RUSSIAN FAMILY: WHAT IS IT LIKE?
ENGLISH FOR EVERYDAY COMMUNICATION
Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов
УДК 811.111 - 26 (075.8)Печатается по решению
ББК 81.423.1я73РИС НовГУ
Р е ц е н з е н т ы
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Е.Ф. Жукова
доктор филологических наук, профессор ДВФУ О.Н. Копытов
Настоящее учебное пособие содержит текстовой материал, словарный запас по темам повседневно-бытового общения, серию упражнений, направленных на расширение лексического запаса, а также навыков работы с иноязычным текстом, материал для развития навыков говорения, а также грамматический справочник, снабженный таблицами и комментариями, и заданиями, помогающими обучаемым работать самостоятельно и совершенствовать грамматические знания.
Пособие предназначено для студентов, продолжающих изучение английского языка в вузе на этапе бакалаврской подготовки
УДК 811.111 - 26 (075.8)
© Новгородский государственный
© Е.А.Лебедева, составление, 2015
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, продолжающих изучение английского языка в неязыковом вузе на этапе общебакалаврской подготовки.
Цель пособия – научить студентов вести беседу и делать сообщения в рамках изученного материала, а также выработать у студентов умение читать литературу на английском языке для извлечения нужной информации.
Пособие состоит из вводного урока и пяти тематических уроков, каждый из которых имеет текстовой материал и упражнения, направленные на развитие умений и навыков работы с иноязычным текстом, дидактический материал для развития умений и навыков говорения, для расширения лексического запаса, а также тренировочные грамматические упражнения.
В качестве приложений представлены: краткий справочник по фонетике, краткий грамматический справочник, а также приложение с лексическим материалом по каждой теме пособия. Учебное пособие содержит образец личного письма и список неправильных глаголов.
Включение в пособие грамматического справочника продиктовано пробелами в знаниях учащихся базовой грамматики, без которой, как известно, практическое владение иностранным языком невозможно. Грамматический материал снабжен таблицами, которые помогают студенту совершенствовать свои навыки самостоятельно.
Характер учебного материала, его методическая организация делают возможным взаимосвязанное обучение всем видам иноязычной речевой деятельности и обеспечивают постепенный переход к работе с текстами по специальности студента.
"Let's Get Acquainted!"
(acquaintances and getting to know other people)
1. Introduce yourself with the help of self-introduction exercise:
Hello, my name is __________. I am ____ years old and I am majoring in ________. My hometown is ______________ and I really ________ it there because ______________. I always dreamed that someday I would ________________, and that dream has ______ true. I feel __________ about it now! Some things I like to do include ______________. There are many things I am good at and one of them is ______________. I did a really interesting thing once and that was ____________. My family consists of ______________. If I could change one thing about myself it would be _____________. Still, I am really glad to be here right now because ______________. I would really like to get together with anyone who be interested in _________________. The one thing I want to be remembered for is _______________. As far as future plans are concerned, I hope to be ________________ someday.
2. Answer the questions:
a) When is your birthday?
b) Where were you born?
c) How old are you?
d) How well did you do at school?
e) What faculty do you study at?
f) Why did you decide to enter the university?
g) How do you spend your free time?
h) Do you like to read? Who is your favourite writer?
i) Do you go in for sport?
j) Are you married?
k) Are you an only child in the family?
l) What was the last film you saw at the cinema?
m) What is your favorite T.V. show?
n) What do you usually have for breakfast?
o) What is your middle name?
p) What foods do you dislike?
q) How do you like to celebrate your birthday?
r) Are you a morning person or a night person?
s) What is your hobby?
t) What did you want to be when you were little?
u) If you had a second-life avatar, would it look just like you?
v) What’s your favorite season (Summer, Fall, Winter, Spring)?
w) Have you ever played the accordion? Has anyone in your family?
x) If you could choose your age forever, what age would you choose and why?
y) If you were to change your name, what would you change your name to? Why?
z) What are your ten favorite foods?
1. How large is your family?
2. Are your family early risers? Why? What about you?
3. Are you the eldest of the family?
4. Do you have any special duties?
5. Who do you most take after, your mother or your father?
6. Who are you like in character?
7. Who do you look like?
8. Who is the head of your family?
9. Do you think that older and younger generations should live together?
Exercise 1. Read, translate and discuss:
RUSSIAN FAMILY: WHAT IS IT LIKE?
So what is it like, the family tradition? Whose descendants are we? What are the stories your granny used to tell? What can family albums, letters and diaries reveal? What is your grandfather’s name? What is the name of your great-grandfather? Many of the Russians are not able to answer these simple questions. The family tradition is lost. And it is one of the reasons why most people have no sense of family honor and pride.
A group of people who have the same name and sit together in front of the TV set is not yet a family. Here are some family statistics in Russia. Over 80 per cent of women and about 70 per cent of men marry by the age of 25.
At present, more than 40 in every 100 marriages end in divorce. Every year about one million families break up. About 50 per cent of divorces do not want to remarry. Men remarry more often than women. Over 50 per cent of divorced men remarry within a period of ten years, while only 25 per cent of such women do so. Many young families have material difficulties. As a result young couples often have to rely on the assistance of their parents.
The housing shortage is another problem of many young families. Most young people don’t wish to live together with their parents after they get married but about half of them have to do this. As a result these young people have no necessary experience in family life. They don’t know how to run the household; how to manage the family budget; how to bring up children.
In its various forms the human family has been in existence for as long as man himself. The family tradition has preserved the picture of Madonna with a child in her arms. Can this beauty save the world? Shall we have this tradition in future, or lose it, as we lost so many other beautiful things?
Find out whether the following statements are true or false:
1. Very few marriages end in divorce.
2. Women remarry more often than men.
3. Most of Russians marry by the age of 25.
4. A lot of Russians have family traditions.
5. Young couples often have to rely on the help of their families.
Exercise 2. Find pairs of synonyms. Translate them into Russian:
Exercise 3. Translate the sentences:
1. I was called after my grandmother.
2. It was not easy to become a student, but I did all my best to do it.
3. At school I was good at Chemistry and Biology.
4. I descend from the family of doctors.
5. As formy character, my friendsfind mevery energetic andcheerful.
6. I go in for basketball and always take part in sports competitions at our university.
7. My mother is in her late forties but she looks young for her age.
8. My mother is 2 years younger than my father.
9. People say I take after my father in appearance.
10. My mother is always very busy with her work and has a lot to do about the house.
11. My parents have much in common, but they have different interests, hobbies, points of view on sports and music.
12. Oleg has graduated from the university and works as an economist.
13. On big holidays my grandparents come to visit us and we have a very good timetogether.
Exercise 4. Match the underlined words with their definitions:
Exercise 5. Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column.
1. a maiden name А. маменькин сынок
2. extremes meet В. быть под каблуком
3. a mother's boy С. с глаз долой, из сердца вон
4. to be out of hand D. строить глазки
5. to be under smb.'s thumb Е. блудный сын
6. out of sight, out of mind F. плоть и кровь
7. to make eyes at smb. G. жить как кошка с собакой
8. the prodigal son Н. отбиться от рук
9. one's own flesh and blood I. девичья фамилия
10. to lead a cat and a dog life J. противоположности сходятся
Exercise 6. Express your opinion about these statements, using the useful phrases:
1. Very few children will have brothers or sisters.
2. There will be more single-parent families.
3. More couples will divorce and re-marry.
Exercise 7. Agree or disagree with the following statements using the following phrases: Yes, I agree that.../ It is true that ... / Yes, I think that … Or: I don't think that is correct ... / I can't agree with the fact that ... / No, I don't think you are right...
1. The optimal size of the family is 3 members. 2. To be an only child in the family is very good. 3. It is not easy to be the head of the family. 4. Children should be polite with the elder members of the family. 5. The man is always the head of the family. 6. Brothers and sisters are always friends. 7. Happy families are always united.
Exercise 8. Read, translate and discuss:
My dad is quite old, he is 81. My mum is about 15 years younger. I have two brothers. Nigel, who is seven years older than me, is a computer programmer. His main interest is music, and he plays the guitar very well, and the piano. He is married to Nikki, who is an artist. She is half Swiss, and paints pictures for a living. They live in London, and have two children. My other brother Chris, is a stockbroker, and he lives with his family in Hong Kong because the firm he works for sent him out there. He met his wife Leslie in South Africa, when he was working there. Leslie doesn`t work and she brings up the children. They have got four children. So I have six nieces and nephews, which means I have got a lot of presents to buy at Christmas! I come from quite a big family. I worked it out once that I have got 25 cousins, because my dad` s dad married twice, and my mum` s mum married twice. My mum has two brothers and sisters, and she has three half-sisters. And my dad has four brothers and sisters and two stepbrothers and sisters. My parents live in the country, in the south-west of England. When I lived in England I used to go to visit them maybe every month. Now I go about twice a year. Normally I go at Christmas and sometime in the summer.
In England the stereotypical family is husband and wife and 2.4 children, so they say, and a dog and a cat. We have two cats, by the way. They were my cats, but when I left to come and live in Hungary I took them to my mum. We used to have a dog, a big golden Labrador.
The English stereotypical family of husband and wife is, I suppose, changing now because there are a lot of one-parent families. A lot of people get divorced now and live on their own, and bring up their children on their own. What about my parents? Well, my mother never worked, she was a housewife, and she and my dad lived in Sri Lanka and India for much of their married life, because my dad was a businessman. He is retired now but used to import, I think it was whisky and fertilizer, from England to Sri Lanka. My mum brought up two children there. I was born a year after they moved back to England, near London, so that` s a bit different from exotic Asia. I suppose in a way we conformed to the typical stereotype of a family. My father was the breadwinner and the head of the family, and my mother was a housewife .
Nowadays in England, most women seem to want to go out to work, and even if they have children they send them to a nursery or crèche at a very early age, and go back to work to resume their careers. Also, quite often now a lot of old people live on their own, not usually with their children and their grandchildren as used to be the case.
Find out whether the following statements are true or false:
1. Vivien’s mother is 15 years older than her father.
2. Vivien’s older brother is married to a musician.
3. The other brother met his wife in South Africa.
4. Vivien remembers only grandmother on her mother’s side.
5. She has two sisters.
6. Her parents live in London.
7. Vivien and Chris visit their parents every month.
8. Vivien brought her cats with her when she moved to Hungary.
9. Her mother has never worked.
10. Vivien was born in Sri Lanka.
11. Most women tend to go to work these days and they send their children to kindergartens.
Exercise 9. Speak about yourself and about your family using the following plan:
v give some personal information about yourself (name, age, education, interests);
v speak about your parents and grandparents (name, age, place of residence, occupation);
v speak about your brother / sister (name, age, occupation, interests, things in common);
v speak about your distant relatives (categories, place of residence, relationships);
v describe the atmosphere in your family (emotional relationship, help, common activities);
v speak about your dreams about your future family (optimal size, relations, responsibilities, unity, atmosphere).
Use the following phrases:
· to have close relationships in the family
· to live happily together
· to be on friendly terms with each other
· to get on very well together
· to be deeply attached to each other
· to help each other in difficult situations
· to discuss family problems together
· to organize family celebrations
· to spend free time together.
Exercise 10. Read, translate and reproduce the dialogues:
Dialogue 1 “Family”
Jane: What is your name and where are you from?
Sarah: I am Sarah and I`m from Canada.
Jane: What are you and how old are you?
Sarah: I`m a student and I`m twenty.
Jane: Sarah, do you have a family?
Sarah: Certainly. I have my parents and a younger sister Jennifer. She is seventeen. She goes to senior high school. I also have grandparents on my mother`s side. So, I have a big family.
Jane: What does your father do?
Sarah: My father has a café. It is our family business. He runs this café for more than twenty years. He was born in Milan and his café is a pizzeria.
Jane: How old is he now?
Sarah: My father is fifty-six.
Jane: And what about your mother?
Sarah: My mother is fifty-one and she is a painter. She is painting beautiful landscapes.
Jane: What is your mother`s origin?
Sarah: She is Irish. And she can`t forget the beauty of her native land. I`m also very influenced by her.
Jane: Do you have any relatives in Italy and in Ireland?
Sarah: Yes, I have them. My grandpa on my father`s side lives in Brescia. And my grandparents of my mother`s side live in Dublin. They are very old now and I try to visit them more often.
Jane: And what about your younger sister which is seventeen now? Is she doing well?
Sarah: Yes. She is a very clever and self-sufficing girl. I suppose she will succeed in life.
Jane: Do you like to be a senior sister?
Sarah: It is not difficult and it is very nice. My younger sister is independent and she doesn`t need to rely on me much. But I always wanted to be the youngest child in my family.
Jane: Is your relationship with your younger sister friendly?
Sarah: When I was a little girl my sister used to follow me everywhere. She always wanted to do that what I was doing. Then I didn`t want her to follow me. Now I enjoy her company and I like our conversations.
Jane: Does your sister show her respect to you?
Sarah: She enjoys being together with me.
Jane: You are happy.
Granny: Yes, my dear?
A: How many brothers and sisters did you have?
G: There was me, Alice, James, Henry. Then Robert and Emily, the twins – so that makes two sisters and three brothers.
A: What were they all like? Did they look like you?
G: Well, some did and some didn’t. My sister Alice and I were similar. People used to think we were the twins, but she was two years older than me. We both had fair hair, but I was the pretty one-my sister Alice always looked miserable.
A: Who were you closest to?
G: Ah, my brother James. He was such a kind boy, always smiling and so gentle. We went everywhere together.
A: Who did he look like?
G: Well, people said James had my mother’s features: same nose, same mouth, while Henry, who was older, was more like father. Henry had thick, dark hair, but James had fair hair like me. Henry was quite a plump boy, not fat, but he was always well-built, like Father.
A: What about the twins?
G: They were very plain. They both had long faces with high foreheads. Robert was very severe and serious – I was quite afraid of him. Robert looked middle – aged before he was twenty.
A: What about your Mummy and Daddy?
G: Ah, Mother was a darling. She had smiling eyes and a heart of gold. Father was a very quiet man. He always looked distant and reserved.
Exercise 11. Make up dialogues discussing the following problems:
1. Leadership in the family.
2. Marriage contracts and romantic love.
3. Divorce and one-parent families.
4. A white wedding or no wedding?
5. The husband should be more intelligent than the wife.
6. Spouses should be alike.
7. Money often keeps people together.
8. Marriage should be compulsory for everybody.
9. The best wife is a housewife.
You can start your dialogues with the following expressions:
Would you agree that...
Do you think it's right to say that...
Ask your classmates to explain their point of view more precisely by saying:
I didn't quite follow what you were saying about ...
I don't quite see what you are getting at, I am afraid.
If you need to rephrase your own statement, say:
Let me put it another way.
Sorry, let me explain.
That's not quite what I meant.
GRAMMAR IN PRACTICE
Exercise №1. Choose the noun in the singular or plural form:
1) Ann’s father told some funny circus .... The funniest ... was about a giant clown. (story, stories)
2) Many ... live in an apartment house. Tom’s ... lives on the fourth floor. (family, families)
3) Do you know the name of your ... ? The travelers will see many .... (country, countries)
4) Ben’s dog has five brown ... . One little ... has a flat nose. (puppy, puppies)
5) Small ... laugh and play. Jack’s ... has a now toy. (baby, babies)
Exercise №2. Write the following noun in the plural form:
A table, a sheep, a plate, a man, a fox, a room, a lady, a knife, a chair, a bus, a Negro, a match, a way, a goose, a house, a family, a flag, a town, a woman, a wolf, a country, a mouse, a lion, a park, a play, a deer.
Exercise №3. Divide the nouns in two columns (countable and uncountable):
Book, cup, dust, flour, flower, happiness, knowledge, love, milk, meat, mountain, music, oil, piano, rain, river, snow, song, table, wall, computer, water, bread, pen, pan, apple, sand, juice, ball, cream, sofa, window, lamp, ice cream, wish.
Exercise №4. Fill in the articles (a/an/the/-):
1) ... man whom Mr. Smith telephoned this morning is here now. 2) ... book which I am reading now belongs to John. 3) There is ... pencil on the desk. 4) She is ... good teacher. 5) Is this ... book which you need? 6) I want to buy ... new briefcase. 7) ... good book is always a pleasure for me. 8) It is ... good idea. 9) ... picture painted by the student is beautiful.
1) ___ Loch Ness is in ___ Scotland.
2) The Beatles made ___ Abbey Road famous.
3) Many migrating birds spend the winter in ___ Africa.
4) ___ River Thames is ___ England's second longest river.
5) I work near ___ Trafalgar Square in ___ London.
6) ___ Hague is in ___ Netherlands.
7) ___ capital of ___ United Arab Emirates is ___ Abu Dhabi and not ___ Dubai.
8) ___ Lake District in the north of England has beautiful lakes like ___ Lake Windermere.
9) ___ islands in ___ Pacific Ocean offer fantastic beaches.
10) ___ Spanish football team won the World Cup in ___ South Africa in 2010.
1) I want to be ___ actor when I leave ___ university.
2) John worked as ___ school teacher all his life.
3) He put his scarf around ___ neck before going out.
4) Put this cap on to protect ___ head from the sun.
5) I'm going to ___ hospital to visit Mary.
6) ___ Jimmy's father went to ___ school to talk to his teacher.
7) It's time to get up, Jimmy. You've got to go to ___ school.
8) John had ___ breakfast and left for ___ work.
9) ___ dinner is on the table! Come and get it!
10) In the United States ___ most children receive a school education.
Exercise №5. Choose the correct form of the verb to be and translate the sentences:
1) He (is, was, will be) at the lecture yesterday.
2) The test (is, was, will be) difficult.
3) They (are, were, will be) second-year students next year.
Exercise №6. Make the interrogative and the negative sentences for each situation:
1) They had an English lesson yesterday.
2) Students will have five exams in June.
3) This university has a distance education department.
Put the verb in the correct form, Present Simple:
1) We (read) the newspaper in class every day.
2) He always (prepare) his homework carefully.
3) We always (play) tennis on Saturdays.
4) She (speak) several foreign languages.
5) The children (play) in the park every afternoon.
6) Helen (work) very hard.
7) They (take) a lot of trips together.
8) We always (travel) by car.
9) I (eat) lunch in the cafeteria every day.
10) We (walk) to the bus stop every morning.
11) Dad (watch) a lot of sport on TV at the weekends.
12) She (not help) her mum with housework every day.
13) I (write) e-mails every day.
14) Beckham (score) a goal every time he (play) football.
15) He (replay) to all his e-mails immediately.
Exercise №8. Make the interrogative and the negative sentences for each situation:
For example:John goes there twice a week.
Does John go there twice a week?
John doesn’t go there twice a week.
1) He knows French perfectly. 2) I understand everything he says. 3) She makes mistakes in spelling. 4) They enjoy their English lessons. 5) They live in Kiev. 6) We use our books in class. 7) The plane leaves at ten o’clock. 8) She always comes to class late. 9) I always take the same bus to work.
Exercise №9. Put the verb in the correct form, Past Simple:
1) We (work) in our garden all day yesterday.
2) I (listen) to the radio until twelve o’clock last night.
3) He always (want) to learn English.
4) Ann and I (talk) over the telephone yesterday.
5) They (live) in France for many years.
6) The meeting (last) about two hours.
7) I (wait) almost two hours for Helen yesterday.
8) She (study) in our class last semester.
9) We (watch) television until eleven o’clock last night.
10) Mr. and Mrs. Simpson (invite) all their friends and neighbours to a party last night.
11) In the morning my parents (work) outside.
12) I (meet) a friend on my way to class.
13) Someone (steal) my bike and I (have to) to call the police.
14) I (play) football on my weekend.
15) In winter I (skate).
Exercise №10. Make the interrogative and the negative sentences for each situation:
For example: Не prepared his lesson well.
Did he prepare his lesson well?
He didn’t prepare his lesson well.
1) They stayed in Moscow all summer. 2.) She planned her work well. 3) The crowd waited a long time to see the famous actor. 4) He worked in that Institute for many years. 5) We arrived home late. 6) He entered this class in April. 7) Ann passed all her examinations. 8) The meeting lasted a long time. 9) They travelled there by train. 10) She decided to write a letter to her parents at home.
Exercise №11. Put the verb in the correct form, Past Simple:
1) I (forget) to bring my notebook to class yesterday.
2) The telephone (ring) twice but no one answered it.
3) George (think) about his troubles continuously.
4) Last year Professor Johnes (teach) us both English and mathematics.
5) I (lose) my English book yesterday but (find) it later.
6) The Petrovs (take) their two children to the South with them.
7) He (tell) the whole story to us.
8) The meeting (begin) at ten o’clock yesterday.
9) They (go) to the park after the lesson.
Exercise №12. Make the interrogative sentences for each situation, using the words in brackets:
For example:Не arrived at ten o’clock.
(What time) What time did he arrive?
1) They sat in the first row. (In which row)
2) The performance lasted two hours. (How long)
3) He went to Leningrad to see some friends. (Why)
4) She put the mail on my desk. (Where)
5) He walked to school with Mary. (Whom with)
6) They spoke to us in French. (In what language)
7) He arrived home very late. (When)
Exercise №13. Put the verbs given the brackets in Future Simple:
1) Helen (find) the book which you need.
2) They (see) us tomorrow.
3) He (finish) the work in April.
4) The shops (close) at noon today.
5) We (arrive) at three o’clock.
6) She (tell) you all about it.
7) You (spend) two months in the South.
8) The plant (die) because of lack of sunshine.
9) The meeting (begin) at eight o’clock.
10) The film (last) an hour.
11) They (learn) a lot of English during the six-week summer school.
12) Dad (enter) the competition and try to win a racing car!
13) I’m cold. I think I (put) the heating on.
14) I promise I (buy) you something nice for your birthday.
15) This computer (work) faster than your old one.
16) I’m sure you (live) in London when you are older.
Exercise №14. Make the interrogative and the negative sentences for each situation:
For example:They will arrive at three o’clock.
Will they arrive at three o’clock?
They won’t arrive at three o’clock.
1) They will return in October.
2) These exercises will be easy for you.
3) He will be able to meet us later.
4) Our drama society will present a new play this year.
5) The lesson will be over at twelve o’clock.
6) There will be three new students in the class.
7) She will leave a message on the table for him.
8) They will write to us on Wednesday.
9) We shall take the children to the park.
MEALS AND COOKING
v What do you usually eat and drink:
- at work/university
- on a picnic
- at a fast-food restaurant
- at an expensive restaurant?
v Do you often:
- eat junk food
- have a snack between meals?
v Do you worry about how healthy your diet is?
Exercise 1. Read the text and pay attention to the bold words:
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