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THE ENGLISH SUMMARY OF THE BOOK




ZANKOVSKY A. ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. M: FL1NTA, MPSI, 2000. 648 P.

The crisis Russia found itself in at the eve of the third millennium has affected the majority of the organizations in this country. Among them are even those organization, which recently all Russian people were very much proud of. The range and destructiveness of the crisis happened to be a nasty surprise not only for thousands of plants, factories, schools, clinics, mines or army units, but for the organizational experts as well.

For the psychologists this situation is a special challenge: during "perestroika" the gap between the words and the deeds, between organizational goals and personal interests of the leaders at every level of the management has become so large and socioeconomic contradictions within the country — so sharp, that very often only the inner, psychological analysis can clarify the meaning of the events in progress.

However, the organizational psychology — the field of science, basically established to study the contradictions between overt and covert sides of organizational behavior and provide the solution to the whole scope of psychological problems in organization, has faced serious difficulties in explanation and exploration of the destructive virus, that has afflicted all the organizational systems in the country.

What has happened in Russian organizations during "perestroika" and why everything, that previously gave rise to hope and seemed rational, turned out to be so dull, confused and unsusceptible to scientific analysis?

In the former Soviet Union the activity of every organization was strictly determined by the state plan. The country's economy was like a giant fleet following one course and sensitively orienting to the signals from the flagship. Under these conditions the work of organizational psychologists boiled down to the solution of the routine "marine services" problems (work motivation, leadership, personnel selection, work rationalization, group dynamics and efficiency, organizational culture etc.) The question "Where and what for does the ship float?" never came even into the captain's mind.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union too much things have changed to the Russian organizational ships. Having lost the flagship of the state planning the powerful fleet has dissipated in the stormy ocean of transitional period, and all of a sudden it has turned out that the traditional concept of organization as "forethought coordinated social unit with definite boundaries, functioning on relatively stable basis for achieving the joint goal"[624], does not unveil the most important moment in organizational functioning — its contradictory nature.

It has become obvious that the organizational unity — is just an illusion, and if the organization is plotting her course on its own account, plenty of contradictions threaten not only its efficiency, but even its survival. On the surface these contradictions can reveal themselves in the most unexpected and grotesque forms and then all of a sudden disappears the expensive production of the plant, stocks of a powerful factory are sold out for peanuts, workers and engineers are working month by month without hope to get their ratty salaries...

In the context of these acute contradictions the efforts of organizational psychologists to solve the traditional psychological problems look like ambulant treatment of a serious decease. All this makes extremely actual the developing of new approaches that can extend the possibilities of psychology in analysis and solution of real organizational problems. The book presents one of such attempts. It is suggested to treat any organization first of all as a contradictory process of interaction between people, sharing different or even opposite goals, interests, needs and ideas.

Psychologically this contradiction reveals itself in two contrary tendencies: centripetal and centrifugal. The first tendency jogs an individual to organization, cooperation and search for joint goals and interests. Within this tendency the organization comes out for the individual as an instrument for his needs satisfaction: working for the company and following its goals he/she gets not only the means for life, but prospects for well being and development, as well. The second — forces an individual to avoid the organizational pressure. The necessity to comply with organizational requirements and inability to follow exceptionally his/her plans and desires inevitably evoke on his/her part the protest and reluctance to enter the organization.

This contradiction is essential characteristic of any organization and permanently threatens its integrity. To exist as a unit an organization can only in the case, when the centripetal forces pronouncedly and steady dominate over centrifugal, when tendency for integration prevails over tendency for disintegration. However, the individualism and flexibility of human behavior with its instability in emotions, needs and motives can not provide the spontaneous development of stable tendency for cooperation. What after all can provide the victory of integration over disintegration, triumph of cooperation over individualism?

The majority of theories dealing with human organizations and joint actions agree that the first and indispensable condition for existence of any organization is development of a common goal[625]. Indeed, one could hardly overestimate the importance of common goal in any collective undertaking. Represented in the form of statement, which with less or more details reflects some desirable for organization results, the goal serves as a key factor determining the behavior of organizational members.

Where does this common goal come from? In whose head does it emerge or in other words, who is its subject? The idea that a common goal is a kind of shared organizational consciousness and expresses acceptable direction for actions for everyone in organization, though looks attractive and democratic, is in fact just a metaphor that does not move forward our knowledge of actual psychological mechanisms of organizational functioning.

If every member of organization, convinced in the validity of his own individual goal tries to promote it as a common goal, the "wagon" of this organization will never move anywhere. Somebody's even the most attractive individual goal by itself can be hardly perceived as significant by other people and one could not await that they will persistently follow it.

In order to make an integral organizational unit out of a group of people, the individual goal of one or several individuals must acquire some privilege over the goals of other members, that is this very individual (or group) should become the subject of the common goal of organization.

There is a well-known experiment in animal psychology, in which a monkey in order to satisfy its hunger has to get bananas suspended under the ceiling of the cage. The animal can get the desired fruits only if it put several boxes one over another. Each monkey on his own is able to accomplish the task quite quickly. However, when this task is given for a group of monkeys simultaneously, each animal tried to attain its goal never minding efforts and wishes of the other monkeys. This kind of cooperation inevitably evokes struggle for the boxes, conflicts and even fighting. Looking at nearly finished box construction and a fellow climbing upstairs, some of the monkeys can decide that it would be better to put the lowest box up... As a result — the "building" is never finished, goal is never attained and tied, hungry animals have nothing to do but to look in distress at inaccessible fruits'. To our mind, this experiment can serve as a good example of "organization", in which the individual goal of all members are equal and have no privilege over other goals. In such case we can state that the monkey community is completely deprived of any common goal.

To become common the goal should lean against some force or process, that can provide its privilege upon individual goals of other members of organization. If such kind of support is not available the most prominent and efficient goal has few chances to struggle through the fence of other even completely talentless intentions and plans. And on the contrary, the most stupid and shabby idea can knock out bright and noble plans, if it rests on the organizational process, ensuring its priority over other individual aspirations.

Besides, the supremacy of one goal over others should be regular and stable. Thus, we can conclude that the first and critical condition for forming an organization is not just a common goal, but some force, that is able to give any individual goal a status of a common goal. This force in organization we call organizational power, which can be defined as an organizational process, providing stable priority of common goal of organization over individual goals of organizational members and using for this purpose a wide scope of organizational means, including coercion. It is important to emphasize that organizational power is a crucial organizational process and we can state the existence of organization de facto only if it integrated by a constant process fixing the priority of common organizational goal over all individual goals and intentions. If such a process is not established or weak, the existence of organization as an integral productive unit is under the threat.

Analyzing the functioning of organization in the context of organizational power has provided us with a new outlook on explanation and solution of many organizational problems, namely, problems of efficiency, motivation, leadership, conflicts, personnel selection, performance evaluation etc. Besides, treating organizational power as a core concept of organizational psychology gives us deep grounds for formulating a new comprehensive theory, covering the wide scope of psychological phenomena in organizations.

In the light of power-approach the history and achievements of modern organizational psychology have been reviewed in the book. Besides, comprehensive analysis of theories and thorough systematization of research data have been made, and various case studies and examples of problems solution in real organizations have been presented.

The book is recommended as basic textbook on organizational psychology for the students of universities, business schools and colleges. Managers, experts in consulting, personnel recruiting and organizational development may use this book as a manual for tasks and problems they constantly face in their work. This book will be interesting for the wide scope of readers, as the understanding of the implicit, psychological reasons of human behavior in organizations opens every individual new chances for development and success in any field of activity.

The structure of the material reflects the basic idea of the book — to conceptualize the achievements of modern organizational psychology in the frame of the new paradigm with organizational power as the crucial organizational process. The book consists of 13 chapters organized in 5 parts.

Part I "Organizational psychology as a scientific discipline" deals with analysis of theoretical problems of organizational psychology. Two chapters of this part discuss the history, subject, main problems of organizational psychology and methods, which enable to give scientific explanation and predict human behavior in organizations.

Part II "Organizational power" acquaints the readers with different aspects and manifestations of power in organizations. Chapter 3 "The problem of power in modern psychology" reviews a wide scope of power research in psychology, introduces main approaches and concepts, describes power sources, mechanisms and tactics in organizations. Chapter 4 "Power as the basic concept of organizational psychology" demonstrates the importance of power for understanding and solving of almost all psychological problems in organization.

The proposed concept of power genesis has enabled to formulate a number of fundamental for organizational psychology conclusions and state that the evolution of power and organization has ensured the development of behavior forms specific only for human beings. In this context we can say that the power has produced the modern man.

Today the concept of power is very often replaced by the concept of leadership. Indeed, the ultimate objective of leadership is also concerned with the integration of individual goals in common direction, i.e. with forced change of organizational members' behavior. But the power of a leader is mainly based not on organizational resources but on his personal features and expert knowledge. In fact the followers are much more oriented on the personality of a leader, and only as consequence on the common organizational goal. Therefore, the way a leader uses to integrate the goals and efforts of his followers is perceived by them much more democratic and psychologically comfortable. Though the leadership is the main tendency of power evolution today, the basic mechanisms of this phenomenon can not be understood only out of personal and behavioral characteristics of leaders. Treating leadership as specific type of organizational power, we first of all analyze it in the context of the basic organizational process — power. This approach along with review of modern theories, models and research data in the field of leadership is presented in Chapter 5 "Leadership".

The phenomenon of power can be understood only in the context of organization and its means. That is why Part III "Power and organization" is devoted to the analysis of structural, process, formal, psychological and other organizational characteristics, that provide priority of common organizational goal over individual goals of its members. The main characteristics of organization as materialization of common organizational goal are discussed in Chapter 6 "Organization". Besides, the chapter deals with the evolution of different views on organization and its analysis.

Chapter 7 "Motivation" is concerned with the review of modern achievements in motivational research. In general the solution of motivational problems is concerned with the search of the factors, determining directions of individual behavior. Being aware of such factors, organizational power is able to consolidate individual goals of organizational member in the definite direction using the wide scope of organizational resources, that can satisfy individual needs. Within the frame of this approach we analyze the theories and concepts of motivation, as well as different models, methods and resources used by organization for simulating effective organizational behaviors.

Chapter 8 "Organizational culture and development" deals with two more forceful tools, which organizational power can use to establish goal-oriented team. Organizational culture is an important determinant of individuals' attitudes and sentiments to different sizes of organizational life. Knowledge of main components of organizational culture enables organization to form an atmosphere that supports and eliminates obstacles interfering with the common organizational mission. Even the most conservative organizations are subjected to constant changes, which can have negative or even lethal consequences. Chapter 8 also presents principles, methods and programs of organizational development that provide positive tendency for organizational changes.

Part IV "Power and a group" is devoted to the group phenomenon, which had not attained attention of organizational psychologists until 1940-s. Chapter 9 deals with fundamental characteristics of groups and their role in organization. The importance of group research rests upon the fact, that it is much more difficult to orient group goals to common organizational goal, then it is in the case of an individual. The famous Hawthorn experiments[626] has demonstrated that the group determines individual productivity much more than his abilities and professional skills. By that the group often negatively affects organizational efficiency as well. That is why efforts of managers and psychologists at aimed not only at better use of group potential, but also at overcoming or neutralizing of negative group effects. In this context a special accent is made on the analysis of so called "social loafing", which reveals itself in constant and dramatic loss of individual efficiency while working in a group.

Chapter 10 "Organizational communication" analyzes communicational processes, which factually are the main means for harmonizing individual goals with the common goal of organization. At the same time, direct and immediate communication in organization come to life within the frames of a work group. That is why the main attention in this chapter is given to discussion of intra- and intergroup communication as one of the components and tools of organizational power.

The final Part V "Power and an individual" consists of three chapters. Chapter 11 "Individual and organization" deals with the foundations of individual behavior. It analyzes individual goals, personal characteristics and traits, determining individual behavior in organization. Entering organization each individual brings with him his unique experience, conception of the world, values and attitudes, which facilitate or impede his integration in organization. Chapter 12 "Values and life styles" is devoted to analysis of attitudes and values of organizational members. Knowledge and understanding of these personal formations enable to anticipate their adequacy to organizational mission. The last Chapter "Personnel selection" introduces with methods, that allow organization to hire individuals sharing its goals and possessing relevant professional skills and abilities. A special emphasis is laid on the selection of organizational powerholders, whose effect on the effective functioning of organization is profound.

For obviousness the book is supplied with the examples of practical application of the concepts and methods discussed in different types of organizations: banks, industrial companies, state organizations, clinics, research centers, universities etc. Besides, the text is provided with various "case studies" and exercises allowing to apply discussed material to solution of actual organizational problems. We hope that the knowledge of power can be helpful for Russian organizations in their pulling through current difficulties.

This book would never be written but due to the help and attention of many people. First of all, I want to thank my wife Tatyana for advices and support which were so needful during the long-term every day work..

1 would like to express my gratitude to my colleagues from Russian Academy of Sciences with whom I have already been having luck to work with for twenty five years. I am also very grateful to Japanese Foundation, Alexander Humboldt Foundation (Germany), faculties of Waseda University, Aoyama Gakuin University, Aomori Koritsu University (all — Japan), Aachen Technical University and Marburg University (both — Germany), to Human Factors and Ergonomic Society (USA), International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology and to my colleagues professor M.Maruyama (Japan), professor L.Hornke (Germany), professor M. de Montmollin (France), professor H.Triandis


СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ...................................................................................................... 3

ЧАСТЬ ПЕРВАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ КАК НАУЧНАЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНА.............................................................................................. 13

ГЛАВА I. ИСТОРИЯ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ, ПРЕДМЕТ И ПРОБЛЕМАТИКА ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННОЙ ПСИХОЛОГИИ..................................................... 13

История возникновения организационной психологии.............................. 14

Оформление организационной психологии в самостоятельную научную дисциплину 24

Область и предмет исследования организационной психологии.............. 25

На стыке фундаментального знания и практики..................................... 25

Организационная психология как система поведенческих технологий..... 28

Влияние успехов американских, европейских и японских компаний на развитие организационной психологии....................................................................... 29

Уровни анализа в организационной психологии......................................... 30

Ситуационный подход в организационной психологии............................. 31

Ограничения современной научной парадигмы организационной психологии 32

В поисках новой парадигмы........................................................................ 35

Организационная власть как базовый организационно-психологический процесс 36

Организационная власть как психическая реальность............................. 38

Власть как базовая категория организационной психологии................... 40

Проблема субъекта организационной власти........................................... 43

Перспективы развития организационной психологии............................... 44

ГЛАВА II. В ПОИСКАХ ОБЪЯСНЕНИЯ И ПРЕДСКАЗАНИЯ ПОВЕДЕНИЯ 46

Homo examinator.......................................................................................... 47

Способы познания мира.............................................................................. 48

Индукция и дедукция................................................................................... 51

Организационная психология и научный метод......................................... 53

Исследование в организационной психологии............................................. 55

Этапы научного исследования.................................................................... 56

Методы организационной психологии....................................................... 59

Планирование и организация эксперимента.............................................. 72

Схемы планирования исследования............................................................. 73

Мультивалентные экспериментальные планы........................................... 78

Факторные эксперименты.......................................................................... 79

Возможности и ограничения организационно-психологических исследований 83

Анализ и обобщение результатов научного исследования......................... 85

Практическое упражнение......................................................................... 87

Отчет комиссии по оценке нового режима работы................................ 88

ЧАСТЬ ВТОРАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАЯ ВЛАСТЬ................................. 90

ГЛАВА III. ПРОБЛЕМА ВЛАСТИ В СОВРЕМЕННОЙ ПСИХОЛОГИИ.. 90

Феномен власти........................................................................................... 91

Власть как межличностное взаимодействие............................................ 93

Общая классификация оснований власти.................................................. 95

Основания власти и контроль.................................................................. 100

Дифференцированная классификация оснований власти........................ 100

Взаимосвязь оснований власти................................................................. 103

Косвенные методы влияния....................................................................... 103

Тактические приемы в использовании власти......................................... 104

Ограничения классификации оснований власти...................................... 105

Потребность во власти............................................................................ 106

Модель власти в межличностном взаимодействии................................ 113

Власть и свобода....................................................................................... 118

Власть и повиновение................................................................................ 119

Анализ деструктивного повиновения в организационно-психологическом контексте.................................................................................................................... 125

Административное повиновение.............................................................. 131

ГЛАВА IV. ВЛАСТЬ КАК СИСТЕМООБРАЗУЮЩАЯ КАТЕГОРИЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННОЙ ПСИХОЛОГИИ................................................... 135

Власть как явление историческое............................................................ 135

Генезис групповых форм поведения человека........................................... 136

Психологический анализ целесообразного поведения земледельческой общины. 138

Власть в земледельческой общине............................................................. 140

Психологическая устойчивость общинного поведения............................ 141

Загадка формирования произвольного поведения.................................... 144

Психологические предпосылки появления первых организационных форм 146

Генезис новой формы группового поведения............................................ 150

Насильственно-реквизиционная организация как первая организационная форма, созданная человеком.................................................................................. 153

Власть и произвольное поведение............................................................. 155

Насилие и власть....................................................................................... 159

Норма труда и норма потребления......................................................... 162

Концепция медицентрической организационной нормы......................... 163

Предпосылки формирования современной организации.......................... 165

Норма труда и тейлоризм........................................................................ 166

Концепция экселоцентрической организационной нормы....................... 169

Организационная власть и индивидуальность........................................ 173

Современная организация как система взаимозависимостей................ 174

Эволюция организационной власти.......................................................... 180

ГЛАВА V. ЛИДЕРСТВО............................................................................. 184

Феномен лидерства.................................................................................... 185

Лидерство и руководство......................................................................... 185

Лидерство и организационная власть..................................................... 188

Теории лидерства...................................................................................... 191

Нормативная модель лидерства Врума-Йеттона-Яго........................... 215

Когда лидерство излишне.......................................................................... 221

ЧАСТЬ ТРЕТЬЯ ВЛАСТЬ И ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ....................................... 222

ГЛАВА VI. ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ....................................................................... 222

Природа организаций................................................................................ 223

Основные характеристики организации.................................................. 226

Организация как открытая система...................................................... 228

Цикл трансформационного изменения..................................................... 229

Организационные цели............................................................................... 230

Жизненный цикл организации.................................................................... 232

Влияние среды............................................................................................ 232

Централизация власти.............................................................................. 235

Формализация организационного поведения............................................ 236

Организационная структура.................................................................... 237

Охват контролем...................................................................................... 245

Классические теории организации........................................................... 249

Организационная концепция «человеческих отношений»........................ 266

Ситуационные теории организации........................................................ 274

Роль технологии в организации................................................................ 279

Организация как социотехническая система.......................................... 286

Управление организацией как искусство.................................................. 288

ГЛАВА VII. МОТИВАЦИЯ......................................................................... 291

Что такое мотивация?............................................................................ 291

Мотивы и потребности людей в организациях....................................... 294

Взаимосвязи между потребностями и их суммарный эффект.............. 299

Содержательные теории мотивации..................................................... 299

Процессуальные теории мотивации........................................................ 307

Программы и методы стимулирования эффективной деятельности работников.................................................................................................................... 326

Управление по целям (management by objectives)...................................... 333

Перепроектирование заданий и функций работников............................ 335

Партисипативность................................................................................ 338

ГЛАВА VIII. ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННАЯ КУЛЬТУРА И РАЗВИТИЕ............ 339

Понятие организационной культуры....................................................... 339

Структура организационной культуры................................................... 343

Содержание организационной культуры................................................. 345

Формирование организационной культуры.............................................. 347

Влияние культуры на организационную эффективность........................ 352

Взаимодействие между культурами........................................................ 357

Изменение организационной культуры..................................................... 360

Организационное развитие....................................................................... 364

Типы организационного развития............................................................ 368

Планирование организационного развития.............................................. 369

Методы организационного развития....................................................... 374

Основные этапы разработки и внедрения программы организационного развития.................................................................................................................... 378

ЧАСТЬ ЧЕТВЕРТАЯ ВЛАСТЬ И ГРУППА............................................. 388

ГЛАВА IX. ОСНОВЫ ГРУППОВОГО ПОВЕДЕНИЯ............................... 388

Индивид в группе: возросшая мощь или потеря эффективности?........ 388

Феномен Рингельманна.............................................................................. 391

Группа и научный менеджмент................................................................ 394

Хоуторнские эксперименты...................................................................... 400

Природа групп в организации................................................................... 404

Почему люди образуют группы или вступают в них?............................. 405

Классификация групп в организации........................................................ 407

Стадии развития группы......................................................................... 409

Групповое давление и конформность....................................................... 413

Групповая сплоченность и совместимость............................................. 414

Структура группы.................................................................................... 416

Статус....................................................................................................... 416

Роли............................................................................................................ 421

Ролевая идентификация........................................................................... 422

Групповые (ролевые) ожидания................................................................ 422

Ролевой конфликт..................................................................................... 423

Эксперимент Зимбардо............................................................................. 424

Групповые нормы....................................................................................... 426

Групповые санкции.................................................................................... 427

Нормы в организации................................................................................ 428

Формирование групповых норм................................................................. 429

Ситуационные переменные, влияющие на групповое поведение.............. 430

ГЛАВА X. ОБЩЕНИЕ (КОММУНИКАЦИЯ) В ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ........... 434

Общение в организации............................................................................. 434

Коммуникативная функция общения........................................................ 436

Регулятивная функция общения................................................................ 445

Перцептивная функция общения.............................................................. 448

Особенности межличностного восприятия............................................ 451

Общение и понимание................................................................................ 455

Система организационного общения....................................................... 458

Типы коммуникационных сетей................................................................ 461

Неформальное общение в организации..................................................... 465

Общение и стиль управления..................................................................... 467

Пути повышения эффективности общения в организации.................... 468

ЧАСТЬ ПЯТАЯ ВЛАСТЬ И ИНДИВИД................................................... 470

ГЛАВА XI. ИНДИВИД И ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ............................................... 470

Менеджмент и индивид............................................................................ 470

Индивидуальные различия......................................................................... 471

Индивидуальный стиль деятельности..................................................... 477

Способности и их соответствие требованиям организации................ 479

Индивидуальные характеристики, влияющие на организационное поведение индивида.................................................................................................................... 482

Личность и организация........................................................................... 490

Теории личности........................................................................................ 491

Личностные характеристики, влияющие на организационное поведение индивида.................................................................................................................... 497

Проблема нормы и патологии в организационном поведении................ 502

Потребность в дальнейших исследованиях.............................................. 504

ГЛАВА ХII. ЦЕННОСТИ РАБОТНИКОВ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ.................... 506

Ценности.................................................................................................... 506

Ценности и организационное поведение................................................... 509

Источники ценностных представлений................................................... 511

Виды ценностей......................................................................................... 512

Ценностные и технические аспекты организационной деятельности.. 515

Динамика ценностных ориентации.......................................................... 515

Формирование ценностных ориентации.................................................. 517

Ценности менеджера и организации....................................................... 520

Ценности общества и стратегия организации....................................... 521

Аттитюды................................................................................................ 523

Консистентность и неоднородность аттитюдов................................. 525

Взаимосвязь между аттитюдами и поведением.................................... 526

Удовлетворенность трудом..................................................................... 528

ГЛАВА XIII. ОТБОР ПЕРСОНАЛА............................................................ 532

Цели и задачи профессионального отбора.............................................. 532

Оценка деятельности................................................................................ 533

Анализ биографических данных................................................................ 537

Файл биографической информации (ФБИ).............................................. 538

Оценочное интервью................................................................................. 539

Рекомендательные письма и телефонный запрос сведений об аппликанте 543

Оценки сослуживцев и руководителей...................................................... 544

Тестирование............................................................................................. 546

Типы тестов, используемых в профотборе............................................. 550

Достоинства и недостатки тестирования в организациях.................. 555

Центр оценки кадров (assessment center).................................................. 556

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ............................................................................................ 561

THE ENGLISH SUMMARY OF THE BOOK............................................... 563

 


[1] Мильнер Б. 3. Теория организаций. Курс лекций М.: Инфра-М, 1998. С. 12.

 

[2] Ломов Б. Ф. Методологические и теоретические проблемы психологии М.: Наука, 1984. С. 234.

[3] Etzioni A. Modern Organization. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964.

 

[4] Леонтьев А. Н Деятельность. Сознание. Личность. М : Политиздат, 1975.

 

[5] Mayo E. The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1933; Roethlisberger F. .J. & Dickson W. J. Management and the Worker. Cambridge, Mass.; Harvard University Press, 1939.

 

[6] В настоящее время в различных национальных традициях существуют разночтения в обозначении прикладной области психологии, занимающейся проблемами оптимизации организационной деятельности. Так, в североамериканской традиции, чаще всего используется термин «индустриальная и организационная психология» (industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology); в Германии -ABO-Psychologic (A/ Arbeit -- труд, B/Bеtrieb — предприятие, O/Organisation - организация); в Японии — сосикитэки синригаку (организационная психология). Эти сложносоставные названия отражают историю становления дисциплины и/или ее составные части. Это выглядит вполне оправданным, однако термин «организационная психология» представляется нам достаточно емким для обозначения как содержания и истории становления этого направления, гак и тех смежных дисциплин, которые органично вошли в его состав.

 

[7] Stapp J., Fulcher R., Nelson S. D.. Pallack M.-S. & Wicherski M. The employment of recent doctorate recipients in psychology: 1975 through 1978 //American Psychologist, Vol. 36. 1981. P. 1211 -1254.

 

[8] Что хорошо для GM (корпорации «Дженерал Моторс») хорошо для США (англ).

 

[9] Например, в межгосударственных отношениях задолженность перед кредиторами в несколько десятков млрд. долларов рассматривается как чрезвычайно серьезная, однако в сравнении с годовым оборотом некоторых компаний она выглядит довольно скромно. Так, объем продаж нефтяной компании Exxon/Mobil превышает 180 млрд. долларов в год.

 

[10] Еще в 1918 году генерал А.Хедлам (Hеdlam), ответственный за обеспечение Британской армии военным снаряжением и боеприпасами, соглашался с тем, что его страна избежала поражения в войне только благодаря американскому военно-промышленному концерну Дюпон (Du Pont dc Nemour & Company) (цит. по: Dale E. The Great Organizers. N.Y. etc.: McGraw-Hill, 1971. P. 62).

 

[11] Германия. Факты Frankfurt-am-Main: Sozietats-Vеrlag, 1993. C.214.

 

[12] Психология. Словарь //Под общ. ред. А. В. Петровского, М. Г. Ярошевского. 2-е изд. М: Политиздат, 1990. С.253; Философский энциклопедический словарь. М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1983. С. 463.

 

[13] Под понятием предмета (Gеgеnstand) исследования понимается некоторая целостность, выделенная в процессе познания. В отличии от объекта (Object) исследования, в предмет входят лишь главные, наиболее существенные с точки зрения данного исследования свойства и признаки предмета При этом один и тот же объект может быть предметом различных видов исследования и даже различных научных дисциплин.

 

[14] Dale Е. The Great Organizers. N.Y. etc.: McGraw-Hill, 1971. P. 37, 62.

 

[15] Taylor F. Shop Management. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1903; Taylor R Principles of Scientific Management. N.Y: Harper & Row, 1911; Тейлор Ф. Научная организация труда. М.,1924.

 

[16] В России термин «индустриальная психология» не получил столь широкого распространения как в Европе и США. Это направление психологической науки в отечественной традиции, как правило, именуется «психологией труда».

 

[17] Roethlisberger F J. & Dickson W. J. Management and the Worker. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1939.

 

[18] Maslow A. H. Motivation and personality, N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1954.

 

[19] Rogers C. Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications, and theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.

[20] Chaplin J. Р. & Krawiec Т. S. Systems and Theories of Psychology. 3-rd edition. N.Y.: Reinhart, & Winston, 1974.

 

[21] Номотетический подход ориентирован на выявление общих закономерностей и универсальных механизмов развития и формирования личности.

 

[22] Идеографический подход предполагает реконструкцию и анализ личности человека как особой неповторимой целостности.

 

[23] Gordon R.A. & Howell J.E. Higher education for business N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1959.

 

[24] Wicker Л. №. Attitude Versus Action: The Relationship of Verbal and Overt Behavioral Responses to Attitude Objects //Journal of Social Issues, Aut. 1969. P. 41—78; Heberlein T. A. & Black J. S. Attitudinal Specificity and the Prediction of Behavior in a Field Setting //Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Apr. 1976. P. 474--479; Schuman H. & Johnson M. P. Attitudes and Behavior //Annual Review of Sociology /Ed. By A.Inkcles. Palo Alto. Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1976. P. 161.....207; Regan D. & Fazio R. On the Consistency Between Attitudes and Behavior: Look to the Method of Attitude Formation /'Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Jan. 1977. P. 28—45; Kahle L. R- & Herman H J Attitudes Cause Behaviors: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Mar. 1979, P. 315-321.

 

[25] Stoner J. A. F. A comparison of individual and group decisions including risk /Unpublished master's thesis. Cambridge, Ma: School of Industrial Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1961.

 

[26] Stogdill R. Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of Literature //Journal of Psychology, Vol.25, 1948. P.35—71; Mann R. A. Review of the Relationships Between Personality and Performance in Small Groups //Psychological Bulletin, No 56, 1959. P. 241—270; Reddin W. J. Managerial Effectiveness N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1970; Fiedler E. E. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1967; Мисуми Д. Ридасиппу кодо-но кагаку (Поведенческая наука лидерства). Токио: Юхикаку, 1984.

 

[27] Peters Т. J. & Waterman R H In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best-run companies. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1982.

 

[28] Ouchi W. С. Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge.

 

[29] Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1981. : Blanchard K. & Johnson S. The one minute manager. N.Y.: Morrow, 1982.

 

[30] Kuhn T.S. The structure of scientific revolutions. 2-nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

 

[31] Понятия «капитализм» и «социализм», на мой взгляд, не отражают объективных принципов построения организации и в значительной степени являются идеологическими конструктами. Уместно отмстить, что государственное устройство современной капиталистической Германии сами немцы называют Sozialstaat (т. с. социальное или социально ориентированное государство), а японский капитализм, начиная с конца прошлого века и до сих пор, активно использует на внутреннем рынке элементы планового хозяйствования.

[32] Ломов Б.Ф. Методологические и теоретические проблемы психологии. М.: Наука. 1984. С.205.....218.

 

[33] Партисипативное управления (от англ. participate участвовать)— вовлечение рядовых работников в управление организацией путем предоставления им возможности стать се собственниками (акционерами)

 

[34] Убеждение силой (лат ) Дословно - «палочный» довод

 

[35] Ломов Б.Ф. Методологические и теоретические проблемы психологии. М.: Наука, 1984. С. 190.

 

[36] Journal of Social Issues Vol.52. No 1. 1996. P. 26.

 

[37] Последний довод (лат.)

[38] Weber M. The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations //Ed. by T.Parsons. N.Y.: Free Press, 1947.

 

[39] Лидерство— отношение доминирования и подчинения, влияния и следования в системе межличностных отношений в группе (Психология: Словарь /Под ред. А. В. Петровского, М. Г. Ярошевского. 2-е изд. М.:Политиздат, 1990. С. 190).

 

[40] Любопытно, что в 30-е годы, когда административно-командная организационная система, разработанная и воплощенная в жизнь Г.Фордом на его автомобильных заводах, стала внедряться в СССР как базовая организационная модель индустриализации, непривычное для того времени английское слово «leader» переводилось на русский язык как «вожак» (см.: Михайлов Л. Система Форда. М— Л .: Госиздат,1930.

 

[41] Харизма (от греч. charisma — божественный дар, благодать) — наделение человека исключительными свойствами, вызывающими преклонение перед ним и безоговорочную веру в его возможности.

 

[42] Mintzbеrg H. The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the Research. Englcwood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 1979. — P. 20

 

[43] Homo examinator (от лат homo- человек; examino -- исследовать) человек-исследователь.

 

[44] Kelly G A The Psychology of Personal Construcls. Vol.l 2 N.Y.: Norton, 1955

 

[45] Подвергать вес сомнению (лат,)

 

[46] Skinner В. F. Contingencies of reinforcement. N.Y.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969

[47]

Зиновьев А. А. Два уровня в научном исследовании //Проблемы научного метода. М., 1964. - С. 238—239.

 

[48] Экспериментальная психология. /Под ред. П. Фресса и Ж. Пиаже. М.: Прогресс. 1973.

 

[49] Абсентеизм (от англ. absent - отсутствующий)— термин, обозначающий отсутствие члена организации на рабочем месте по уважительной или любой иной причине.

 

[50] Кому выгодно? (лат).

 

[51] 1 Campbell D. & Stanley J. Experimental Designs and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. — Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963,

 

[52] Предваряющая/последующая проверка (англ).

 

[53] R (от англ, randomization — рандомизация) — процедура отбора членов экспериментальной и контрольной группы, при которой каждый работник обладает одинаковой вероятностью попасть в одну из указанных групп.

 

[54] Фресс П. Эмоции. // Экспериментальная психология / Под ред. П.Фресса и Ж.Пиаже. М.,1975.

 

[55] House R. & Wigdor L. Herzbеrg's Dual-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction and Motivations: A Review of the Evidence and Criticism //Personnel Psychology, Winter 1967. P. 369--389.

 

[56] Cook Т. D. & Campbell D. Т. The Design and Control of Quasi-Experiments and Time Experiments in Field Settings //Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology /Ed. by Marvin D. Dunnеtte. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976. P. 223—326; even* M. G. Opportunistic Organizational Research: The Role of Patch-up Designs //Academy of Management Journal No 3, 1974. P. 98 108.

 

[57] «Словарь русского языка» выделяет три основных значения слова власть: 1) право и возможность распоряжаться кем и чем-либо, подчинять своей воле; 2) политическое господство, государственное управление и его органы; 3) лица, облеченные правительственными, административными полномочиями. (Ожегов С. И. Словарь русского языка. М.: Русский язык, 1978. С. 80.)

 

[58] Белов Г. А. Политология. Курс лекций. М.: Чебо, 1998; Бурлацкий Ф. М., Галкин А. А. Социология. Политика. М., 1974.

 

[59] Напр.: Психологический словарь /Под ред. В. В. Давыдова, А. В. Запорожца, Б. Ф. Ломова и др. М.: Педагогика, 1983; Психология: Словарь /Под ред. А. В. Петровского, М. Г. Ярошевского. 2-е изд. М.: Политиздат, 1990 и др.

 

[60] «Власть — это способность и возможность осуществлять свою волю, оказывать определяющее воздействие на деятельность, поведение людей с помощью какого-либо средства — авторитета, права, насилия и т. п.» //Философский энциклопедический сл




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