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III. Read the text to learn more about modern robots




Top 2 Modern robots

Looking at the recent developments in Robotics, its evident that these machines are going to form an integral part of our tomorrow. Here we take a look at the Top 2 modern robots.

Martian Rovers

In 2004, NASA landed twin exploration rovers on Mars named Spirit and Opportunity. These rovers are the most advanced remote sensing robots ever created. This mission was designed to carry out extensive geological analysis of Martian rocks and planetary surface features. These six wheeled robots are solar powered standing 1.5 m high and 2.3 m wide. Both the rovers have exceeded their expected mission life by more than 20 times. On 1 May, 2009 Spirit became stuck in soft soil which has prevented its movement but it continues to communicate with earth station. The Opportunity rover continues its mission till date making it the longest Mars surface mission in history. These probes have gathered expected mission life in support of the mission’s primary scientific goals: to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. Astronomical observations and atmospheric data has also been collected.

 

Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR)

 

This US Army funded humanoid is designed for field extraction of incapacitated personnel. This autonomous rescuer can locate victims in a mine shaft, battlefield, toxic spill, or earthquake-damaged structure. Standing 6 feet tall, this track legged robot boasts a powerful hydraulics controlled upper body capable of lifting and transporting subjects weighing up to 500 pounds. About nine prototypes have been produced till date by the manufacturer Vecna Robotics. The latest model includes explosion and fire resistant treads, a rugged high powered drive system, explosion and fire resistant battery cells and enhanced dexterity. But don’t get excited because the BEAR is not ready for action yet. Vecna Robotics are still working on the navigation ability in complex environments and to improve the level of human-robot interaction.



What new information about modern robots have you learned from this text?

IV. Answer the questions:

1.In 2004, NASA landed twin exploration rovers on Mars named Spirit and Opportunity, didn’t it?

2.What for was designed this mission?

3.What has been collected by these robots?

4.Can BEAR locate victims in a mine shaft, battlefield, toxic spill, or earthquake-damaged structure?

5.Vecna Robotics are still working on the navigation ability in complex environments and to improve the level of human-robot interaction, aren’t it?

V. Agree or disagree with the statements:

1.In 2004, NASA landed twin exploration rovers on Saturn named Spirit and Opportunity.

2.One of the rovers have exceeded their expected mission life by more than 20 times.

3.The Opportunity rover continues its mission till date making it the longest Mars surface mission in history.

4.About ten prototypes have been produced till date by the manufacturer Vecna Robotics.

5.Vecna Robotics are still working on the navigation ability in complex environments and to improve the level of human-robot interaction.

 

VI. Translate the following word combinations:

to form an integral part, the most advanced remote sensing robots, six wheeled robots, expected mission life, expected mission life, incapacitated personnel, weighing up to 500 pounds, a rugged high powered drive system, battery cells, the navigation ability, human-robot interaction, earthquake-damaged structure, can locate victims in a mine shaft.

VII. Complete the following sentences:

1.These rovers are the most … … … robots ever created.

2.On 1 May, 2009 Spirit became stuck in soft soil which has prevented its movement but … … … .

3.… … … in support of the mission’s primary scientific goals: to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars.

4.This US Army funded humanoid … … … extraction of incapacitated personnel.

5.… … … , this track legged robot boasts a powerful hydraulics controlled upper body capable of lifting and transporting subjects weighing up to 500 pounds.

6.The latest model includes explosion and fire resistant treads, a rugged high powered drive system, explosion and fire resistant battery … … … .

VII. Read and translate the passage marked.

VIII. Work in groups. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of the modern robots.

 

 

UNIT III.

NANOROBOTS

Text 1.

I. Read and practice the pronunciation of the following words:

 

multifunctional  
accomplish  
automatically  
merely  
manipulate  
combine  


II. Read and translate the following text.

What is Robot?

Robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move
material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.

A robot must have the followingessential characteristics:

n Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility.

n Programmability: implying computational or symbol- manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired (a robot is a computer). It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically.

n Sensors: on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device

n Mechanical capability: enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and

n Flexibility:it can operate using a range of programs and manipulates and transport materials in a variety of ways.

“Three Laws of Robotics”:

1.A robot may not injure a human, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2.A robot must obey the orders it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3.A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

 

III. Answer the questions:

1.What is Robot?

2.What characteristics must have robot?

3.How many laws of robotics do you know? What are they?

IV. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

разнообразие заданий, гибкость, дополнительный, причинять вред, защищать, разрешать, существование, приказания, закон,




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