THE CATEGORY OF CASE AND ARTICLE DETERMINATION
THE MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORD. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES: LEXICAL, FUNCTIONAL, DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES; FREE, BOUND MORPHEMES; ZERO MORPHEMES.
The morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word, the morpheme is formed by phonemes; as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary (i.e. indivisible into smaller segments as regards its significative function.) Morphemes are not abstract units, they are real parts of words, combinations of morphemes constitute words. E.g. bene|fact|r|ess|es, child|r|en/
The word is a nominative unit of language and it is used to name things, persons, abstract phenomena, relations etc; it is formed by morphemes; it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component (i.e. indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative function); together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence – a unit of information in the communicative process.
In accord with traditional classification, morphemes on the upper level are divided into root morphemes (roots) and affixal morphemes (affixes). The roots express the concrete meaning of the word, while the affixes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word.
Morphemes can be classified into lexical, grammatical and derivational.
The roots of notional words are classical lexical morphemes, i.e. they express the concrete material parts of the meaning of the word, while grammatical morphemes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word (the meanings of grammatical categories).
Derivational morphemes produce one part of speech from another. E.g. hero|ine, poet|ess, black|mail|ing etc.
Morphemes can be divided into free and bound ones. Free morphemes coincide with separate words. E.g. –hand, -clock,-sugar
Bound morphemes can only occur in a cluster with other morphemes to form a new word. E.g. hang|ful, clock|wise
In English grammar we also distinguish zero morphemes which are defined as the unmarked member of grammatical oppositions.
E.g. a child – children(отсутствие определенного артикля у слов во множественном числе)
##### - water
#### - snow
Morphemes can be additive and innerflexional. E.g take – took
Прерывистые морфемы [be-ben]-passive
[have-en] – perfect
Алломорф S/es/en/# - морфемы множественного числа
PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS IN GRAMMAR. THE NOTIONS OF A SYNTAGM AND A PARADIGM. TYPES OF SYNTAGMS IN ENGLISH.
Lingual units stand to one another in two fundamental types of relations: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are intermediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence(string).
The other type of relations, opposed to syntagmatic and called “paradigmatic”, are such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur. Paradigmatic relations coexist with syntagmatic relations in such a way that some sort of syntagmatic connection is necessary for the realization of any paradigmatic series.
A paradigm is a set of associated signifiers or signifieds which are all members of some defining category, but in which each is significantly different.
A syntagm is an orderly combination of interacting signifiers which forms a meaningful whole within a text - sometimes, following Saussure, called a 'chain'. Such combinations are made within a framework of syntactic rules and conventions (both explicit and inexplicit). in a broad sense, any sequence of linguistic elements linked by the relationship of dependent member to governing member. This is F. de Saussure’s concept of syntagm.
Pr. Blokh distinguishes 4 types of phrases or syntagms:
1. predicative syntagm (s+p)
2. object syntagm (P+O)
3. Attributive syntagm (Adj+n)
4. Adverbial syntagm (P+D)
THE CATEGORY OF CASE AND ARTICLE DETERMINATION
Case is the immanent (постоянная) morphological category of the noun manifested in the forms of noun declension dɪˈklenʃən (склонение) and showing the relations of the nounal (именных) referent (объект действительности) to other objects and phenomena. Thus, the case form of the noun, or contractedly its "case" (in the narrow sense of the word), is a morphological-declensional (падежная) form.
This category is expressed in English by the opposition of the form in -'s [-z, -s, -iz], usually called the "possessive"( притяжательный) case, or more traditionally, the "genitive" case to the unfeatured form of the noun, usually called the "common" case. The apostrophised ‘s serves to distinguish in writing the singular noun in the genitive case from the plural noun in the common case. E.g.: the man's duty, the President's decision, Max's letter; the boy's ball, the clerk's promotion, the Empress's jewels.
The genitive of the bulk of plural nouns remains phonetically unexpressed: the few exceptions concern only some of the irregular plurals. Thereby the apostrophe as the graphic sign of the genitive acquires the force of a sort of grammatical hieroglyph. Cf.: the carpenters' tools, the mates' skates, the actresses' dresses.
In the course of linguistic investigation (исследование) the category of case in English has become one of the vexed (спорный) problems of theoretical discussion.
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