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Exercise 35 (Revision.)

Практическая грамматика английского языка

Unit l

The Noun

Exercise 1.

Write the plural form of the following.

A regular nouns

story, play, glass, flag, photo, name, match, knife, bush, chief, page, radio, roof, prize, set, key, factory, wolf, piano, class, cup, city

В irregular nouns

child, goose, man, foot, mouse, woman, sheep, person, deer, tooth, ox

С nouns of Greek or Latin origin

criterion, datum, formula, crisis, stimulus, index, phenomenon, medium, oasis, nucleus, memorandum, basis, radius, analysis, symposium, hypothesis

D compound nouns

fellow-worker, merry-go-round, man-of-war, passer-by, sister-in-law, forget-me-not, room-mate, lily-of-the-valley, ticket-holder, commander-in-chief, governor-general

Exercise 2.

Divide the following words into two columns: countable and uncountable nouns (you must get 25 uncountable nouns).

furniture, coffee, leaf, food, computer, list, blood, job, work, language, country, advice, information, money, progress, permit, permission, baggage, luggage, beach, traffic, weather, window, knowledge, air, water, holiday, damage, accommodation, scenery, scene, pigeon, bread, mountain, kick, news, accident, laugh, flour, laughter


Exercise 3.

Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the words in bold type.

1. The windows in his car are made of unbreakable glass. 2. He gave me a glass of water. 3. These are the works of Shakespeare. 4. He is not at home, he is at the works. He is installing new equipment. 5. His work is rather dull,he thinks. 6. Do you have scales? I want to weigh this fish. 7. Celsius or Fahrenheit scales are used in many countries. 8.1 spilled the water, give me a cloth, please. 9. Have you bought cloth for draperies? 10. He's got his car insurance police. 11. She always criticizes the government's policy. 12.1 need an iron to press my dress. 13. These items are made of iron. 14. There is neither salt nor pepper on the table. 15. He planted several peppers in the hothouse. 16. Would you like some chocolate? 17. She took aehowlate out of the box. 18. He meets a lot of people every day. 19. A lot of different peoples live in Asia. 20. They run a very profitablebHsiness somewhere in South Africa. 21. Business is an essential part of American life.


Exercise 4.

Match the word on the left with its partner on the right.

Example: a piece music — a piece of music

1) a lump 2) a bit 3) a flash 4) a stroke 5) a slice 6) a clap 7) a sum 8) an article 9) a loaf 10) a bar 11) a spot 12) a carton 13) a tube 14) a puff 15) an item 16) a sheet 17) a strip 18) a grain 19) a block 20) a breath   a) lightening b) thunder c) clothing d) air e) salt f) bread g) rain h) milk i) soap j) toothpaste k) cloth 1) furniture m) paper n) cheese o) money p) luck q) ice r) sugar s) information t) smoke  


Exercise 5.

Change the uncountable nouns in bold type into countable ones in the sentences using the words from Exercise 4.

Example: Buy some bread or. your way home. — Buy a loaf of bread on your way home.

1.I had luck in the casino yesterday. 2,1 saw lightening and then heard thunder in the west. 3. How much luggage have you got with you? 4. Would you like some more cake? 5. Daddy brought me milk chocolate! 6, He blew smoke out of his pipe into the open window. 7', How much sugar do you take with your tea? 8. We need to buy some furniture for our kitchen. 9. Give me please brown shoe polish. 10, He told us very interesting information last night,


Exercise 6,

Write out the nouns which are used only in the plural form (you must get 25 nouns).

athletics, cattle, scissors, taxes, pyjamas, economics, police, news, means, goods, pants, subjects, billiards, darts, outskirts, premises, mechanics, spectacles, clothes, stairs, maths, shorts, tights, gymnastics, congratulations, crossroads, patience, scales, lodgings, foundations, equipment, research, authorities, soap, contents, looks, countryside, traffic-lights, tongs, toothpaste, headphones, delays, binoculars, electronics, eyes, trousers

Exercise 7.

Complete the following table and give the corresponding singular or plural form of the nouns, if any. If there is no the corresponding form, put a v. The first two words are given as examples.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
means means    
V scissors    

means, scissors, pence, Frenchman, Roman, photo, physics, cloth, sheep, halves, news, sleeves, mice, species, contents, athletics, series, knowledge, feet, phenomena, clothes, bases, headquarters, Japanese

Exercise 8.

Find the odd word in the chain of the nouns.

Example: tea — butter — onions — meat

1) trousers — spectacles — scales — news 2) advice — knowledge — contents — progress

3) phonetics - vacation - goods – information 4) criteria — datum — oases — radii 5) mice — men — goats — geese 6) police — work — weather — furniture 7) congress — team — government — equipment 8) water — potato — milk — bread 9) time — business — stone — bird 10) means — species — crossroads — wolves 11) thanks — barracks — congratulations — authorities 12) diagnoses — roofs — cattle — accommodation 13) premises — mechanics — darts — laughter 14) success — research — applause — path 15) journey — voyage — travel — walk


Exercise 9.

Open the brackets and choose the proper form.

1.1 feel that the jury already (have/has) thought that you are innocent. 2. The government (was/were) not able to pursue the policy which had been promised before the elections. 3. The police (is/are) investigating the case now. 4. The crew of the plane (consist/consists) of four people. 5. His company (was/were) founded in 1996. 6. The party (was/were) in full swing. The music was playing, the company (was/were) eating and drinking. 7. My family (is/are) early risers, so at 11 o'clock p.m. the family (is/are) always in bed. 8. The cattle (is/are) in the field next to it. 9. The committee (is/are) full of enthusiasm. 10. Such an organization as the board of directors (is/are) elected by stockholders. 11. The ship turned out to be a good ship,the crew (was/were) skilled seamen. 12, The government usually (consist/consists) of the prime minister and several ministers. 13. The average American family (have/has) three children.

14. The jury (is/are) represented by twelve people. 15. The crops (is/arc) good this summer,

Exercise 10.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb to be


1, The crew___rescued by our boat, 2. Her clothes ___very fashionable. 3, Your advice___.always welcome. 4. The information he gave us___very useful. 5A little

money___better than nothing. 6. That species of spiders ___commonly seen in deserts of North Africa. 7.1 think her hair___dyed. 8. No news.___good news. 9.1 don't want to work here. The equipment___too complicated. 10. There___a lot of sheep in the field. 11.1 think this ___detailed research. 12. Where___my spectacles? 13. The phenomena___unusual. 14. Mathematics___ difficult, but physics___more difficult to my mind. 15, The cattle___up the hill.

1. Look out! The stairs___.very old. 2. In my opinion, looks___very important for an actor. 3. The police___ responsible for these actions. 4. Criteria___changing, you know. 5. The committee___set up several months ago. 6. The traffic___very heavy in this street. Be careful

at the corner. When the traffic-lights___red, don't cross the street. 7. The working wages ___ up. 8. The knowledge she has got at college___very deep. 9. The carrots___delicious. 10. The vacation___always fun. 11. The funeral ___ usually a sad occasion. 12. The evidence___against him. 13. The contents of the letter ___made public. 14. The opera-glasses___out of focus.

15. The grapes___ripe.


Exercise 11.

Match the words on the left (1-10) with the appropriate phrases on the right (a-j) to get 10 sentences.

1) Your advice a) are located outside


2) Our headquarters b) she lent us was not


3) The money c) are fit.

4) The premises d) is an important part of

the Olympic Games.

5) The information e) are often deceptive.

6) Best news f) is installed in our new


7) New equipment g) against applying for

that job was good.

8) Athletics h) was not reliable. It was

published in tabloids.

9) The scales i) is always printed in

morning newspapers.

10) Appearances j) where he worked were

in the suburbs.


Exercise 12

Find the mistakes in the follow ing sentences and correct them. Some sentences have more than one mistake.

1. We had such a terrible weather that we left the hotel in the country (we did not have heatings there) and took an accommodation with a fire place in town instead. 2. Yesterday I got a permission to go there. What about you? Have you got your permits? 3.1 love French impressionists but I would need an advice from a specialist before I bought any. My knowledges in that area are very poor. 4. Her works are definitely making great progresses these days. She has done a lot of researches lately. 5. Have you heard that Jack's lodging is in London, but in the outskirt of the city? These are interesting news, aren't they? 6. The police is looking for the criminals who escaped last night. The informations about them were sent to all the police stations of the district. 7, Political and economic crises is frequent for Africa. 8. How many luggages are you taking? Oh, I think you won't be able to cope with them. You'll have to hire a porter. 9. Last week was awful for her. She had two tooth pulled out, her childs got ill and finally her husband lost moneys. 10. The tights is too loose for her.

Exercise 13.

Translate the sentences into English.

1. Его советы всегда бывают такими убедительны­ми (convincing). Почему ты никогда им не следуешь? 2. Какая ненастная (nasty) погода! В такую дождли­вую погоду лучше сидеть дома. 3. Она делает хорошие успехи в английском, 4. Я удивлен (be surprised), что она поверила этим странным новостям. Боюсь, они недостоверны. Кто их ей сообщил? 5. Мне кажется, эти весы сломаны. 6. Вчера я положил сюда деньги. Где они? Я не могу их найти. 7. Я считаю, что помещение для нашего магазина вполне подходящее. 8. Мне не нравятся эти джинсы. Мне кажется, та пара джинсов лучше. 9. Экипаж был готов выполнить (fulfil) приказ капитана. 10. Критерии часто меняются, 11. Ваши то­вары сделаны очень плохо. 12. Нику необходимо сшить (sew) новые брюки. У меня есть хорошая синяя мате­рия. 13. Он купил буханку хлеба, пакет молока, кусок мыла и тюбик зубной пасты. 14. Информация о ценах очень интересна. 15. Здесь нет светофора, и перекрес­ток очень опасное место. 16. Виды этих растений (plant) неизвестны. 17. Вдруг позади себя я услышал гром­кий смех, 18. Его знания по математике лучше моих, 19. Ты взял бинокль? — Нет, он нам не понадобится. Наши места во втором ряду (row). 20. Улики были важными, и он чувствовал, что суд присяжных был против него. 21. В Англии зарплата рабочим выпла­чивается каждую неделю. 22. Актеров встретили ап­лодисментами. 23. Мои часы отстают. 24. Морковь бо­гата витаминами. 25. Она считает, что современная одежда красива и удобна (convenient)


Unit 2

Noun Structures

Exercise 14.

Read and translate the following compound nouns. Find compounds which are countable (8), uncountable (6) and those which are used either in the singular (6) or the plural (6).

heart attack, greenhouse effect, luxury goods, pedestrian crossing, contact lens, package holiday, food poisoning, mother tongue, birth control, roadworks, human rights, arms race, alarm clock, pocket money, hay fever, blood donor, blood pressure, data processing, generation gap, kitchen scissors, assembly line, sunglasses, labour force, race relations,windscreen wiper,brain drain

Exercise 15.Match the words on the left (1-10) with their definitions on the right (a-j).

1) a baby-sitter a) your first language

2) a traffic jam b) money you pay on your


3) a box office c) an office where you buy

tickets for trains

4) mother tongue d) an office where you buy

tickets for cinemas

5) income tax e) a person who patrols

streets to make sure you are not parked in the wrong place illegally

6) handcuffs f) a knife for opening


7) greenhouse effect g) a person who looks

after children when their parents are out

8) ticket office h) a long line of cars

which move slowly because the road is busy

9) a traffic warden i) it is caused by hair

sprays and old fridges

10) a tin opener j) every policeman has


Exercise 16.

Rewrite the following phrases according to the example.

Example: a factory which produces automobiles — an automobile factory a man who drives a bus — a bus driver a machine that washes dishes — a dish washer paper for writing letters — writing paper

1} a shop that sells books; 2) an editor of a newspaper; 3) a person who pays taxes; 4) a brush for shoes; 5) cake made with raisin; 6) a garage for cars; 7) a company which provides insurance; 8) a bag made of leather; 9) a tool for sharpening pencils; 10) a book which has cheques; 11) a machine for washing clothes; 12) a license to drive a car; 13) a person who dresses and cuts hair; 14) аи office that sells tickets; 15) a device for opening tins.

Exercise 17.

A Make up compound structures according to the example.

Example: a child who is five years old — a five year old child

1) a man whose height is six feet; 2) a walk which covers three miles; 3) a programme which lasts half an hour; 4) a flight which takes two hours and a half; 5) a hotel having four stars; 6) a lorry which can carry 5 tonnes; 7) a field of fifty acres.

В Paraphrase the sentences according to the example.

Example: She's got a flat of two rooms. — She's got a two-room flat.

His trip lasted four days. — He had a four-day trip,

1. He covered a distance of two miles. 2, Her holiday in California lasted 10 days, 3. They decided to take an interval of three hours. 4. She lives in a building that has sixteen storeys. 5. His call to Paris lasted five minutes. 6. While I was on holiday I met two charming girls of twenty years old. 7. He saw a film of two series yesterday. 8. She bought two bags of potatoes that weigh five kilos. 9. He gave us a banknote of fifty dollars to change. 10.1 wrote a composition which covered twenty pages.


The Possessive Case

Exercise 18.

Paraphrase the following using the possessive case.

Example: The son of our manager — our manager's son

A 1) the house of Mr. Smith; 2) a doll of the girls; 3) the works of Rembrandt; 4) a toy of the baby; 5) a meeting of the employees; 6) the bags of those women; 7) the orders of our boss; 8) the books of the children; 9) the cottage of my parents; 10) a garage of her cousin.

В 1) coal deposits of the world; 2) the influence of the sun; 3) the atmosphere of the earth; 4) the joys and grieves of life; 5) the arrival of the ship; 6) icy mountains of Greenland; 7) the policy of the company; 8) gold reserves of Russia; 9) the gravitation of the planet; 10) the decisions of the commission.

С 1) the mother of Kate and Mary; 2) the children of my aunt Ann; 3) the paintings by Picasso and Dali; 4) the gun of the commander-in-chief; 5) the times of Ivan the Terrible; 6) the speech of the Minister of Foreign Trade; 7) the correspondent of the Herald Tribune; 8) a flat of my father-in-law; 9) the wives of Henry the Eighth; 10) oil wells of Saudi Arabia.

D 1) a cruise which lasts three weeks; 2) work which takes two hours; 3) a distance of five kilometres; 4) the operation which lasted four hours; 5) the flight which took three hours; 6) a semester of eight weeks; 7) the rest which lasted an hour; 8) a play of three acts; 9) a football

match which lasts ninety minutes; 10) a telephone conversation which lasts three minutes.


Exercise 19.

Paraphrase the following using the possessive case.

Example: I must sleep 9 hours a day to feel well. — / must have nine-hours^ sleep to feel well.

1. Every day at noon we have a break, which lasts fifteen minutes. 2.1 can't understand why he is so tired. The distance he covered is a mile only. 3. The walk to the station was short. It took us ten minutes. 4. Last year we spent two weeks in Greece. The holiday was terrific. 5. If you want to get there.a trip will take you only five hours. 6. Don't take a training course that lasts a week. It won't do you good. 7.1 slept only five hours yesterday because my train came late. 8. Yesterday our lesson lasted thirty minutes because oar teacher was to leave at 12 o'clock. 9. If you want to have a voyage round Europe, you will need at least three weeks. 10. My workweek lasts five days.


Exercise 20.

Replace the nouns in the possessive case by the prepositional groups where possible.

Example: He always takes his brothers' bocks. — He always takes books of his brothers.

1. The only thing she wanted was to see her parents' house again. 2. No one could explain the young girl's behaviour at yesterday's supper. 3. Last Sunday's rugby match was disappointing. Our team lost. 4. The boy was looking through a children's magazine. 5. After an hour's break we resumed our work. 6. At that time he lived In a little flat for economy's sake. 7. It was four and a half hours' ride, 8.1 don't like cow's milk. 9. He was puzzled by Ann and Peter's visit. 10. When Friday came, he was at his wit's ends. 11. She dropped in at the chemist's to buy some aspirin. 12. This is John's coat, and that is Peter's.


Exercise 21.

Translate into English using noun structures.

1. Президент прибыл в страну с трехдневным ви­зитом (2 варианта). 2. Мне нужно купить туфли. Ты не знаешь, где здесь обувной отдел (department)? 3. Ник­то не знал, что сказать, и наступило минутное молча­ние. 4. Когда утром он спустился в столовую, на столе лежали остатки (remains) вчерашнего ужина. 5. Док­лад главнокомандующего был краток. 6. Мне кажется, что проблема «отцов и детей» — вечная (eternal) про­блема. 7. Эта дорога закрыта. Ведутся дорожные рабо­ты. 8. «Утечка мозгов» — острая (acute) проблема раз­вивающихся (developing) стран. 9. Ты считаешь, что в Китае необходимо ввести (implement) регулирование рождаемости? 10. Приезд Поля и Кет был неожидан­ностью (surprise) для тети Эня. 11. Самые богатые за­лежи (deposits) нефти находятся в Арабских Эмира­тах. 12. Проблемы, с которыми человечество (mankind) столкнулось (face) в конце двадцатого века, — это за­грязнение (pollution)no4Bbi, воздуха и воды, а также «парниковый эффект». 13. После двухчасовой прогул­ки все захотели есть (2 варианта). 14, Портрет жены Рембрандта — одна из самых известных картин ху­дожника. 15, Этому замку триста лет.


Choose the right variant.

1. His advice___always reasonable. I advise you to follow___.

a) are, them c) is, it

b) are, it d) is, them

2. The applause___deafening. I can't stand___any longer. Let's go out.

a) are, them c) is, them

b) is, it d) are, it

3. The second witness's evidence___more convincing. ___made me believe that the suspect is innocent.

a) are, it c) are, they

b) is, it d) is, they

4. Look, her clothes___brand new. Where did she get the money to buy___?

a) is, it c) are, them

b) are, it d) is, them

5. The Browns who lived in___house___dining with the Harrisons who___their best friends.

a) a three-storey, were, were c) a three-storey's, were, were

b) three-storeys, were, was d) three-storeys', was, were

6. The information he gave us___convincing. I don't think we should check___.

a) is, it c) are, them

b) is, them d) are.it

7. Her pyjamas___made of silk. I like___very much.

a) is, it c) are.it

b) is, them d) are, them

8. These scissors___dull! I can't cut anything with

a) are, them c) is, it

b) is, them d) are, it

9. When I move to London, I'll have to find lodgings. I'm afraid___will be very expensive and I'll have to pay for___half of my salary,

a) it, it c) they, it

b) they, them d) it, them

10.1 think billiards___a dull game. I wonder why the youth nowadays___so fond of___?

a) are, is, it c) are, are, them

b) is, are, it d) is, are, them

11. He is so depressed. The contents of the letter___ made public. General public___discussing___.

a) have been, is, them c) have been, are, them

b) has been, are, it d) has been, is, it

12. Look! Goods___displayed in the window. The manager says that there will be___sale.

a) are, two-days' c) are, a two-days

b) is, two-day's d) is, a two-day

13. Our family ___ good at playing draughts. Draughts___our favourite game. We play___every weekend.

a) is, is, it c) are, are, them

b) are, is, it d) is, are, it

14. Stop! The traffic___heavy and the traffic lights ___red. In___time you will cross the street.

a) is, is, two-minutes c) are, is, a two-minutes'

b) are, are, a two-minute d) is, are, two-minutes'

15. He spent___holiday at the___,

a) a week, Richardsons' c) a weeks, Richardsons

b) week's, Richardson d) week, Richardson's

16. She was going for___walk across the fields to the___house. She was sure that he would help her because it was the duty of___to help poor people like her.

a) a ten-miles, governor's-general, governor-generals

b) a ten-mile's, governor-general's, governors-general

c) a ten-mile, governor-general's, governor-generals

d) ten miles', governor-generals', governors-general

17. She wished she had a little garden with___and like that of___.

a) lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-nots, Mrs. Sand

b) lily-of-the-valleys, forget-me-nots, Mrs. Sand's

c) lilies-of-the-valiey, forget-me-nots, Mrs. Sand's

d) lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-not, Mrs. Sand

18. Take your___and get out with___! You got my ___ notice, didn't you?

a) belonging, it, two weeks c) belongings, them, two week's


b) belongings, it, a two weeks d) belonging, them, two week's

19. We want to equip our factory with___and to install___ in the assembly shop.

a) new machineries, them c) new machines, it

b) a new machinery, it d) new machinery, it

20. Have you got all the___of Byron in your home library? — Yes, I have, but I haven't read all of___.

a) works, them c) works, it

b) work, it d) work, them


Unit 4


Exercise 22.

Paraphrase the following words in bold type using little, a little, few, a few.

Example: There is hardly anywine in the bottle. — There is little wine in the bottle.

The chairman said some words. — The chairman said & few words.

1.1 can't help you. I have hardly any time. 2. Mr. Brown, can I come and see you today? I'd like to ask you some questions. 3. It is no use asking him about it. He has hardly any knowledge of the subject. 4.1 go to the theatre when I have some money and free time. 5. Is there much chalk in the box? — No, there is hardly any here. 6. He drank some water and felt much better. 7. There was hardly any tea in the cup, so he poured some more. 8. Hardly any people understood what he said. 9. There are some carrots in the box. 10. Mummy, may I have some ice cream? 11. Many years ago some people realized the significance of this discovery. 12. There was hardly any doubt that the problem could be solved in the near future. 13. We didn't have to take a porter. We had hardly any luggage. 14,1 think he is rather greedy. He buys hardly any things for himself. 15. We have received some valuable information. I think it will help us a lot.

Exercise 23.

Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few, a few.

1. I'd like to make___remarks in connection with the topic under discussion. 2.___peopJe realize how important it is to go in for sports. 3. This student has deep knowledge in English and besides he knows___ French. 4. He is a man of.___words. 5. Only___names remained in his memory, for this accident happened more than 20 years ago, 6. That lecture was so difficult that

only___students could understand it. 7.1 had ___ hope of getting home tonight because I realized that I had lost my way. 8. The postman doesn't often come here. We receive___letters. 9. I'm having___trouble fixing this shelf. — Oh dear! Can I help you? 10.1 shall be away for___.days from tomorrow. 11. When you've wanted something very badly and it comes at last, it is

somehow ___ frightening. 12. It was a cold windy evening, and there were___people in the park. 13. There were no doctors for the wounded, and to make things worse there was only ___ food left. 14. She asked permission to speak to the guest for___moments, 15.1 won't listen to you! I'd like to believe that there is___ hope left.


Exercise 24.

Paraphrase the following sentences using the words from the box.

Few, a few, quite a few, little, a little

1. Only some pupils wrote the test. 2. A small number of people live to be 80 in Russia. 3.1 have not much time for studying. 4. He had a considerable number of mistakes in his dictation. 5. She has got some time to prepare for the report.


Exercise 25.

Translate into English using little, a little, few, a few.

1. Джим вчера попросил меня починить (repair) машину, но у меня было мало времени, и мне пришлось отказать ему. 2. Она очень застенчива (shy). У нее мало подруг. 3. В зале было довольно много людей, так как фильм был интересный, 4. У меня есть несколько книг по этой проблеме. 5, У нас нет сахара. Купи немного по дороге домой. 6. Мало кто понял, что он хочет ска­зать. 7. Я выпил немного кофе и смог работать до полу­ночи. 8. В его переводе было мало ошибок, 9. Они по­дошли к небольшой деревне; в ней было несколько домов. 10. У них оставалось немного времени до нача­ла спектакля, и они решили пойти перекусить (have a bite), 11. Не думаю, что он будет хорошим врачом. У него мало терпения (patience). 12. У нас было мало денег, поэтому мы решили поехать автобусом, 18. Довольно много друзей пришли навестить его. 14. У него не хва­тает несколько долларов, чтобы купить эту картину. 15. Ты можешь взять несколько конфет.


Exercise 26.

Fill in the blanks with how much or how many,

1.___ sugar have you put into my cup? 2.___ spoons of sugar do you usually take with your tea? 3.___homework do you get every day? 4.___cups of coffee do you drink a day? 5.___coffee did you drink yesterday? 6,___foreign languages do you speak? 7, Do you know ___money he spent? 8. Tell me please___time it will take me to get there. 9.___times a month do you go to

the theatre? 10. Do you know___people live in Moscow? 11.1 see you are a stranger here. Let me help you. The customs officer is asking___perfume you have got. 12.___ cigarettes do you smoke a day? 13.___oil has been extracted this month? 14.___barrels of oil did the Arab Emirates sell last year? 15.___money does it cost to get there?


Exercise 27.

Fill in the blanks with much, many, a lot of.

1. There are a few bananas and___apples in the fridge. 2. She put___butter in the cake. 3. Have you got ___homework? — Our teacher always gives us ___ homework. 4. We don't need___eggs to cook this meal. 5. He's made___progress in such a short time! 6. Are

there___unemployed people in your country? 7. There are___oil deposits in Siberia. 8. There is___time at our disposal. 9. She is very sociable, that's why she has got ___friends. 10. Try to call Mr. Green. He never gives ___ useful advice, but you can hear ___ valuable information. 11. One needs___money to start a new business. 12. You can't install___equipment in a small

shop. 13. He doesn't want___advisors. He thinks he can solve the problem himself. 14. Be careful with him. He's got___projects and desires, bat hasn't got___money and patience to realize them. 15. Astronomy studies___ interesting phenomena.

Exercise 28.

Replace a lot (lots) of or plenty of by a great number of, a great deal of or a great amount of.

Example: There are plenty of goods in the shop. — There are a great number of goods in the shop.

1. Bill Gates earns a lot of money every day. 2. He changed lots of jobs in his life. 3. Ask him to tell you something. He had a lot of interesting experiences during his travelling. 4. She has got a lot of trouble with her new work. 5. The boss gave me plenty of instructions before his leave. 6. She is trying to keep to a diet. Every day she eats lots of apples and drinks plenty of mineral water. 7. Our department receives a lot of mail. 8. We have to pay a lot of taxes buying luxury goods. 9. They bought plenty of paint to redecorate their house. 10. The US automobile industry produces plenty of cars every year. 11. Bell invented the telephone, one of the most useful devices. Since his invention lots of telephones have been installed in people's apartments. 12. A lot of snow covers the Himalayas. 13. Plenty of time was wasted on investigating the robbery. 14. A lot of people object to advertising goods during a film show. 15Plenty of tea is cultivated in India and Sri Lanka.


Exercise 29.

Fill in the spaces with much, many, few, a few, little, a little, a lot of, plenty of, a great number of, a great amount of, a great deal of (you may get several variants).

1. The living conditions in the district were very poor and there were only _,__doctors available. 2. He is a very intelligent man. Do you know that he speaks___ foreign languages? 3. The situation was becoming worse and worse.___projects had to be postponed. 4. The show

was poor. There was .___applause. 5. There were___ people at the meeting, but most of them left early so there aren't___left now. 6. Have you finished that glass of milk? There is___milk in the fridge if you'd like more. 7. We haven't had___rain this summer. The garden needs watering. 8. The party was a failure. Unfortunately, they invited___interesting people. 9. He didn't know

___facts about the accident. 10. Did the storm make___ damage to the crops? 11 .Is there___coal left in the region? 12. Don't worry. There is___food. It will be enough for a month's expedition. 13. He doesn't pay___ attention to pronunciation. It's difficult to understand him. 14. Is there ___work for you to do every dav? 15. There is__ whisky left. Help yourself.


Exercise 30.

Choose the right variant.

1. Oh, there are four of them! I can give them (so/ only) a few sandwiches. 2. I've met (quite/too) a few decent people in my life. 3. She respected him but gave him (too/only) a little thought. 4.1 think there is (so/quite) a lot of charm in him. 5. (Too/Only) many cooks spoil the broth. 6. Unfortunately, we make (very/only) many mistakes in our life. 7. (Quite/Very) few words were said to understand the problem. 8. (Too/Very) much sand covers most of the territory of Egypt. 9. There are (only/ so) many policemen in the streets during national holidays. 10. There are (very/only) many tales about Loch Ness monster. 11. Let's go to the canteen. There are (quite/very) a few coins in my wallet to buy a sandwich. 12. There were (too/quite) a few people in the shop. 13. (Quite/too) a lot of money is spent on armament. 14. We've got (too/only) a few minutes before the ship sails. Let's say good-bye to each other. 15. There were (quite/only) many delicious dishes on the table in front of him.


Exercise 31.

Translate from Russian into English.

1. Он написал довольно много книг. 2. Я не могу идти"с вами сегодня в театр. У меня так много работы. 3. В нашей библиотеке мало английских книг. 4. В автобусе было слишком много народа. 5. В стакане было мало воды, и он налил (pour) себе немного. 6. Мало кто понимает его английский язык. У него слишком много ошибок. 7. В прошлом году было построено мало новых домов. 8. Премьер-министр (prime minister) сказал журналистам лишь несколько слов. 9. Я встре­чал мало хороших врачей в своей жизни. Но доктор Грин, наш врач, дает нам массу полезных советов. 10. Можно мне немного кофе? — Нет, он слишком крепкий для тебя. 11. Мне кажется, что ты положила слишком много соли в суп. 12. Чтобы построить боль­ницу, необходима крупная сумма денег. 13. Он купил довольно много акций (share). 14. Многие люди не упот­ребляют сахар и соль. 15. Он понял лишь несколько слов.



The Article

Exercise 32.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article where necessary.

1.1 saw___man in___armchair at___window. He was reading ___ newspaper. 2.___boy said that he wanted two candies. 3. Is there anybody else in ___ waiting-room? — Yes,___man wants to speak to you. 4. Where is___brief-case? I put it on___table. 5. Is there___. enquiry office at this airport? 6. Could you open___door, please? I see___girl knocking. 7. Let's make___speech at___reception. 8..___advice you gave me helped___lot. 9.1 like to be in___centre of

everything. 10. At___night I had___terrible headache after I had drunk___lot of___wine in___evening. 11. Look cut! There is___dangerous bend in the road. 12. Mrs. Patsy is ___last person I'd like to meet. 13. Tom's planning to take___ boat to go fishing on ___Sunday. 14. Could you phone later, please? Kate's having___bath. 15. The rent is 150 dollars___month.

16. We often go to___theatre and to___cinema, but very rarely to___circus. 17. When___ father came home, they had___dinner and then watched___TV. They went to___bed at 11 p.m. 18. What___.pity they haven't seen this performance! 19. She can't find___ telegram which she received this morning. 20. Are you going to___country for___weekend? 21. She usually

goes shopping on___Thursdays, but___last Thursday she didn't do shopping. She had to go to___dentist's. 22. What___lovely song! What___beautiful music! 23. Could you tell me___time, please? - It's___quarter past six. 24. Do you usually go by___train or in___car



Exercise 33.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article where necessary.

A Geographical names.

1. They travelled by car around ___Europe last month. 2.___Great American Lakes are___Lake Huron, ___Lake Superior,___Lake Ontario,___Lake Michigan and___Lake Erie. 3.___north of___Scotland is known for its wild beauty. 4. Are___Urals higher or lower than___Alps? 5. It was Burns who wrote "My heart's in ___Highlands". 6.___Mediterranean Sea washes___

Europe,___Asia and___northern coast of___Africa. 7. What oceans does___Panama Canal connect? — I suppose___Atlantic and___ Pacific Oceans. 8.___ Seine flows through___Paris to___Atlantic Ocean. 9. We get coffee mostly from ___ Brazil and ___ Columbia. 10.___Alaska is the biggest and coldest state in___USA. 11. Where are___Canaries situated? 12.___

United Kingdom consists of four parts:___England, ___Scotland, Wales and___Northern Ireland, or ___Ulster. 13.___Himalayas are the highest mountains in___Asia. 14.1 went to___German Republic last summer, but I haven't been to___Netherlands yet. Of

course, I would like to see___Hague. 15.___Thames is not the longest river in___Great Britain but it is rather wide and navigable. 16.___America consists of two parts, ___South and North America, doesn't it? 17. In___north there are___Cheviots. These are the mountains which

separate___England from___Scotland. 18.___Brazil is the largest country of___South America.___Amazon, the widest river in___world, flows there. 19. What city is the capital of___Philippines? 20.___Republic of China is the third largest country in___world after

Russia and___Canada.


В Abstract nouns and names of materials.

1.___life is impossible without___water and___air. 2. You can't swim in the river,___water isn't warm enough. 3. She hurried in and found___coffee almost boiled away. 4.___oil is lighter than___water. 5. He has___deep knowledge in mathematics. 6, You can't do any work without ___knowledge. 7.___life is .___ complicated matter. 8,___Browns lived___quiet life

somewhere in South Carolina, 9. The Moslems don't eat ___pork, 10.___water is precious in deserts and can be found in oases. 11. This is___coffee I am so fond of. I don't think there is___better coffee than this. 12,___ coffee is cultivated in the south of the island. 13. It seems

to me Englishmen show___ deep distrust of strangers. 14. He wanted to give his son___ good education. 15.___ air was fresh and cool. 16. Nothing can travel faster than___light. 17. He can give you___good piece of ___advice. He is fond of giving.___advice. — But___ advice he gave us did not help. 18. The patient was making ___noticeable progress, 19, You can be satisfied with ___progress you have made. 20. Our plane ran into___ heavy weather.


С School, college, etc.

1. He had a headache and didn't go to ___work yesterday. 2. "What did you get in__„literature?" the mother asked her daughter when she came ___home from___school. 3. It was twelve o'clock but Andrew was still in___bed. 4, Could you give me a lift to___ college? 5. In summer they seldom go to___college. 6.1 like to stay at___home on cold evenings. 7. Have you heard anything from John lately? — Yes, he graduated from___Cambridge University. 8. The queen is going to open___new hospital in the capital next week. 9. Mom came to___school to see my teacher yesterday. 10. "You must do this exercise at___school and that one at___ home," said our teacher in a loud voice. 11.1 left my bag in___hospital when I was visiting Judy. 12. What a

strange building! — It's___prison. It was built in the last century. 13. When I came to___prison to see my cousin, I found out that he had escaped two days before. 14. Look at this man. Can you imagine that he was in ___prison five years ago? 15. Let's meet at___church. It's on the left of___university. 16.1 went to___church last Sunday but I couldn't pray. There were two many

people in___ church. 17. The doctor hoped that the patient would not stay in___bed for a long time. 18. Look at this ring. What a fine piece of___work! 19. They called a plumber to___prison to repair bad taps. 20. The parents were waiting for their children outside ___ school. 21. Oh, what___beautiful church! Let's go there to make some photos.


D Proper names.

1.___Mall is a wide avenue leading from___Trafalgar Square to___Buckingham Palace, the residence of the English kings. 2. The centre of___City is represented by three buildings:___Mansion House,___Royal Exchange and___Bank of___England. 3. When will he arrive at ___Heathrow airport? 4.___ Bolshoi Theatre is famous for its ballet performances. 5. What is on at ___ "Pushkinsky"? 6.___Princess Diana stayed at___Hilton Hotel. 7. People coming to London often do shopping in ___Oxford Street. 8.___London Zoo is situated in___.

Regent Park in London. 9. If you are interested in churches and historical places, you should by no means see___ Westminster Abbey,___Houses of Parliament,___St. Paul's Cathedral and___Tower. 10.___British Museum is famous for its library, one of the richest in the world.

11. The English parks —___Hyde Park,___Kensington Gardens and___Kew Gardens where you forget that you are in the big city, struck me most of all. 12. Julius Caesar founded___Tower of London. 13. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is___Westminster Palace, the seat of___British Parliament. 14. My train leaves from ___Waterloo Station at 2.10 a.m. 15.___West End is the symbol of a wealthy and luxurious life. 16. If you like art galleries you should go to___National Gallery and ___Tate. 17. Where do you live? — I live in___High Street. 18. On ___ Wednesday ___ Financial Times published an article about the situation in___North Korea. 19. Are you going to stay at___St. Marcus Hotel? — No, at___Plaza Hotel. 20. If you want to do shopping, go to ___Oxford Street or___Bond Street.


E Nouns denoting parts of the day and names of seasons.

1. It was___evening. 2. It was___warm summer evening. 3.___evening was very pleasant. 4. Let's meet in___evening, I'll be very busy in___afternoon. 5. It was___early morning. 6. It snowed at___night. 7. We started early in ___ morning. 8. We were shivering though it was___warm night. 9. They got up at___ dawn. The sun was shining brightly, there were no clouds in the sky. But they started off late in___morning. 10. What do you usually do in___autumn? 11. Russians like___hard winter with plenty of___snow and___ frost. 12. Nature is so beautiful in___spring. 13. In this country___spring is rather wet,___summer is

sometimes hot,___autumn is windy and muddy,__ winter is seldom cold and snowy. How can people live here? I prefer___summer all the year round. 14. She still remembers___autumn when he first told her of his love. 15. Nothing can be more beautiful than green forests in___early spring. 16 .It was___late autumn. 17.___autumn of 1996 was very warm and sunny. 18.___

spring and love make people feel young. 19.1 am going to France in___summer. 20. In Great Britain___winters are not severely cold, while___summers are rarely hot.


Exercise 34.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article where necessary.

1.___pine grows in many parts of the world. 2.___life would be more difficult without___telephone. 3.___whale is in___danger of becoming extinct. 4. He prefers

___town to___country. 5. Can you play___violin? 6. Will you play___draughts with me?7.___tulips and daffodils are my favourite spring flowers. 8.___Chinese

invented___paper and___powder. 9.___gulden is the currency of___Dutch. 10.___man and___woman were created equal. 11. The government should take more care

of___disabled and___unemployed. 12. Yesterday we went to the Zoo. We saw___small bear there. He was like ___Teddy bear. 13. Does___ polar bear live in___Arctic or in___Antarctic? 14. He brought her___black rose. ___black rose is___very rare species. 15.___bicycle is

one of the main transport means in ___Amsterdam. 16. Was it difficult for you to communicate in ___„ Switzerland? — No, fortunately I met___Swiss who spoke ___English very well. He helped us a lot. 17. When did ___man first go into___space? 18.___daffodil is the

national emblem of___Welsh.


Exercise 35 (Revision.)

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article where necessary.

1. He lives in___south of___Australia. 2. In his novels Jack London, ___ famous American writer, described___life of___poor. 3. It seemed to him that nothing would break such___peaceful silence. Suddenly there was___scream, then___second and___third.

4. Can you play___guitar? 5. He came in one morning when we were having___dinner on___terrace of___ hotel and introduced himself. 6.___world tour costs ___lot of money. 7. Did he fail you? What___surprise! 8.1 don't believe you. I think you're telling ___lie.

9. Did you have___lovely time in___ Hague? 10. It was ___ early evening but I was feeling sleepy so I decided to have___nap. 11. He made___gross mistake.___ economists can't make such___mistakes. 12. Have___ look at the sky. It looks like___rain, 13. She'll have___

swim and return in___quarter of___hour. 14. I'll have to convince him that I'm telling___truth. 15. He wasn't used to driving on___left. 16.___Christmas Eve is on ___ 24th of December, 17, Don't worry, we'll get___home before___sunset. 18, I'd like to have___ sandwich

with___sausage for___breakfast, 19. My favourite subject at___school was___biology. 20. He knows___ history of___French Revolution well. 21. To tell___ truth, I didn't expect to find___ homeless man here. 22. It's___ high time you stopped being so selfish. 23.___earth goes round ___sun. 24.___Lombard Street in___City of London is___centre of___banking in Great Britain. 25,___Queen Elizabeth___II won't speak on___radio tomorrow, 26.___English Channel

is between___Great Britain and___France. 27.___ Trafalgar Square is ___ geographical centre of ___ London. 28. When___student, Jane spent two years in ___Europe. 29.___Pacific is___ largest ocean on our planet. 30. Have you ever been to___Museum of___ Fine Arts? 31. Show me___Bermudas on this map, please. 32.___Mississippi is___longest river in ___USA.

33. One of my classmates entered ___ Moscow State University last year. As for me, I chose___Higher School of___Economics. 34 ___Urals are old and not very high. 35. We are just taking___first steps into___ space.___universe is still terra incognita for us. 36.___.

Russians have ____ wonderful folk song tradition. 37. Why don't you eat with___knife and ___fork? 38. They've been waiting to hear from him all___month. 39. We met on___wet Monday in___June. 40. Look out!___cat is on___TV! 41.___Queen Elizabeth had

___dinner with__ President Clinton. 42. lie was elected ___President in 1996. 43. Mr. Smith, „___ engineer of Black &Co.,returned from his trip to____Malta. 44. He sat to his letter to___ Sun, 45. Mary was talking with ___Dodges who were sitting near the fire-place. 46.1

saw___beautiful Goya in Milan once. 47, He locked at me from___head to____toe. 48.1 fought for.___freedom, for the brotherhood of___man, 49. He is___very sociable man. He always has many invitations to___ dinner, 50. On___one hand,___facts he presented are true, but

on___other hand, I can't trust them. I know he often tells___lies. 51. He fell in love with her at___ first sight. 52. Don't take my words close to___heart. 53.___ Moscow of 1950's is not___Moscow of___1990's.


Exercise 36.

Translate into English.

1. Будьте добры, передайте мне соль, пожалуйста. 2. Вечер был влажный (damp) и прохладный. 3. Был холодный и ветреный (windy) день. 4. Вино слишком сладкое. 5. Я люблю сухое вино. 6. Она нашла такую хорошую работу. 7. Погода плохая. Ночь была очень холодная. Я не хочу гулять в такую холодную погоду. 8t Человек приручил (domesticate) собаку много лет назад. 9. Это неожиданная новость. 10. Он обладает обширными знаниями в области медицины. 11. Кипр к Мальта известные туристические центры. 12. Она прожила трудную жизнь. 13. Нефть используют для

производства (production) бензина. 14. Шотландия__

гористая (mountainous) часть Великобритании. Самая высокая гора — пик Бен-Невис. 15. Где они останови­лись? — В отеле «Континенталь». Это на Хай-стрит.


Test 2

Choose the right variant.

1. He crossed___stream which was below the pool stepping cautiously from___stone to___stone.

a) the,___,___

b) the, the, the

c) а, а, а

d) the, a, a

2. In___ spring of___following year we went___abroad and were absent several months.

a)___, the,___

b) the, the, the


d)the, the___

3. ___day after my talk with Isabel I left___Chicago for___ San Francisco where I was to take ship for___ Far East.

a) a,___,___,___

b) the,___,___, the

c)___, __, the, the

d) the, the, the, the

4. After___lunch they sat down under the oak tree drinking___Turkish coffee.

a) the, the


c)__, the

d)a, a

5.1 had scarcely got into___bed when a strain of _ music seemed to break forth in___air just below my window.


b) a,___, the

c)the, the,___

d) the,___, the

6. But after___fortnight of___bad weather it cleared. "Let's see how___weather turns out?" he said and took a chair nearer at___hand.

a)___,a,___, the

b) a, the, the, a

c) a,___, the,___

d) the, the, the, the

7. At___tea, which they both took with___lemon, John spoke about___Bahamas.

a)___, the, the


e)___,___, the

d) the, the, the

8.___map of ___world, until ___end of ___ fifteenth century exhibited only___one hemisphere, and even that was not completely explored.

a) the, the, the, the, the

b) the,___,___, the,___

c) a, the,___,___s___

d) the, the, the, the,___

9. As___weather was fine, they had___pleasant walk across___park which stretched along___Thames.

a) the, the, the, the

b)___, the, a, the

c) the,__, the,___

d) the, a, the, the

10. On___first of___May, after their last year together at___college, Frank and Robert were on___ tram.

a) the, the,___,___


c) the,___,___, a

d) the,___, the, a

11. At that time of___year the wild animals —___ lion,___gazelle and___antelope also wander further to ___south.

a) the, the, the, the, the

b)___, a, a, a, the

c) a, the, the, the,___

d) the,___,___,___, the

12. After___tea Edgar and the brothers received ___permission to leave___table.

a) the, a, the

b)___, the,___

c)___,___, the


13. "I am in___hurry. Turn to___left in___High Street and drive me down to___East End," I ordered taking my seat.

a) a, the, the, the

b)a, the,___, the


d) the, a, the, an

14. Through an open window a peak of___Balkans, wonderfully white and beautiful in ___ starlit snow seems quite close at___hand.

a)the,the, the


c)___, a, a

d) the, a, a

15.___great Sahara, that frightful desert of___ vast scorching sand, stretching from___Red Sea to ___Atlantic, is cleft by one solitary thread of___ water.

a) the,___, the, the,___

b)___, a, the, the, the

c) the, the, the,___,___

d)___,___,___, the, the

16. It was___late evening, and after___lamp-heated air of___dining-room,___coolness of___night was delicious.

a) a, a, the,___,___

b)the, the, the, the,the

c)___,___, a,___, a

d)___, the, the, the, the

17, He walked into___Green Park that he might cross to___Victoria Station and take___underground into___City.

a) the,___, the, the

b)the,the, the, the


d)___,___, an,___

18.___rice,___jute,___indigo,___opium oilseeds, and___tea are___principle articles which come into export trade from___Calcutta.


b) the, the, the, the, the, the,___

c)___,___,___the,___,___, the

d) the, the, the,___, the,----,-----

19. They reached___outskirts of___forest, and saw__lights of___village in which they dwelled.

a)___, a,___, a,


c)___, the, the, the

d) the, the, the, a

20. "___telephone may quicken some of___labours, but it hardly lightens them, since by its power to interrupt it usually wastes quite as much time as it otherwise saves," he said with___laughter.

a) a, the, the

b) the,___, a

c)___, the,___

d) the, the,___

21. He came into___lounge.___woman with___ dark hair and___ thin straight face was arranging some flowers in the hall.

a) the, a,___, a

b) a, a, the, the

c)___, the, the, the

d) the, a, the, a

22. What___wonderful frame it is! Is it made of ___birch?___birch is my favourite tree.

a)___, the, the

b) a, the, a

c) a,___, the

d)___, a, a

2 3. They went___side by___side,___hand in___ hand silently towards the hedge, where___mayflowers, both pink and white, were in___full blossom.

a)___,___, the, the,___, a

b) the, the___,___,___,___

c) a, a,___,___, the, the


24. There are several ways of capturing___tigers. But___hunters must be very careful because___tiger is___ferocious beast.

a)___,___, the, a

b)the,___, a, a

c)___, the, a, the

d)___,___, the, the

25. During___last ten years she has been___head mistress of___elementary school.

a) the,___, an

b)___.the ___


d)the, the, the


Unit 6

The Pronoun

Exercise 37.

Choose the correct form of pronouns in brackets.

1. What colour is the shirt? It is so far that I can't see (it's/its/it) colour. 2. They rarely drive to (their/them/ theirs) office. They live near (it's/it/its). 3. Look at (me/ mine/my) new watch. Do you like (it/them/its)? 4. These books are (her/hers). Give (them/their/theirs) to (hers/ her). 5. Do you like (you/your/yours) new car? — Oh, (it's/it/its) has never let me down yet. 6. (Theirs/Their/ Them) work is much more difficult than (you/yours/ your) or (me/mine/my). 7. Why are (you/your/yours) sitting here? It is not (you/your/yours) desk, it is (me/ mine/my). 8. This tape recorder of (her/hers/she) is always out of order. — But so is (you/your/yours)! 9. She has not read a line of (you/your/yours), how can she criticize (you/your/yours) books? 10. The clock has stopped. Something may be wrong with (it's/it/its) spring. 11. (We/Our/Ours) was the last turn. 12. (Their/Theirs/ Them) knowledge of French is not much more superior to (we/our/ours). 13. He is a friend of (us/our/ours). (He/ His/Him) house is opposite (us/our/ours). 14. If these gloves are neither (she/her/hers) nor (you/your/yours), then they should be (me/my/mine). 15. He can live without (me/my/mine) help but not without (them/their/theirs).

Exercise 38.

Translate the sentences into English.

1. Кто там? — Откройте, это я. 2. Мой дом на правой стороне улицы, а их — на левой. 3. Их лодка была бы­стрее нашей. 4. Как зовут вашу собаку? — Ее зовут Квин. 5. В этом районе построена нсвая дорога. Ее длина более трехсот километров, 6. Это ваша ручка, а это его, но где же моя? 7. Она взяла мои ключи вместо своих. 8. Самый лучший план — ваш. 9. Чью работу будут npоверять(clieek up) — Джона и in Кэт? 10. Его авто­мобиль небольшой, но мотор (engine) у него мощный.

Exercise 39.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate reflexive pronouns and translate the sentences into Russian,

1.1 opened the door and found___facing a stranger. 2. Go and see it for___if you like. 3. The newcomers built the houses___„ 4. Would you mind keeping your words to ___? 5. He has injured ______ 6. During the breaks they amused _____ in the bar. 7. We protect.___from the cold with warm things. 8. She settled___in the armchair as comfortably as she could. 9, You can trust him. He is honesty __. 10. He cut____shaving this morning. 11 She burnt

___ironing a dress. 12. Don't blame___. It is not your fault. 13. Did you cut your hair___or did you go to the hairdresser's? 14. Aren't you hungry? Help___to the meat. It's delicious. 15. How did you enjoy___? 16. We must discuss everything to find the way out. Pull___together.

17. She dried__„with a blue towel. 18. He felt___getting angry. 19. They had to excuse ___ for their strange behaviour. 20.1 want to insure___against any losses.


Exercise 40.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate reflexive pronouns where necessary.

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