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VIII. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Письменно переведите абзац №1


The Role of Government in the Economy

1. In every economy the work of different firms has to be coordinated. In a market economy this coordination is achieved by means of markets. Nevertheless the debate over the role for Government in a market economy is continuing and the issue is being widely discussed at the present time. An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterised by private ownership and initiative, with a relative absence of government involvement. However, government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that economic opportunities are fair, to dampen inflation and to stimulate growth.

2. Governments plays a big role in American free enterprise system. Federal, state and local government tax, regulate, and support business. In the United States there are agencies to regulate safety, health, environment, transport, communications, trade, labour relations, and finances. Regulation ensures that business serves the best interests of the people as a whole.

3.Some industries- nuclear power, for instance – have been regulated more closely over the last few years than ever before. In others the trend has been towards deregulation or reduction of administrative burden on the economy.

4.The U.S. economy has a tradition of government intervention for specific economic purposes- including controlling inflation, limiting monopoly, protecting the consumer, providing for the poor. The government also affect the economy by controlling the money supply and the use of credit. Theaimisabalancebudget.

Iх. Прочтите абзац № 2 и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What do federal and local governments do?

Вариант 5

I. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы:

1. Bookkeepers first record all the appropriate figures in journals.

2. There are different types of shares.

3. The Russian economy grew enormously after the 1860s.

II. Прочитайте предложения (1-4) и вставьте ) в пропуски пропущенные словосочетания (a-d):

A) went b) am meeting c )have received d) works

1. I ------- Misses Walker at 5 pm. 2. Our secretary ------- very hard. 3. Mister Sanders---------straight to the briefing. 4. I ----- just -------- your mail. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу




III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя сравнительную степень прилагательных. Переведите предложения на русский язык

1. When worker productivity falls, companies will pay (little) for labour.

2. Efficient economy grows faster and everyone in society benefits.

3. Governments can change business laws to make the market (competitive).


IV. Вставьте в пропуски (1-4) предлоги (a-d):

a) for b) in c) at d) on1.They’ll deliver the goods ---the end of the month. 2.The secretary will book him ----a later flight. 3.Have you seen that advert ----the post of manager. 4.He usually visits our head office ----the spring. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу





V. Вставьте пропущенные слова (a-e). Переведите предложения на русский язык


a) stockholders, b) population, c) wealth, d) recessions, e) director


1. A public company must have at least two …

2. The … elect a director or directors to operate the corporation.

3. The highest density of … is in the cities.

4. … can include money in bank accounts or in pension schemes.

5. Most governments aim to avoid ….

Занесите свои ответы в таблицу




VI. Переведите письменно слова 1-5. Подберите к словам соответствующие определения:


1. hard-working a) like to spend time with other people
2. sociable b) want to reach the top in their career
3. ambitious c) spend a lot of time doing a good job
4. motivating d) like to be on time
5. punctual e) encourage other people to work well


Занесите свои ответы в таблицу


VII. Соедините части предложений (1-4) и (a-d):

1. Belgium is a controlled-time culture 2. It is important to remember 3.Many banking tasks 4.When you negotiate


a) you try to agree on terms.b) are dealt with by computer.c) that hierarchy in business is strictly observed. d) and adherence to schedules is important. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу





VIII. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Письменно переведите абзацы № 3, 4

Natural Monopolies

1. Natural monopolies is quiet popular organization form that’s widely used in many countries. In most countries natural monopolies are basically the same, they are concentrated within same sectors of economy: railroad, underground, telecommunications, post etc. The main problem in that case is to find a pure natural monopoly, today natural monopolies are partly owned by private companies and persons.

2.In the USA natural monopolies operate in different areas of economy and that makes them different from Russian or British. At the same the USA were the first to elaborate antitrust code and in 1890 Antirist act was signed into law. This act vested government officials with an authority to investigate, seek and judge cases where the provisions of the act can be violated. The initial goal was to advocate the right of people to consume products at reasonable prices through market competition.

3.According to the act “every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor…”. However we can cite examples of the enterprises that immune from antitrust code. Usually government itself regulates these monopolies and set reasonable prices for the services that the company charges.

4.Sometimes natural monopoly can concentrate the whole industry. It’s essential when the product or service is limited to a degree when it’s impossible to get profit without large monopolistic structure.

Iх. Прочтите абзац № 2 и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:


What is the initial goal of the antitrust act?

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