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Semantic structure of the sentence



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Case gr:semantic—deep underlying structure; syntactic-surface structure.

The sem structure of the S was 1st described by Fillmore in his book ‘The Case for Case’. The 2 main components of the sem structure are: modality – the features of mood, tense, aspect, negation relating to the S as a whole ; proposition – a tenseless set of relationships . The proposition is constituted by the sem predicate & a set of nominative elements called arguments. S = modality + proposition; P = V +n1+n2+n3 (nominal elements)

a deep case is a certain sem role performed by a nominative component in the act or state or processnamed by the sem predicate. Types of arguments (Fillmore): 1) agent- does the action, usu animate: Sam planted a tree. 2) Object – smth affected by the action Tom broke the window 3) patient smbd affected by the action 4) instrument He opened the door with the key 5) beneficiary smbd who gains (for) 6) factitive (result) smth that comes into being as a result of the action & didn’t exist before 7) force элементатив) the wind broke the window 8) locative some place experienced as a substance Minsk is a big city 9) temporative some moment or period of time experienced as a substance Yesterday was a busy day.:

Types of pred: material actions, states & processes, mental processes.

The proposition is a reflection of situations & events of the outside world. The semantic predicate determines the number of arguments, or opens up places for arguments.=> types of pred: 1.no participant pred(it rains), 2.1-placepredicates(she cried) 3. 2-place pred(she broke the cup). 4. 3-place pred(she gave me the cup) 5participant unexpended(do you drive(a car))

Chafe (case frame & sem feat of the V)=>types:states (wood is dry), processes (the wood is dried), actions (sang), act-process (he dried the wood), ambient state (it’s hot), ambient act (it’s raining).

 

Communicative structure of the sentence. Functional sentence perspective (FSP).

Linguistic analysis of utterances in terms of the information they contain is called the actual division or the analysis of the Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP).

FSP refers to the way the speaker structures the information, the way he identifies the relative importance of utterance parts. Usually the utterance consists of 2 parts: the topic of discussion: smth about which a statement is made & the new information, which adds most to the process of communication. These 2 sections are called the theme & the rheme, or topic & comment. Some sentences contain only the rheme, they are monorhematic: It is getting dark. In the majority of sentences the constituents are either rhematic or thematic. There are also transitional elements. Sentences containing the theme & the rheme are called dirhematic.

Thematic elements are marked by the definite article, loose parenthesis (as for me…),detached parts of the sente;

rhematic elements: by the indefinite article, particles (even, only),negations(none of us can fly), emphatic constructions (It is he, who…).

Progressive information structure- Th-rh.

Some means of preserving the progressive information structure: 1.passive transformations (UNESCO took the first steps. → The first steps were taken by UNESCO) 2.the use of conversives (20 people died in crush. → The crush killed 20 people). 3)The use of personal subject & the nominal predicate –( It was silent in the room. → The room turned silen)t.

Some means of making the subject rhematic: the constructions there is/there are, it is necessary, inversion,etc.

Thematic elements contribute little to the meaning of the utterance as they reflect what has already been communicated, in other words they have the lowest degree of communicative dynamism (CD). Rhematic elements, containing new information which advances the communicative process have the highest degree of CD.

 

Word order

The words in an English sentence are arranged in a certain order which is fixed for every type of sentence and is,therefore,meaningful. There exist two ways of arranging words-direct order and inverted order.

The most common pattern for the arranfement of the main parts in a declarative sentence is Subject-Predicate-(Object),which is called direct word order.

func: gram, communicat, emphatic

Gr: 2)distinguish bw declar & ?sent 2)differentiate synt rel(bw Subj & Direct O(Tom loves Mary) bw Indir O & Dir O(the nurse gave Mary her daughter)) 3)to express attributive connections(People here rise early)

Commun( disting bw TH &RH, connecting sent in the text)

Emph(subjective wo: the new preceeds the given- Very tired she looked)

fixed word order: in many cases, speakers can choose between different constituent orderings or constructional alternations as exemplified in the following sentence pairs: John gave the book to Fred vs. John gave Fred the book, John picked up the book vs. John picked the book up, the President's speech vs. the speech of the President.


30. TEXT In modern linguistics text is considered to be the main unit of linguistic analysis. Discourse refers to a continuousstrech of utt larger than a sent.text<->discourse(t-physical product, surface structure, monologue, discourse- dynamic process, deep structure, dialogue)

Supraphrasal unity-2 or more connected sent characterized by the topical unity & semantic-syntactic cohesion.upraph u ch-ed by communicative dynamism: new inf is based on the inf which has been communicated in the previous sent.

A text has texture (текстура, или фактура), and this is what distinguishes it from other linguistic units. The texture is provided by the cohesive relation (когезивные отношения, связующие отношения,) or the co-reference (отнесённости к объекту внеязыковой действительности - реальной или воображаемо) of two elements appearing in anaphoric or cataphoric relations .

Grammatical Cohesive Devices:Anaphora (анафора) is a kind of mng rel bw speech expressions where a subsequent element is interpreted with reference to an initial one. Anaphora is pointing back to some previous item. The presupposed element may be located elsewhere in the preceding context

Cataphora (катафора) is a kind of mng rel where the presupposing element is preceding the presupposed one. Thus cataphora is pointing forwards.

Tie (связка, связь) is a single instance of cohesion (отдельны» случай когезии) and the rel bw a pair of elements standing in anaphoric or cataphoric relations

Personal reference (референция, производимая при помощи личных и притяжательных местоимении) is reference by means of function in the speech situation, through the category of person. This reference is performed by personal and possessive (including absolute) pronouns.

Demonstrative reference (указательная референция) is reference by means of location, on a scale of proximity. It is a form of verbal pointing

Comparative reference (сравнительная референция) is indirect reference by means of identity or similarity. It is based on comparison

 

 



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