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The Laser/Atom Connection




Although there are many types of lasers, all have certain essential features. In a laser, the lasing medium is “pumped” to get the atoms into an excited state. Typically, very intense flashes of light or electrical discharges pump the lasing medium and create a large collection of excited-state atoms (atoms with higher-energy electrons). It is necessary to have a large collection of atoms in the excited state for the laser to work efficiently. In general, the atoms are excited to a level that is two or three levels above the ground state. This increases the degree of population inversion. The population inversion is the number of atoms in the excited state versus the number in ground state.

Once the lasing medium is pumped, it contains a collection of atoms with some electrons sitting in excited levels. The excited electrons have energies greater than the more relaxed electrons. Just as the electron absorbed some amount of energy to reach this excited level, it can also release this energy. As the figure below illustrates, the electron can simply relax, and in turn rid itself of some energy. This emitted energy comes in the form of photons (light energy).

Контрольная работа № 5

По английскому языку для студентов всех технических специальностей заочного отделения

Вариант 3

V семестр

 

I. Прочитайте и переведите текст (устно).

Information security (sometimes shortened to InfoSec) is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (electronic, physical, etc...)

Below are the typical terms you will hear when dealing with information security:

IT Security = Sometimes referred to as computer security, IT Security is information security when applied to technology (most often some form of computer system). It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory (even a calculator). IT security specialists are almost always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that often attempt to breach into critical private information, or gain control of the internal systems.



Information Assurance = The act of ensuring that data is not lost when critical issues arise. These issues include but are not limited to; natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft, or any other instance where data has the potential of being lost. Since most information is stored on computers in our modern era, information assurance is typically dealt with by IT security specialists. One of the most common methods of providing information assurance is to have an off-site backup of the data in case one of the mentioned issues arise.

II. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопросы к тексту.

1. What is not included in information security?

a)defending information from unauthorized access;

b) defending information from disruption;

c)defending information from children.

2. What is IT Security?

a) Itis information security when applied to technology. b)Itis information security when applied to people. c) Itis information security when applied to nature . b) 25 – 30  

3.What are IT security specialistsnot responsiblefor?

a) for keeping all of the technology away from the people ;

b) for keeping all of the technology secure from malicious cyber attacks;

c) for keeping all of the technology secure from attempt to breach into critical private information.

III. Закончите предложения по содержанию прочитанного текста.

4.Information security is a general term that can be used...

a) … regardless of the form the data may take.

b) …only for electronic data protection.

c) … only for protecting business information within large enterprises.

5. Information Assurance is the act of ensuring that … is not lost when critical issues arise.

a) … data …; b) …computer …; c) …specialist ….

6. Critical issues (mentioned in the text) do not include …

a) … natural disasters;

b) … the end of the world;

c)… physical theft .

IV. Подберите эквивалент к данному русскому слову или словосочетанию .

7 . безопасность

a) disaster b) security c) structure

8. обнаружение

a)decision b) direction c) disclosure
9. независимо от формы a) focused on the form b) regardless of the form c)depending on the form

10. настольный прибор – установка( компьютер)

a) laptop b) makeup c) desktop

11. попытка

a) attempt b) advise c) advert

12. воровство, кража

a)theft b) belief c)debt

13. страхование

a) access b) treasure c) assurance

V. Выберите соответствующее определение данным словам из текста .

a) insurance; b) changing; c) admission; d) spiteful ; e) careful; f); institution g) demolition; h) useful.

 

14.access

15.disruption

16. modification

17. perusal

18.worthwhile

19.establishment

20. malicious

21. assurance

VI. Прочитайте предложения и укажите соответствует ли данное утверждение действительности: если соответствует напишите после предложения T- true, если не соответствует то F-false, при этом письменно подтвердите ваш ответ примером из текста.

22. Information security is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access.

23.A computer is any device with a processor and some memory.

24.One of the most unusual methods of providing information assurance is to have an off-site backup of the data.

VII. Выберите правильную видовременную форму глагола.

25. The term can _________regardless of the form the data may take.

a) to be used b) be used c) using

26. Below are the typical terms which you will _______.

a) hear b) heard c) hears

27. It is worthwhile to note that a computer __________a home desktop.

a) do not mean b) does not mean c) does not meant

28. The act of ________that data is not lost when critical issues arise.

a) ensure b) ensured c) ensuring

29. Most information ________ on computers in our modern era.

a) is stored b) are stored c) is storing

30. Information assurance _________ by IT security specialists.

a) dealt with b)were dealt withc)is dealt with

VIII. Переведите текст письменно.

Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals, and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, customers, products, research, and financial status. Most of this information is now collected, processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted across networks to other computers.

Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor, such a breach of security could lead to negative consequences. Protecting confidential information is a business requirement, and in many cases also an ethical and legal requirement.

For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy, which is viewed very differently in different cultures.

The field of information security has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. There are many ways of gaining entry into the field as a career. It offers many areas for specialization including: securing network(s) and allied infrastructure, securing applications and databases, security testing, information systems auditing, business continuity planning and digital forensics, etc.

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