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Ознакомьтесь со словарным минимумом к тексту. Прочитайте и переведите текст “Foreign Trade”.

foreign trade международная торговля

syn. international trade

wholesale trade оптовая торговля

syn. wholesaling

wholesaler оптовый торговец

retail trade розничная торговля

syn. retailing

retailer розничный торговец

participate v (in smth) уча­ствовать (в чём-л.)

enable v давать возможность (что-л. сделать)

to enable smb to do smth давать кому-л. возможность или право что-л. сделать; позволить кому-л. сделать что-л.

syn. let (let, let) v позволять, допус­кать; выдавать (заказ на что-л.)

to let (smb) do smth разрешить, по­зволить (кому-л.) сделать что-л.

syn. allow v позволять, разрешать

to allow (smb) to do smth позволять (кому-л.) делать что-л.

to be allowed to do smth иметь раз­решение делать что-л.

expand v расширять, увели­чивать в объеме

major adj более важный, зна­чительный

according to prep согласно, в соответствии с

in accordance with в соот­ветствии с чём-л., согласно чему-л.

syn. in line with

absolute advantage абсолютное пре­имущество

comparative advantageсравнительное преимущество

to compare with smth сравнивать с чём-л.

to compare to smth уподоблять чему-л.

in comparison with smth в сравнении с чём-л.

gain v выигрывать; получать; извлекать выгоду

gain n прирост; прибыль; выигрыш

gains pl доходы; выручка; прибыль, заработок; увеличение, рост

competitive adj конкурен­тный, конкурентоспособный

competitive advantage преимуще­ство, основанное на конкуренции

competition n соревно­вание; состязание; конкуренция

competitiveness n конкурентная способность

compete v соревноваться, конкурировать

to compete in smth конкурировать в чём-л.

to compete with smb конкурировать с кем-л.

to compete for smth конкурировать ради чего-л.

relatively adv относительно, сравнительно

relative adj относительный

customer n заказчик; покупа­тель; клиент

acceptance n одобрение, принятие

throughout prep через, по всей площади, длине и т.п.; всё время, в течение всего времени

diverse adj разный, разнооб­разный

syn. different

innovation n нововведение, новаторство

aid v помогать

aid n помощь

depressed adj ослабленный, сниженный, подавленный

promote v способствовать, содействовать

emphasise v подчеркивать, придавать особое значение


Foreign Trade

What is now called international trade has existed for thousands of years long before there were nations with specific boundaries. Foreign trade means the exchange of goods and services between nations, but speaking in strictly economic terms, international trade today is not between nations. It is between producers and consumers or between producers in different parts of the globe. Nations do not trade, only economic units such as agricultural, industrial and service enterprises can participate in trade.

Goods can be defined as finished products, as intermediate goods used in producing other goods, or as agricultural products and foodstuffs. International trade enables a nation to specialize in those goods it can produce most cheaply and efficiently and it is one of the greatest advantages of trade. On the other hand, trade also enables a country to consume more than it can produce if it depends only on its own resources. Finally, trade expands the potential market for the goods of a particular economy. Trade has always been the major factor ensuring good economic relations among nations.

Different aspects of international trade and its role in the domestic economy are known to have been developed by many famous economists. International trade began to assume* its present form with the establishment of nation-states in the 17th and 18th centuries, new theories of economics, in particular of international trade, having appeared during this period.

In 1776 the Scottish economist Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations, proposed that specialization in production leads to increased output and in order to meet a constantly growing demand for goods it is necessary that a country's scarce resources be allocated efficiently. According to Smith's theory, it is essential that a country trading internationally should specialize in those goods in which it has an absolute advantage – that is, the ones it can produce more cheaply and efficiently than its trading partners can. Exporting a portion of those goods, the country can in turn** import those that its trading partners produce more cheaply. To prove his theory Adam Smith used the example of Portuguese wine in contrast to English woollens***.

Half a century later, having been modified by the English economist David Ricardo, the theory of international trade is still accepted by most modern economists. In line with the principle of comparative advantage, it is important that a country should gain from trading certain goods even though its trading partners can produce those goods more cheaply. The comparative advantage is supposed to be realized if each trading partner has a product that will bring a better price in another country than it will at home. If each country specializes in producing the goods in which it has a comparative advantage, more goods are produced, and the wealth of both the buying and the selling nations increases.

Trade based on comparative advantage still exists: France and Italy are known for their wines, and Switzerland maintains a reputation for fine watches. Alongside this kind of trade, an exchange based on a competitive advantage began late in the 19th century. Several countries in Europe and North America having reached rather an advanced stage of industrialization, competitive advantage began to play a more important role in trade. With relatively similar economies countries could start competing for customers in each other's home markets. Whereas comparative advantage is based on location, competitive advantage must be earned by product quality and customer acceptance. For example, German manufacturers sell cars in the United States, and American automakers sell cars in Germany, both countries as well as Japanese automakers competing for customers throughout Europe and in Latin America.

Thus, international trade leads to more efficient and increased world production, allows countries to consume a larger and more diverse amount of goods, expands the number of potential markets in which a country can sell its goods. The increased international demand for goods results in greater production and more extensive use of raw materials and labour, which means the growth of domestic employment. Competition from international trade can also force domestic firms to become more efficient through modernization and innovation.

It is obvious that within each economy the importance of foreign trade varies. Some nations export only to expand their domestic market or to aid economically depressed sectors within the domestic economy. Other nations depend on trade for a large part of their national income and it is often important for them to develop import of manufactured goods in order to supply the ones for domestic consumption. In recent years foreign trade has also been considered as a means to promote growth within a nation's economy. Developing countries and international organizations have increasingly emphasized such trade.


Пояснения к тексту:

* to assume – зд. принимать

** in turn – в свою очередь

*** woolens – шерстяные ткани


Вставьте пропущенные предлоги, где это необходимо.

A) Goods can be moved directly … the producer … the consumer, but generally manufactured goods are delivered … consumers … indirect and more complicated channels. Wholesaling is a part … the marketing system standing … the manufacturer and the retailer and providing channels … goods distribution. Wholesalers buy goods … large quantities and sell them … small quantities … retailers, thus they simplify the distribution process. Dealing directly … diverse producers and trading … a large assortment of items, wholesalers … the same time trade … numerous independent retailers, so wholesaling is … great importance both … manufacturers and retailers. Small businesses are known to participate … the field of wholesaling, about one-fourth … wholesaling units accounting … one-third of total sales.

B) Thousands ... retailers are known to compete ... each other ... consumers ... the market and their major purpose is "to have the right goods ... the right place ... the right time". To be successful a retailer should distinguish itself... others and carry ... a strategy ... meeting the demands ... a specific consumer group. This strategy includes … careful consideration ... the following questions: 1) the quality ... the product to be sold; 2) the available quantity ... the product; 3) the location ... the selling place; 4) the time to make the product available; 5) the pricing ... the product; 6) product advertising (зд. рекламирование). Many kinds ... retailers such as department stores (универмаг), specialty stores (специализированный магазин), discount stores (магазин, торгующий по сниженным ценам) and others compete ... providing consumers ... a convenient time and place to buy needed goods. As retailers are able to contact ... consumers directly, the former can study and influence ... the needs and preferences ... the latter.


3. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. Special agreements (allowed / allocated) the former Soviet bloc countries’ exports of meat, fruit, dairy (молочный) goods and vegetables to rise by 10 percent a year for five years.

2. The European Community due to importing and exporting (limited / diverse) resources is considered to be a more integrated market, in which distance, information barriers and tariffs are (considerably / relatively) unimportant.

3. The country will (gain / lose) by restricting imports if the government tends to aid economically depressed domestic sectors of the economy.

4. Special care should be taken by the government to protect economic interests of the (depressed / competitive) groups of the population and reduce absolute poverty (бедность).

5. Nowadays environment management should be (adjusted / accepted) as (an unimportant / a major) factor for any country’s national development and it should be (emphasized / expanded) by scientific, technical and administrative support.

6. The (wholesaler / retailer) performs the last stage of the distribution process, for he puts the goods in the hands of the actual consumer.

7. The law of (comparative / competitive) advantage states (утверждать) that countries specialize in producing and exporting the goods that they produce at a (relative / relatively) lower cost than other countries.

8. Due to achievements of modern sciences various (advantages / innovations) applied in production cycles have greatly decreased the share of labour-consuming operations.

9. Centralized control of the production factors results from the (acceptance / exception) of an ideology that (emphasizes / gives rise to) the importance of the group of people rather than the individual.


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