Практические задания к семинарам
Общая теория перевода
Вопросы к экзамену:
1. О термине «перевод». Определение перевода. Возникновение науки «Теория перевода».
2. Русские классики перевода
3. Определение термина «переводоведение». Разделы переводоведения.
4. Объект, предмет, цель, методы исследования в теории перевода. Связь теории перевода с другими науками
5. Переводческие универсалии.
6. Виды перевода
7. Особые виды обработки текста при переводе.
8. Понятие единицы перевода. Транслатема. Перевод на уровне фонем/графем, морфем, слов, словосочетаний, предложений, текста.
9. Проблема эквивалентности
10. Исторические концепции и универсальные модели переводческой эквивалентности
11. Инвариант перевода
12. Виды переводческих трансформаций
13. Экстралингвистическая и лингвистическая информация при переводе
· Виды экстралингвистической информации (смысловая, эмоционально-экспрессивная, социолокальная, хронологическая, фоновая, дифференциальная)
· Виды лингвистической информации (грамматическая и формальная)
Имплицитная информация. Подтекст. Вертикальный контекст
14. Фоновая информация при переводе: бытовые реалии, этнографические и мифологические реалии, реалии мира природы, реалии государственно-административного устройства, языковые аллюзии, экзотизмы
15. Способы перевода: транскрипция/транслитерация, гипо-гиперонимический перевод, уподобление, перифрастический перевод, калькирование
16. Грамматические проблемы перевода
17. Перевод фразеологических единиц
18. Особенности перевода текстов, относящихся к различным функциональным стилям
19. Отклонения от литературной нормы и их перевод
20. Интерференция при переводе
21. «Ложные друзья переводчика»
22. Вспомогательные средства в работе переводчика.
23. Этика переводчика. Профессиональная пригодность переводчика
Список рекомендуемой литературы.
1. Семенов А.Л. Перевод: теория, практика и методика преподавания. _ М.: Академия, 2003 – 239с.
2. Гарбовский Н.К. Теория перевода: Учебник. – М.: Изд-во Моск. Ун-та. 2004. – 544с.
3. Алексеева И.С. Введение в переводоведение: Учеб. пособие. – СПб: СПбГУ; Академия, 2004. – 352с.
4. Тюленев С.В. Теория перевода: Учеб. пособие. – М.: Гардарики, 2004. – 336с.
5. Виноградов В.С. Перевод. Общие и лексические вопросы: Учеб. пособие. – 2-е изд., перераб. И доп. – М.: КДУ, 2004. – 240с.
Тихонов А.А. Английский язык. Теория и практика перевода: Учеб. Пособие. – М.: ТК Велби, Изд-во Проспект, 2005. – 120с.
1. Чернов Г. Теория и практика синхронного перевода. - М.: Изд-во ЛКИ, 2007. -208с.
2. Комиссаров В. Лингвистическое переводоведение в России. Учебное пособие. М.: ЭТС, 2002. - 184с.
3. Комиссаров В. Современное переводоведение. Курс лекций. – М.: ЭТС, 2000. -192с.
4. Брандес М. Предпереводческий анализ текста. – М.: НВИ-ТЕЗАУРУС, 2003 -224с.
5. Алексеева И. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика. Учебное пособие по устному и письменному переводу для переводчиков и преподавателей. СПб; Союз, 2001 - 288с.
Практические задания к семинарам
1. Определите сказуемые и определения, выраженные 3-й формой глагола, и переведите предложения
1. The difference in plant height between means of lines derived by the pedigree and ilk method was small and non-significant.
2. Four plants randomly selected were measured in each plot and averaged for that plot’s height at maturity.
3. The reaction can be pushed to completion if the organic ester formed is more volatile and can be fractioned out of the system.
4. During the years 1957—1959 the first generations from barley seeds treated with various doses of X-ray and thermal neutrons were studied in field conditions at the Experimental Base of Rumanian Institute of Agricultural Research.
5. In the appalling situation revealed by the Press Commission the progressive movement desperately needs voices independent of the Press lords.
6. A snipe caught in the Russian Far East was found to have a ring on its leg, which had been put on in Denmark.
7. Microscopic examination of pollen samples by the method outlined by Pittenberg and Frolic indicated ample supply of full-bodied, viable pollen grains to виге successful pollination.
Найдите сказуемые в пассивном залоге и переведите предложения.
1. Rate of growth and final plant height were affected by temperature and photoperiodic effects.
2. Now that methods have been devised for purifying viruses, much has been learned of their chemical nature.
3. A number of environmental factors have been cited by various workers as соntributing to shedding of reproductive organs in different crops.
4. If shedding of reproductive parts could be prevented or decreased, yield of many crop plants might be increased.
5. The electrons were thought of as adhering very well to these locations although capable of a certain amount of movement or vibration.
6. The results are examined in the light of existing lower frequency data.
7. To distinguish between the two, the former will be referred to as scanning mixture and latter as reference mixture.
8. A large portion of the applied voltage is used in attempting to force current through a reactor, and this is spoken of in terms of the voltage drop across such device
Определите функции глаголов should, would и переведите предложения
1. The latter still requires that the weight per cent of two of the components in thesolution phase should be determined,however, and thus may be of limited use where analyses presents difficulty.
2. The dispute should be solvedby negotiations.
3. Mendeleyev boldly left blanks in his table predicted that eventually the missing element would de foundand prophesied from his table what the characteristics of elements would be.
4. Prof. Roentgen found that the rays would passright through solid substances
5. Once more it should be emphasizedthat in some ways our concept of geometrical construction seems artificial.
6. If this were true, then any segment would be commensurablewith the unit.
7. The limits on the number and magnitude of the positive and negative roots given by Descartes' Rule should be used,whenever possible, to limit the trial number.
8. An error of less than 1% Pin the planned speed would have nullified allcalculations: the rocket would not have followedits intended trajectory as so happened with American rockets.
Найдите бессоюзные придаточные предложения, определите их функции, найдите главное предложение и переведите
1. One day Prof. Roentgen happened to cover one of the tubes with some black stuff in preparation for an experiment he had planned.
2. The number of electrons each shell is capable of holding was arrived at from a number of considerations, chiefly the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table of Mendeleyev.
3. The best example we have of uniformly accelerated motion is that of a falling body such as a stone or an apple.
4. Such engines are rated according to the amount of energy they can deliver in a given length of time.
5. The direction the force of gravity acts in at any point is very nearly toward the earth's center.
6. The rapidity gases diffuse with may be illustrated by allowing illuminating gas to escape into a room, or exposing ammonia in an open dish.
7. Not all the atoms you hold in your hand weigh the same amount.
Определите функции инфинитива в нижеследующих предложениях, переведите их
1. If several known samples in the one sensitivity range to be usedwere employed for the calibration, the precision would be probably better.
2. Scanning mixtures were selected so that their compositions would lie near the solubility curves to minimizeextrapolation errors inherent in the use of equation I.
3. This is a convenient method of establishing optimum compositions of the scanning mixtures to be preparedas well as indicating the general form of the solubility curve.
4. The current to be measuredI is passed through a fine silver-platinum wire ofresistance R, which is stretched between two fixed points A and B.
5. To gaincomplete freedom in algebraic operations we must go further by including irrational and complex quantities in the number concept.
6. To commencethe study of their relationship is the subject of this chapter.
7. To measureany physical quantity, a certain fixed amount of the same kind quantity is used as the unit.
8. The equation to be solvedseemed to be difficult.
9. The technical and organizational steps tobe takenin the nearest future will substantially alter the trend of development in various branches of industry.
10. There is a tendency for major groups of viruses to be enclosedinside crystal.
DAVID HERBERT LAWRENCE, ‘LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER’
He kept distant from her, and would not come any nearer.
She went fairly often to the hut, in the morning or in the afternoon, but he was never there. No doubt he avoided her on purpose. He wanted to keep his own privacy […]
And, one day when she came, she found two brown hens sitting alert and fierce in the coops, sitting on pheasants' eggs, and fluffed out so proud and deep in all the heat of the pondering female blood. This almost broke Connie's heart. She, herself was so forlorn and unused, not a female at all, just a mere thing of terrors […]
Now she came every day to the hens, they were the only things in the world that warmed her heart. Clifford's protestations made her go cold from head to foot. Mrs Bolton's voice made her go cold, and the sound of the business men who came. An occasional letter from Michaelis affected her with the same sense of chill. She felt she would surely die if it lasted much longer […]
Then, one day, a lovely sunny day with great tufts of primroses under the hazels, and many violets dotting the paths, she came in the afternoon to the coops and there was one tiny, tiny perky chicken tinily prancing round in front of a coop, and the mother hen clucking in terror. The slim little chick was greyish brown with dark markings, and it was the most alive little spark of a creature in seven kingdoms* at that moment. Connie crouched to watch in a sort of ecstasy. Life, life! pure, sparky, fearless new life! New life! So tiny and so utterly without fear! Even when it scampered a little, scrambling into the coop again, and disappeared under the hen's feathers in answer to the mother hen's wild alarm-cries, it was not really frightened, it took it as a game, the game of living. For in a moment a tiny sharp head was poking through the gold-brown feathers of the hen, and eyeing the Cosmos.
Connie was fascinated. And at the same time, never had she felt so acutely the agony of her own female forlornness. It was becoming unbearable.
She had only one desire now, to go to the clearing in the wood. The rest was a kind of painful dream. But sometimes she was kept all day at Wragby, by her duties as hostess. And then she felt as if she too were going blank, just blank and insane.
One evening, guests or no guests, she escaped after tea. It was late, and she fled across the park like one who fears to be called back.
She arrived at the clearing flushed and semi-conscious. The keeper was there […]
`I had to come and see the chickens!' she said, panting, glancing shyly at the keeper, almost unaware of him. `Are there any more?'
`Thurty-six so far!' he said. `Not bad!'
He too took a curious pleasure in watching the young things come out.
Connie crouched in front of the last coop[…]
`I'd love to touch them,' she said, putting her fingers gingerly through the bars of the coop. But the mother-hen pecked at her hand fiercely, and Connie drew back startled and frightened […]
The man standing above her laughed, and crouched down beside her, knees apart, and put his hand with quiet confidence slowly into the coop. And slowly, softly, with sure gentle fingers, he felt among the old bird's feathers and drew out a faintly-peeping chick in his closed hand.
‘There!' he said, holding out his hand to her. She took the little drab thing between her hands, and there it stood, on its impossible little stalks of legs, its atom of balancing life trembling through its almost weightless feet into Connie's hands. But it lifted its handsome, clean-shaped little head boldly, and looked sharply round, and gave a little `peep'. `So adorable! So cheeky!' she said softly.
The keeper, squatting beside her, was also watching with an amused face the bold little bird in her hands. Suddenly he saw a tear fall on to her wrist.
And he stood up, and stood away, moving to the other coop. For suddenly he was aware of the old flame shooting and leaping up in his loins, that he had hoped was quiescent for ever. He fought against it, turning his back to her. But it leapt, and leapt downwards, circling in his knees.
He turned again to look at her. She was kneeling and holding her two hands slowly forward, blindly, so that the chicken should run in to the mother-hen again. And there was something so mute and forlorn in her, compassion flamed in his bowels for her.
Without knowing, he came quickly towards her and crouched beside her again, taking the chick from her hands, because she was afraid of the hen, and putting it back in the coop. At the back of his loins the fire suddenly darted stronger.
He glanced apprehensively at her. Her face was averted, and she was crying blindly, in all the anguish of her generation's forlornness. His heart melted suddenly, like a drop of fire, and he put out his hand and laid his fingers on her knee.
`You shouldn't cry,' he said softly.
But then she put her hands over her face and felt that really her heart was broken and nothing mattered any more.
He laid his hand on her shoulder, and softly, gently, it began to travel down the curve of her back, blindly, with a blind stroking motion […]
DAVID HERBERT LAWRENCE, ‘LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER’.
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