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Good evening – saying “goodbye” (low rise)




 

Sentence stress is a prominence given to certain words in an utterance (фразовое). Stress may be normalandlogical.By normal stress we mean a certain stress pattern of utterance when every more or less lexically significant words is made prominent.

ex: ΄How ΄do you ΄think we ΄ought to start?

All the notional words are stressed. By logical stress we mean the shift in stress.

ex: ΄How do ±you think we ought to start?

The stress becomes logical.

Both of them can become emphatic of it is intensified.

ex: She ±loves you dearly. -normal

ex: She loves ±you dearly. –logical (becomes emphatic)

 

Tempo.The rate of the speech and pauses are very meaningful too. Normally important parts are pronounced slower than unimportant. Maybe: slow, normal, fast.

ex: What I want to say to you(quicker)is that you should come tomorrow(slower).

Pauses may be different according to their length: short, normal and long. Functionally we distinguish syntactic, emphatic and hesitation pauses.

Syntactic are used to separate syntactical units such as phonetic passages, phrases and intonation groups. Emphatic – emphasize this or that part of the utterance. Hesitation pauses are mainly used in spontaneous, unprepared speech. They serve us to gain some time to think over what to say next. May be: silent, filled and mixed. Besides certain words (form words) may be prolonged.

Ex: I don’t know what to-o-o say.

the definite article – the [ði:-i:]

the indefinite article – a [æ-ə-ə]

the particle “to” – to [tu:-u:-u:]


Phonostylistics

 

to overlap – частично совпадать

to vary

appropriately – соответствующе

verbal – устный

even – ровный, чёткий

spontaneous – спонтанный

interaction – взаимодействие

psychic

Phonostylistics is a rapidly developing field of study. It’s not a new branch, but rather a new way of looking at phonetic phenomena.

During the first half of the 20th century linguistics showed interests mainly in written form of the language. The emphasis was laid an analyzing written speech. But later when new technical aids appeared the situation changed → linguists got a good opportunity of studying oral speech which had been ignored.

In real life we find ourselves in various and numerous situations and in these situations language is used appropriately. It stands to reason that much of what people say depends on the situations they’re in. So variations of language in different situations are various. But on the other hand, they have much in common that means that there’re patterns of variation. Language means which constitute any utterance are characterized by a certain pattern of selection and arrangement. The principles of it as well as the ways of combining elements form “the style”.

Styleintegrated language means and at the same time differs one utterance from another. The branch of linguistics – functional stylistics.

How phonostylistics overlaps with functional stylistics. There’s no simple correspondence between phonon and functional styles. Functional styles we defined as a subsystem of language which function in certain fields of communication and are aimed at to a definite affect: to inform, to persuade, to establish contact, to entertain, to impress, etc.

Many attempts were made to work out a classification. still an open question – there is no universal classification.

There exist various styles:

  • scientific
  • publicistic
  • business
  • belles-lettres (беллетристика)
  • colloquial

It’s of interest to note that in the process of studying the characteristics of functional styles phonetic level of analyses has been completely ignored.

Oral speech has its own specific characteristics. It’s clear that description and comparison of all variation is a matter of great complexity.

The sets of phonetic style forming features do not correspond to functional styles. They’re characterized by different qualities. Phonostylistics studies the way phonetic means are used in this or that particular situation. Its aim is to analyze all possible kinds of spoken utterances with the purpose of identifying the phonetic features (segmental (sounds)/ supersegmental (words, …)) and secondly to explain why such features have been used, and what is more to classify them into categories.

 

Extra-linguistic situationcan be defined by 3 components:

1) purpose

2) participants

3) setting (scene)

1) A situation is connected with the purpose and the topic of communication. The purpose directs the activities (considerable number) of the participants. The notion of purpose requires the specification of contents at a more detailed level. Subject matter of activity.

2) Basically speech varies with participants in numerous ways. It’s a marker of various characteristics of the individual speakers as well as relationships between them, and here social relationships may be of great interests.

ex: Dr.Jonson talks like a doctor → he is likely to be at hospital; at home – husband

Usually age of participants is also an important category. Age is associated with the role structure in the family and social groups. With authority and status. The speech behavior of a person not only conveys the information about his/ her own age but also about (the age) of listener.




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