туда. 2. Она сможет дать тебе эту книгу через неделю. 3. Они не смогли встретить нас вчера.4. Я смогу поговорить с ней только послезавтра. 5. Он не сможет помочь тебе в таком сложном деле. 6. Ты сможешь написать доклад к понедельнику? 7. Я вполне могу ему помочь, но он хочет сделать эту работу сам. 8. Он может перевести эту статью, 9. Я не могу играть сейчас, потому что очень занят. 10. Том не смог принести книгу вчера, так как был болен.


4.1.5. Прочитайте предложения c модальным глаголомmay,поставьте их в формуFuture Indefinite и Past Indefinite, используя эквивалент и внеся необходимые изменения.



You may go there. You will be allowed to go there. You might go there yesterday. You were allowed to go there tomorrow.


1. The children may go for a walk. 2. You may have a smoke here. 3. You may open the window. 4. He may look it up in the dictionary. 5. They may listen to music. 6. The students may come later. 7. They may have a snack. 8. You may pass all exams in May. 9. He may invite her friends. 10. They may take these books.


4.1.6. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол may (might).


1. Можно мне посмотреть этот журнал? 2. Вам нельзя оставлять ребёнка одного, он слишком маленький. 3.Теперь можешь делать всё, что хочешь.4. Они, может быть, ещё дома. 5. Отец, может быть, работает в саду. 6. Она может прийти в любой момент. 7. Он может изменить своё решение. 8. Он сказал, что я могу взять его книгу. 9. Мама сказала, что мы можем пойти в лес. 10. Мне разрешили пойти туда.


4.1.7. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя to be allowed to.


1. Врачи уже разрешают ему ходить туда. 2. Ему всё ещё нельзя есть апельсины. 3. Надеюсь, мне разрешат поехать в Англию на каникулы. 4. Не думаю, что им разрешат делать всю работу самим. 5. Ему не разрешают приходить домой поздно. 6. Ему разрешили сдавать экзамен в декабре. 7. Тебе можно ходить в бассейн? 8. Когда нам разрешат выходить на улицу? 9. Тебе позволили брать эти книги? 10. Детям не разрешают курить.


4.1.8. Прочитайте предложения с модальным глаголом must, поставьте их в форму Future и Past Indefinite, используя эквиваленты и внося соответствующие изменения.



You must answer this letter today. You will have to answer this letter tomorrow. You had to answer this letter yesterday. You were to answer this letter yesterday.


1. We must know all the details. 2. He must go there without delay. 3. You must type these documents. 4. I must do it at once. 4. Must I send this telegram today? 5. You must revise these rules. 6. She must be at home now. 7. You must not disturb her now. 8. You all must attend this lecture. 9. I must be in the office at 9 sharp.



4.1.9. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол must.


1. Мы должны навестить её ещё раз. 2. Я должна написать доклад к пятнице. 3. Мне надо купить лекарство маме. 4. Должно быть, интересно побывать в Греции. 5. Вы не должны так разговаривать со мной. 6. Вы должны напомнить ей о своих обязанностях. 7. Мне надо перевести всю статью? 8. Мы должны выучить это стихотворение наизусть? 9. Вы должны как-нибудь прийти и пообедать с нами.10. Я должен идти на работу в 9 часов.


4.1.10. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя эквиваленты to have to, to be to.


1. Мне пришлось сделать эту работу самой. 2. Надеюсь, ему не придётся напоминать вам об этом ещё раз. 3. Тебе приходится давать заказы каждый день? 4. Вы знаете, когда должен прийти директор? 5. Я опаздывала, поэтому мне пришлось взять такси. 6. Тебе не стоит беспокоиться, всё будет хорошо. 7. Вам придётся повторить слова, вы их плохо помните. 8. Мы должны подготовить эти документы сегодня. 9. Она сказала, что он должен придти вечером. 10. Мне никогда не приходилось делать такую сложную работу.


4.1.11. Прочитайте предложения и переведите их на русский язык.


1. You needn’t translate it just now. 2. You needn’t answer. 3. Need you ask me this question? 4. You needn’t deal with this shop if you don’t like it. 5. Need he give you an advice? 6. You needn’t go into so many details. 7. Need you be in a hurry? 8. You needn’t wear this jumper if you don’t like it. 9. Need you exert yourself so much? 10. They needn’t take my advice if they don’t think it’s good.


4.1.12. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол need.


1. Преподаватель говорит, что нам не нужно пересказывать этот текст. 2. Вам не надо отвечать на все вопросы. 3. Текст лёгкий, и нам не нужно пользоваться словарём. 4. Вам не нужно приходить опять. 5. Вам не надо отправлять эти документы по почте. 6. Нам надо позвонить вам или вы уверены, что ничего не изменится? 7. Мне не надо ходить в магазин. Родители уже купили продукты. 8. У нас достаточно времени. Торопиться незачем. 9. Не надо есть это, если не хочешь. 10. Надо ли тебе беспокоиться из-за таких пустяков?


4.1.13. Прочитайте предложения и переведите их на русский язык.


1. You should come in time. 2. You should speak to her of the matter. 3. Why should I suffer from his mistakes? 4. He shouldn’t inform her about it. 5. You should ring him up till seven. 6. He shouldn’t say that. 7. I should ring him up immediately. 8. You should return home early. 9. He should do exercises every morning. 10. You should call on your friend. He is ill.


4.1.14. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, используя глагол should.


1. Вам не следует так разговаривать с ней. 2. Тебе следовало бы сообщить нам об этих изменениях. 3. Нам следует поторопиться. 4. Не надо так расстраиваться. 5. Тебе надо быть более внимательным. 6. Вам следует помогать родителям. 7. Ему не надо бы помнить об этом. 8. Вам следует посетить эту выставку. 9. Почему я должен идти туда? 10. Не следует принимать таких поспешных решений.


4.1.15. Раскройте скобки, используя соответствующие формы модальных глаголов, или замените их эквивалентами, если это необходимо.



They said they (must) do this work immediately. They said they had to do this work immediately.



1. He said that it was time to leave as he (must) be at the station in time. 2. I (cannot) see you tomorrow as I will not come to the Institute. 3. I told them that they (cannot) leave London so soon. 4. He asked for information and was told that he (must) walk back for half a mile. 5. I (must) go to my office tomorrow, though it will be my day off. 6. He (may) do what he likes. 7. They (cannot) leave London the day after tomorrow. 8. He (must) go to the shop as there was no food at home. 9. You (may) borrow my car if you like. 10. He (may) be very tired after a long walk.


4.1.16. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык, используя модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.


1.Ты можешь найти наши места? 2. Отсюда ты можешь видеть всё. 3. Можно мне взять твою ручку? Конечно, можно. 4. Она не должна вспоминать об этом. 5. Должен ли он уходить так скоро? 6. Мне следует рассказать ей об этом. 7. Надо ли им тоже приходить? 8. Им не разрешают приходить поздно.. 9. Ты сможешь встретить их послезавтра? 10. Я должен остаться здесь на некоторое время. 11. Вам следует научиться расслабляться. 12. Мы вынуждены работать, чтобы зарабатывать на жизнь. 13. Должен он носить униформу? 14. Почему я вынужден повторять это? 15.Это не может быть правдой. 16. Мне нужно помыть посуду сейчас? Я очень спешу.



4.1.17. . Вставьте недостающие части речи.


Существительное Глагол Прилагательное Наречие
Note to note notable notably
  to constrain    



4.1.18. Отработайте произношение слов, уточнив транскрипцию по словарю.


cuisine n comics n tire v cope v coat v inferiority n deprecate v province n consciousness n mainstay n puny a spoil (spoilt, spoiled) v sauce n cunning a holy grail confirm v chef n claim n dodge n significant a rival v pore v creep (crept, crept) v uncomplicated a hangover n captivating a crumbly a acclaim v unconstrained a recipe n кухня, кулинарное искусство комиксы утомлять справляться покрывать более низкое качество протестовать, возражать провинция сознание опора, поддержка слабый портить(ся) приправа, подливка лукавый, хитрый (миф.) Чаша Грааля подтверждать шеф-повар претензия обман, уловка показательный, важный конкурировать, соперничать изучать, размышлять ползать, передвигаться простой разг. похмелье пленительный, очаровательный рыхлая бурно аплодировать непринуждённый рецепт



4.1.19. Переведите данные слова и словосочетания на русский язык.


To tire of making fun, to be famous for, to eat a lot of food, in heaven and hell, to satisfy hunger, to have an inferiority complex, national consciousness, little by little, to be awakened, mad cow disease, mainstay, to pore over, to spoil, puny, sauces and dressings, to laugh at something, the list of national recipes, significant, to have an enormous print run, to have to book months in advance, to be in the right place at the right time, to be on television screens, to grow up, to creep to the top of the list.


4.1.20. Прочитайте текст и определите, какие национальные черты характера несёт английская кухня.



The neighbours from the Continent never tire of making fun of English cuisine. The internationally popular French comics about Asterix the Gaul contain an episode in which he and his best friend Obelix, who isfamous for eating a lot of food, go to England where the two heroes struggle to eat normally, but even Obelix cannot cope with English food which is tasteless and liberally coated with mint sauce. There is also the famous joke about the international contingents in heaven and hell: in hell the chef is an Englishman (the police are German, the lovers Swiss, the mechanics French and everything is organized by the Italians; there are, of course, any number of variants on this joke).

The primary distinguishing feature of English food is also its main problem: its purpose is to satisfy hunger and not to provide pleasure. The English do not make a cult of food, although many of them do take pleasure in their food.

The English themselves have an inferiority complex about their cuisine and on the whole are deprecating about it. If your English friends invite you to lunch they will straight away present you with a choice of going to a French, Italian, Indian or Chinese restaurant. In the provinces, the choice is much smaller, and may be limited to the local pub.

We should note that, as with many other questions, national consciouness is little by little being awakened in the English even through questions of food. Nowadays they are more and more forcefully reminding their countrymen that the country achieved much in this field. Not longago,special research was published about English beef, in part in answer to the results of “mad cow disease” which made this type of meat unpopular even at home. The book was written by an historian, for the most part using historical material. The idea was simple: beef is the mainstay of the English nature and the strength of the English comes from the fact that they always ate good, natural food, such as roast beef, as opposed to the puny French who spoiled themselves with various sauces and dressings. The author was cunning in the way he linked many events in English history to the eating of beef.

The English even allow themselves to laugh at the holy grail of cooking, Italian cuisine. Not long ago, information appeared on the internet that British historians had found a fourteenth century manuscript which was England's (and possibly the world's) oldest existing list of national recipes. It described a traditional English dish named 'lasagn', which was made from so-called pasta with cheese sauce. This allowed English experts to confirm that the true homeland of lasagne is England. In reply to this scandalous claim, the official representatives of the Italian Embassy immediately announced that "regardless of the name of this ancient dish, it is not lasagne in the way we understand it." The question is so serious that we can only hope it does not lead to armed conflict. By the way, this is probably just one more of those curious facts, and in any case, you cannot believe everything you read on the Internet.

From the point of view of contemporary English culture, the story of one young English star, Jamie Oliver, is particularly interesting and significant. In terms of popularity in the country, he could easily rival pop stars and footballers. Jamie is a chef. His television show is watched by a huge audience of all ages, his books have an enormous print run, and in order to have a meal at his recently opened restaurant, you have to book months in advance. His photos are everywhere in English papers and magazines. He appears in adverts, just like other famous people, and is the hero of high society stories. English society followed the development of his relationship with his girlfriend with agitation, then they pored over his wedding photographs, the one-year anniversary of their daughter Poppy was an 'event' and now they are all waiting with anticipation for the next addition to the family.

The reasons for Jamie Oliver’s success, apart from good advertising, are that he was in the right place at the right time. First of all, he is frightfully “English”. He was born in 1975 and has been constantly on television screens for the last few years. Not handsome but sweet, he looks like a collective portrait of English youth. He grew up in the provinces (in Essex) and worked in his parents’ pub from childhood.

At first he used many techniques from Italian cuisine, in particular olive oil and vegetables, since the English have a great respect for Italian cooking. But gradually English items started to creep to the top of the list. Increasingly often he has made patriotic appeals to use traditional English products, to recall traditional English recipes, and to remember that the English have always been able to cook: nothing fancy, of course, but tasty.

Now he is in other programmes as well, for example, 'Oliver Twist'. Even the title itself contains a clever pun. On the one hand, Oliver Twist is the title of the well-known book by Charles Dickens, and on the other hand you could read it as Oliver's dodges. The idea was simple and close to the hearts of the English (and not just theirs). After a heavy night, a group of young, energetic people taken from different types of restaurant, pub and bar go home to Jamie Oliver's for breakfast. They laugh and joke lightly and in an unconstrained way while he prepares some explosive hangover cure involving tomato juice, pepper and whatever else he can find.

After this he starts to prepare breakfast, which is naturally English and traditional. In a lively way he cleans mushrooms, fries sausages and bacon, beats eggs and makes toast. All this uncomplicated process is accompanied by a commentary about how to cook bacon without burning it, how best to buy sausages, which sauce to serve. Surprisingly, this simple process is rather captivating and instructive as well: here are living English traditions, not being advertised by some crumbly old grandmother but by a jolly young Englishman with his friends who eat the lot at the end with enthusiastic cries. Jamie Oliver's work has been highly acclaimed by the country too.

In the autumn of 2003 at a ceremony in Buckingham Palace, Queen Elizabeth II personally awarded him a MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) which is awarded to people in recognition of outstanding service to the nation. Jamie Oliver, in turn, felt it his duty to show again his patriotic feelings and support the monarchy. In an interview, he told journalists that he was so choked with emotion that he almost cried. "I work abroad a lot and I am proud to sing our praises for what we are good at here. Rolls-Royce, Aston Martin, they're all gone and this is all we've got left, really," he said with a glance around the Palace courtyard".


4.1.21. Прочитайте данный текст. Укажите, какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста. Подтвердите свои ответы фактами из текста.


1. In the summer of 2003 at a ceremony in Buckingham Palace, Queen Elizabeth II personally awarded Jamie Oliver a MBE.

2. The idea to give young people good English breakfast in Oliver’s home was simple and close to the hearts of the English.

3. From the point of view of contemporary English culture, the story of one young English star, Jamie Oliver, is not interesting and significant.

4. The primary distinguishing feature of English food is also its main problem: its purpose is to satisfy hunger and not to provide pleasure.

5. There is the famous joke about the international contingents in heaven and hell: in hell the chef is French.

6. National consciousness is little by little being awakened in the English even through questions of food.

7. Everybody believed the story about the origin of lasagna read on the Internet.

8. “Oliver Twist” is only the title of the well-known book by Charles Dickens.

9. The book about English beef was written by an economist, for the most part using statistics..

10. The English make a cult of food.

11. The English have little respect for Italian cooking.

12. English society followed the development of Jamie Oliver’s relationship with his girlfriend with agitation.

13. Not long ago, information appeared on the internet that British historians had found a fourteenth century manuscript which was England's (and possibly the world's) oldest existing list of national recipes.

14. The English always make fun of French cuisine.


4.1.22. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.


What do the neighbours from the Continent never tire of?

What episode do popular French comics contain?

Who was famous for eating a lot of food?

Why cannot Obelix cope with English food?

What is the famous joke about the international contingents in heaven and hell?

What do the English themselves have about their cuisine?

Where do English friends invite their guests to lunch?

What are the English reminding their countrymen nowadays?

9. Why was the book about the English beef written?

10. What was the simple idea of this book?

11. What kind of material was used in this book?

12. Why do the English allow themselves to laugh at Italian cuisine?

13. What kind of information appeared on the internet?

14. What is Jamie Oliver?

15. Why is he a success?

16. How did English items start to creep to the top of the list?

17. What Oliver’s idea was close to the hearts of the English?

18. What kind of breakfast does Oliver prefer to prepare?

19. What happened in the autumn of 2003?

20. What did he tell journalists in his interview?


4.1.23. Переведите данные словосочетания на английский язык.


Кулинарное искусство, никогда не устают подшучивать, политая соусом, отличительная черта, любое количество вариантов, комплекс неполноценности, мало помалу, не так давно, специальное исследование, частично в ответ, в отличие от, появилась в Интернете, список национальных рецептов, действительная родина, в ответ на претензию, официальные представители, в любом случае, вооружённый конфликт, огромная аудитория всех возрастов, бронировать за месяцы вперёд, кроме хорошей рекламы, большое уважение к итальянской кухне, сопровождаемый комментарием, в нужном месте в нужное время.

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