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Transform positive into negative

a. You’ll have to help me to do this translation.

b. You must stop here.

c. You must learn the whole poem.

d. They had to take off their shoes.

e. He must be speaking German.

f. We had to wear a uniform.

11. Read a small extract from the number one bestseller “Appassionata” by Jilly Cooper (1996). Find the modal verbs and indicate their functions. Translate the text.

The famous conductor Mr. Rannaldini is visiting his friend’s recent widow Helen, he is inviting her to Prague for a production of Don Giovanni where he is conducting the orchestra. Malise is her recently dead husband’s name, Mrs Edwards is her servant.

Helen couldn’t face Rannaldini. Mrs Edwards would have to say she was ill. But, bang on midday, punctual for the first time in his life, Rannaldini landed his big black helicopter on the lawn sending all the leaves swirling upwards around him as he leapt out. Wading through the leaves like a surfer he handed Helen a big bunch of tabasco-red freesias. Helen invited him in while she put them in water.

On a side table was an open poetry book:

Who would have thought my shrivel’d heart

Could have recovered greenness? read Rannaldini.

“You said you’d like to see Malise’s unpublished work. Have you really got time?”

“It is huge honour, I will make time,” lied Rannaldini.

“May I?” he took the flute out of its case, tuned for a second and started to play. Helen’s eyes filled with tears.

“I am sorry. I will stop. We must go to lunch.”

“Since Malise died I don’t remember anything,” Helen was crying again.

Rannaldini poured her a glass of wine. “You shall come to Prague with me because I am conducting there. ”

“But I can’t leave my son and I can’t afford it,” babbled Helen.

“You will be my guest. I book you a room in a nice hotel. I will send you a plane ticket and a ticket for Don Giovanni just for twenty-four hours, you deserve a treat.”

“ Sit down. I will make your lunch.”

“A bowl of soup will do,” stammered Helen. “I can’t eat at the moment.”

“Then you will start,” encouraged Rannaldini.

Write responses for the comments using a modal verb from the box and a suitable verb. More than one answer may be possible. Indicate the corresponding function of the modal verb in each case. Translate each sentence in Russian.

(will, can’t, might, could, should, must, may)

1. A: I failed my exam.

B: ______________________________

2. A: She looked upset and her eyes were very red.


3. A: I can’t find my wallet.


4. A: I bought my Mum some perfume, but she didn’t like it.


5. A: I thought she was Spanish, not French.


6. A: I don’t know what had happened, but he had a black eye and bruises all aver his face.

B: _______________________________

In the extracts from “The Best Laid Plans” by Sidney Sheldon (1997) comment on various uses of modal verbs.

* * *

At ten o’clock that evening, Oliver walked into the den where Jan was reading and said, “Honey, I have to leave. I have a conference to go to.”

Jan looked up. “At this time of night?”

He sighed. “I’m afraid so. There’s a budget committee meeting in the morning, and they want to brief me before the meeting. ”

* * *

“You’re working too hard. Try to come home early, will you, Oliver?” She hesitated a moment. “You’ve been out a lot lately.”

He wondered whether that was intended as a warning. “Don’t worry, honey. I’ll be home as early as I can.”

Downstairs Oliver said to his chauffeur, “I won’t need you tonight. I’m taking the small car.”

* * *

Afterward, he said, “How would you like to move to Washington? ”

Miriam asked, “Are you serious?”

“Very. I may be going there. I want you to be with me.”

“If your wife ever found out about us …”

“She won’t.”

“ Why Washington?”

“I can’t tell you that now. All I can say that it’s going to be very exciting.”

“I’ll go anywhere you want me to go, as long as you love me.”

Translate the following into English using modal verbs.


1. Вы никуда не уйдете, пока не объясните это. 2. Вам следовало бы принять во внимание все детали этого происшествия. 3. Наверное, он обидел всех своим бестактным выступлением. 4. Не может быть, чтобы она сама придумала все это. 5. Не нужно было так сильно за нас беспокоиться. 6. Вор пытался открыть дверь, но она никак не открывалась. 7. Чего ради стала бы она делать всю эту работу за Вас? 8. Доктор велел соблюдать постельный режим, но больной и слышать об этом не хотел. 9. Неужели он действительно не подвез вас до станции? 10. Замок никак не открывается! Ты мог бы вызвать мастера, в конце концов! 11. Я сделаю Вас по-настоящему счастливой! Вы будете делать, что хотите и тратить сколько угодно. 12. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано в срок. Не нужно нервничать зря. 13. Она когда-то ходила на высоких каблуках и часто меняла прически. 14. Должно быть, он был управляющим банка. 15. Пожалуйста, расскажите об этом поподробнее.

Read the extracts which describe what is considered the polite thing to do when invited to a social occasion in Britain. Indicate the functions of the modal verbs, translate them into Russian.

Discuss these questions and make up the rules for any other country at your choice.


1. Are any of the “rules” the same in your country? Do any seem ridiculous?

2. Which of the rules seem sensible?

3. Do you think rules like this are outdated, or do they serve any purpose?

If you are invited for 8 pm, you should arrive about 10 - 15 minutes later. In fact, it’s impolite to arrive exactly on time.

It’s not necessary to bring a gift for the hosts, but flowers or chocolates will always be appreciated.

The host should introduce you to other guests you don’t know, but you can introduce yourself if he/she doesn’t do this. A smile and “Hello” is enough at an informal party - you don’t have to shake hands.

It is not polite to refuse a course, unless you can’t eat the food for some reason such as health or diet problems. If you don’t like the food, try to eat it anyway. If you can only manage a mouthful or two, eat lots of everything else.

Smokers should ask the host and other guests before lighting up at the table, and should be prepared to take “No” for an answer. No one should smoke until the end of the meal.

Say thank you, by telephone or letter, but say it promptly, within a couple of days at the most.


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