A timeline of the history of mechanical men or robots
· 1818 - Mary Shelley wrote “Frankenstein” which was about a frightening artificial lifeform created by Dr. Frankenstein.
· 1921 - The term “robot” was first used in a play called “R.U.R.” or “Rossum's Universal Robots” by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man!
· 1941 - Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word “robotics” to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry.
· 1942 - Asimov wrote “Runaround”, a story about robots which contained the “Three Laws of Robotics”:
· 1948 – “Cybernetics”, an influence on artificial intelligence research was published by Norbert Wiener. British robotics pioneer William Grey Walter invented robots Elmer and Elsie that mimic lifelike behavior using very simple electronics.
· George Devol and Joe Engleberger invent the first programmable robot arm and coined the phrase Universal Automation for the first time.
· 1956 - George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company. Squee, the electronic robot squirrel invented.
· 1959 - Computer-assisted manufacturingg was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT.
· 1961 - The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE.
· 1963 - The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was designed. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped and it's six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm.
· 1965 - DENDRAL was the first expert system or program designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
· 1968 - The octopus-like Tentacle Arm was developed by Marvin Minsky.
· 1969 - The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm.
· 1970 - Shakey was introduced as the first mobile robot controlled by artificial intelligence. It was produced by SRI International.
· 1974 - A robotic arm (the Silver Arm) that performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure sensors was designed.
· 1979 - The Standford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance. The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed the distance between the cart and the obstacles.
(By Mary Bellis, About. com Guide)
What new information about the history of robots have you learned from this text?
IV. Answer the questions:
1. Who is the author of “Frankenstein”?
2. When and where was used the term “robot” at the first time?
3. What for did the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first use the word “robotics”?
4. When was formed the world's first robot company?
V. Agree or disagree with the statements:
1. The term “robot” was first used in a play called “R.U.R.” or "Rossum's Universal Robots” by the Czech writer Norbert Wiener.
2. Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word “robotics” to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry.
3. The first mobile robot Shakey, controlled by artificial intelligence, was produced by MCM International.
4. The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled robot head.
5. The octopus - like Tentacle Arm was developed by Marvin Minsky.
VI. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:
термин, мощный, промышленный робот, накапливать знания, изобретать, причинять вред, бездействие, подчиняться, подвижность, препятствия, обратная связь, монтаж
VII. Сomplete the following sentences:
1.The plot was simple … … … .
2.Asimov wrote “Runaround”, a story about robots … … … .
3.… … … through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
4.DENDRAL was the … … … to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
5.The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail … … … .
6.… … … for the handicapped and its six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm.
VIII. Work in group: prepare a discussion on the topic “Robot roles in the modern world”.
I. Read and practice the pronunciation of the following words:
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