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ОБУЧАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ХХI ВЕКА

ДЛЯ АГОРОПРОмЫШЛЕННОГО КОМПЛЕКСА РОССИИ:

ИНОЯЗЫЧНАЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯ КОММУНИКАЦИЯ

Е.А.Сухова, Т.Н. Некрасова

УСПЕХ В БИЗНЕСЕ:

ЭКОНОМИКА ПО-АНГЛИЙСКИ

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ

СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕНЫХ ВУЗОВ

ПЕРВОГО И ВТОРОГО ГОДА ОБУЧЕНИЯ

ПОД ОБЩЕЙ РЕДАКЦИЕЙ

ДОКТОРА ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ НАУК, ПРОФЕССОРА А.В. ОЛЯНИЧА

ВОЛГОГРАД 2015

Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации

Департамент научно-технической политики и образования

ФГОУ ВПО «Волгоградская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия»

Факультет дополнительного образования и повышения квалификации

Образовательный центр «Профессиональная иноязычная коммуникация»

Кафедра иностранных языков

ОБУЧАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ХХI ВЕКА

ДЛЯ АГРОПРОМЫШЛЕННОГО КОМПЛЕКСА РОССИИ

ИНОЯЗЫЧНАЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯкоммуникация

Е.А. Сухова, Т.Н. Некрасова

УСПЕХ В БИЗНЕСЕ:

ЭКОНОМИКА ПО-АНГЛИЙСКИ

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ

СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННЫХ ВУЗОВ

ПЕРВОГО И ВТОРОГО ГОДА ОБУЧЕНИЯ

Волгоград 2015

 

Unit 1.

 

THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

(РОЛЬ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА)

Having mentioned the effect of government tax policy on the income distribution, it's necessary to examine in greater detail the role of the government in society. In every society governments provide such services as national defence, police, public education, firefighting services, and the administration of justice. In addition, governments through budget make transfer payments to some members of society.


Transfer payments are payments made to individuals without requiring the provision of any service in return. Examples are social security, retirement pennsions, unemployment benefits, and, in some countries, food stamps. Governminent expenditure, whether on the provision of goods and services (defence, police) or on transfer payments, is chiefly financed by imposing taxes, although some (small) residual component may be financed by government mowing. Tabl. 2 compares the role of the government in four countries.

In each case, we look at four measures of government spending as a percentage of national income: spending on the direct provision of goods and services for the public, transfer payments, interest on the national debt, and total spending.

Italy is a "big-govemment" country. Its government spending is large and it needs to raise correspondingly large tax revenues. In contrast, Japan has a much smaller government sector and needs to raise correspondingly less tax revenue. These differences in the scale of government activity relative to national income reflect differences in the way different countries allocate their resources among compliting uses.



Goverments spend part of their revenue on particular goods and services such as tanks, schools and public safety. They directly affect what is produced. Japans low share of government spending on goods and services in Tabl. 2 reflects the very low level of Japanese spending on defence.

Governments affect for whom output is produced through their tax and in transfer payments. By taxing the rich and making transfers to the poor, the govrnment ensures that the poor are allocated more of what is produced than would otherwise be the case; and the rich get correspondingly less.

The government also affects how goods are produced, for example through the regulations it imposes. Managers of factories and mines must obey safety requirements even where these are costly to implement, firms are prevented from freely polluting the atmosphere and rivers, offices and factories are banned in attractive residential parts of the city.

The scale of government activities in the modern economy is highly controversial. In the UK the government takes nearly 40 per cent of national income in taxes. Some governments take a larger share, others a smaller share. Different shares will certainly affect the questions what, how and for whom, but some people believe that a large government sector makes the economy inefficient, reducing the number of goods that can be produced and eventually allocated to consumers.

It's commonly asserted that high tax rates reduce the incentive to work. If half of all we earn goes to the government, we might prefer to work fewer hours a week and spend more time in the garden or watching TV. That is one possibility, but there is another one: if workers have in mind a target after-tax income, e.g. to have at least sufficient to afford a foreign holiday every year, they will have to work more hours to meet this target when taxes are higher.

Whether on balance high taxes make people work more or less remains an open question. Welfare payments and unemployment benefit are more likely to reduce incentives to work since they actually contribute to target income. If large-scale government activity leads to important disincentive effects, government activity will affect not only what, how, and for whom goods are produced, but also how much is produced by the economy as a whole.

This discussion of the role of the government is central to the process by which society allocates its scarce resources. It also raises a question. Is it inevitable that the government plays a prominent part in the process by which society decides how to allocate resources between competing demands? This question lies at the heart of economics.

VOCABULARY NOTES

having mentioned упомянув, рассмотрев

government tax policy налоговая политика государства

to examine in greater detail рассмотреть более подробно

to provide service оказать услугу

national defence национальная оборона

firefighting service противопожарная служба

administration of justice отправление правосудия

to make transfer payments осуществлять трансфертные платежи

without requiring the provision of any service in return не требуя ответных услуг

social security социальное обеспечение (за счет государственных налогов)

retirement pensions пенсии за выслугу лет

unemployment benefit (syn. dole) пособие по безработице

to be, live on the dole жить на пособие по безработице

food stamps - талоны на продовольствие

in impose taxes - облагать налогами

residual component - остаточная часть

To be financed by government borrowing финансировать правительство иными займами

direct provision of goods and services for the public прямое (непосредственное) снабжение (обеспечение) граждан товарами и услугами

Interest on the national debt - проценты по национальному долгу

Сorrespondingly соответственно

the scale of government activity размах (масштаб) государственной деятельности

relative to в отношении чего-либо

toreflect differences отражать различия

to affect directly непосредственно влиять

low share низкая (малая) доля

to affect through tax and transfer payments оказывать воздействие через систему налогообложения и трансфертные платежи

to ensure that обеспечивать такое положение, при котором...

Then would otherwise be the case как было бы в противном случае

to impose regulations издавать административные положения, постановления, распоряжения

in obey safety requirements соблюдать требования безопасности

to be costly to implement использование (применение) обходится дорого

to pollute freely безнаказанно загрязнять

to ban (syn. to prohibit) запрещать

residential parts of the city жилые части города

to be highly controversial быть крайне неоднозначным

a large/small share большая/малая доля, часть

to share делить, разделять с кем-либо, e.g. 1) to share smb's views, 2) to share a room with a classmate

to make the economy inefficient снижать эффективность экономики, hi п. экономику неэффективной

eventually (syn. at last) в конце концов, в конечном счете

It's commonly asserted принято считать, по всеобщему утверждению

the incentive to work стимул, мотивация к работе

to earn (money) зарабатывать (деньги)

to earn one's living зарабатывать на жизнь

a target after-tax income целевой, базовый, чистый доход (после выплаты налогов)

on balance с учетом всего вышесказанного, в конечном счете

welfare payments - государственные пособия (напр., по безработице, по страхованию)

since (syn. as, for, because) поскольку, так как

to contribute to вносить вклад в

large-scale government activity широкомасштабная деятельность пра­вительства

to raise (syn. to bring up) a question поднять вопрос

to be inevitable неизбежно

to lie at the heart of economics быть в самом центре экономики Assignments

I. Suggest the Russian equivalents

to obey safety requirements; governments take a larger/smaller share; to make the economy inefficient; measures of government spending; interest on the national debt; total spending; to allocate resources between competing demands

II. Replace the parts in italics by synonyms

it's generally declared; managers of factories must obey the requirements; government directly influences what is produced; to bring up a question; to collect taxes; government's expenditure is financed by imposing taxes.

III. Find the terms in the text, which describe the following:

* money paid to people without asking for a service in return

* money paid to people when they stop working

* money paid to people who have no work

* money owed by the government of a country

* money received by governments from taxation

* money a worker keeps after paying taxes

IV. Using the information in the text, say if these statements correct or incorrect

* Governments do not make free transfer payments.

* Food stamps are an example of a transfer payment.

* Most government income comes from borrowing.

* Japan raises more taxes than Italy.

* Japan spends very little on defence.

* The poor get more of what is produced through taxation and transfer payments.

* Governments do not affect how goods are produced.

* Nobody questions the scale of government economic activity.

* Many people believe that high taxes result in people not wanting to work so hard.

V. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text

1. Having mentioned the effect of government on the income

distribution, it's necessary to examine in greater detail the role of the government in society.

2. Government expenditure is chiefly financed by taxes.

3. Italy's government spending is large and it needs to correspondingly large tax revenues.

4. These differences in the scale of government activity relative to reflect differences in the way different countries allocate their resources among uses.

5. By taxing the rich and making transfers to the poor, the government that the poor are allocated more of what is produced than would otherwise be the case.

6. Managers of factories and mines must safety requirements.

7. Offices and factories are in attractive residential parts of the city.

8. of government activities in the modern economy is highly controversial.

9. Different will certainly affect the questions what, how and for whom.

10. A large government sector makes the economy inefficient, reducing the number of goods that can be allocated to consumers.

11. that high tax rates reduce the incentive to work.

12. Welfare payments and unemployment benefit are more likely to reduce to work since they actually contribute to_ .

VI. Find in the text English equivalents for the following

пенсии за выслугу лет; пособие по безработице; продовольственные карточки (талоны); облагать налогом; правительственные займы; налого­вая политика правительства; распределение доходов; переводные (транс­фертные) платежи; взимать налоги; собирать налоговые поступления; принято считать (по всеобщему утверждению); уменьшать заинтересо­ванность в работе; целевой (плановый) чистый доход после уплаты налогов.

VII. Answer the questions

1. What are transfer payments? Give some examples.

2. Using Tabl. 2 compare the UK and the USA on the same basis.

3. In what way can governments affect what and for whom is produced?

4. Why does a large government sector make the economy inefficient?

5. What are the two possibilities of responding to high tax rates on the part of workers?

6. What is the possible outcome of large-scale government activity?

7. Summarise in your own words the arguments for and against high taxes.

VIII. Translate using the active possible

1. Переводные платежи, к которым относятся социальное обеспече­ние, выплата пенсий за выслугу лет, пособия по безработице и т. д., не­посредственно влияют на налоговую политику правительства.

2. Правительственные расходы (2 варианта) в основном финансиру­ются за счет налогообложения, поэтому чем больше сумма расходов (2 варианта), тем больше налоговых поступлений необходимо государству.

3. Степень участия государства в делах экономики может быть большей или меньшей.

4. Таким образом, государство играет важную роль в распределении ограниченных ресурсов общества.

 

Unit 2.

 

THE PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY FRONTIER

(ГРАНИЦЫ ВОЗМОЖНОСТЕЙ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА)

Let's turn to the most important tool for an economist - the production possibility frontier. This frontier shows the maximum combinations of output that the economy can produce, if it uses all its available scarce resources.

The easiest way to explain it is to complete a figure. First, the vertical axis or line, is labelled "food output'. The units of food output run from nought at the bottom to 25 at the top, entering the units of food output in lives: 0, 5, 10, etc. Along the horizontal axis (orthe bottom line) we have units of film output. Let's enter in the units of film output in fives again, this time up to 30.

Suppose we have an economy with only food and film industries. Now, if we put all the workers into producing food, we shall produce 25 units of food, but no units of film. We can mark this on the diagram with point A - no lilni, 25 units of food. It means point A comes on the vertical line at the number 25. Now, at the other extreme, if the economy puts all its workers into producing film, it will produce 30 units, but it will not produce any food. So, the next point is on the bottom, horizontal line, at 30 units. Let's label it as point E.

These two points, A and E, are the two extreme points of the production possibility frontier. Let's put in three more points. Point В is where the economy is producing 22 units of food and 9 units of film. Point С is where the economy is producing 17 points of both film and food. And, finally, point D is where we have 10 units of food and 24 units of film. Now draw a line joining all these points together, from A to E. The line drawn is not a straight tine, it'sa concave curve. It is this concave curve that is called the production possibility frontier.

The production possibility frontier represents a trade-off. More of one commodity, food or film, means less of the other, and this is because of the law of diminishing returns. It states that if, in the production of a commodity, one factor of production is increased by stages while the other factors are kept unchanged, the stage will sooner or later be reached where each further addition to the increasing factor will produce a smaller and smaller increase in output.

In our example, movements from A to B, to С and so on along the curve involve the transfer of one or more workers from one industry to the other, say, from food production to film production. The number of workers in the film industry increases, and so does the film output, but on the whole each additional worker produces less additional film. That is to say, each transfer reduces output per person in the film industry. At the same time a decrease in the food industry can be observed. So with each transfer we get less additional film output and have to give up increasing amounts of food output. That's why a society faces the problem of choosing between different products, as the scarcity of available resources does not allow it to increase the production of one good without decreasing the production of the other. As all the resources are scarce, points outside the frontier (point F in the example) represent the level of production unattainable at the given stage of development. On the contrary, it is inefficient to produce within the frontier (point G in the example), as it means poor management of production. By moving on to the frontier, society could have more of some goods without having less of any other good.

VOCABULARY NOTES

a tool инструмент

output объем производства

a figure чертеж, рисунок

the vertical axis (line) вертикальная ось

to label обозначить

food output количество произведенных (объем производства) продовольственных товаров

nought ноль

the horizontal axis (the bottom line) горизонтальная ось

film output количество произведенной (объем производства) пленки

at the other extreme на другом полюсе

to draw a line joining all these points together провести линию, соединяющую все эти точки

a straight line прямая линия

a concave curve вогнутая кривая (ant. convex - выпуклый)

a trade-off альтернатива, выбор

the law of diminishing returns закон сокращающейся доходности

the production of a commodity производство товара

by stages постепенно

each further addition каждое последующее дополнение

an increase in output увеличение объема производства

to involve the transfer включать в себя, подразумевать перемещение

to reduce output per person сокращать выработку на одного человека

additional output дополнительный объем производства

amounts of output объем производства, количество произведенной продукции

good зд. благо

outside the frontier за пределами границы

the level of production unattainable уровень производства, недостижимый...

on the contrary напротив

within the frontier внутри границы

poor management of production плохая организация производства

Assignments

I. Suggest the Russian equivalents

the most important tool for the economist; the production possibility frontier; the maximum combinations of output; to involve the transfer of workers

II. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text

1.________________________________ The production possibility frontier is the most important __________________________ for an economist.

2.___________________________ This frontier shows the maximum combinations of that the economy can produce, if it uses .

3.To complete a figure of______ we need to draw together.

4.The line drawn is not __, it's ____________ . It is this concave curve that Ls called .

5.The production possibility frontier represents .

6.More of one ____________ , food or film, means of the other, and this is because of .

7.________ It states that if, in_ _, one is increased while the other factors are kept , the stage will be reached where__ to the increasing factor produce .

8.________________________ The number of workers in the film industry , and so does the film ___________________ , but on the whole each worker produces additional film.

9.______ Each transfer in the film industry.

10.______________________ That's why a society faces the problem of between , as_______________________ does not allow it the production of one good without the production of the other.

III. Draw a figure, complete it, mark all the points (from A to G) and explain it in English making use of the following phrases

a vertical axis (line), a horizontal axis (a bottom line), to label, to enter in the units in 5s, to draw a line

IV. Find English equivalents

прямая линия; вогнутая (выпуклая) кривая; именно эта кривая назы­вается границей производственных возможностей; альтернатива, выбор; закон сокращающейся доходности; увеличивать (уменьшать) выработку на одного человека; вертикальная ось; обозначить; горизонтальная ось; провести линию, соединяющую все эти точки; производственный фак­тор, фактор производства; включать в себя, подразумевать перемещение; дополнительный объем производства

V. Explain in English

a trade-off; the law of diminishing returns

VI. Answer the question

What does the production possibility frontier show?

VII. Translate into English using all the active possible

1. Граница производственных возможностей - это предел в полном использовании ресурсов общества при существующем уровне развития технологии, когда увеличение производства одного блага требует сокращения производства другого.

2. Такое состояние экономики может быть отражено на графике в ви­де кривой, представляющей различные комбинации производства благ при максимальном использовании имеющихся ресурсов и существующем уровне технологии.

3. На графике изображена кривая, каждая точка которой показывает количество одного блага, производимого при полном использовании всех ресурсов, взамен другого блага.

4. Точки за пределами границы производственных возможностей по­казывают уровень производства, недостижимый при данном количестве ресурсов и имеющейся технологии.

5. Точки внутри границы показывают, что производство организовано неэффективно и есть неиспользованные ресурсы, например, рабочая сила.

6. Отсюда следует естественный вывод, что в современной экономике, когда неограниченных ресурсов практически нет, развитие технологии играет значительную роль и имеет огромное значение для экономики в целом.

 

 

Unit 3.

 

 

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS (ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ СИСТЕМЫ)

There are a number of ways in which a government can organize its economy and the type of system chosen is critical in shaping environment in which businesses operate.

An economic system is quite simply the way in which a country uses its available resources (land, workers, natural resources, machinery etc.) to satisfy the demands of its inhabitants for goods and services. The more goods and services that can be produced from these limited resources, the higher the standard of living enjoyed by the country's citizens.

There are three main economic systems:

Planned economies (Плановая экономика)

Planned economies are sometimes called "command economies" because the state commands the use of resources (such as labour and factories) that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions, the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.

Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all.

Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives which, if met, allow the nation's overall aim to be reached.

A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate. It does, however, have a number of advantages:

* Everyone in society receives enough goods and services to enjoy a basic standard of living.

* Nations do not waste resources duplicating production.

* The state can use its control of the economy to divert resources to wherever it wants. As a result, it can ensure that everyone receives a good education, proper health care or that transport is available.

Several disadvantages also exist. It is these disadvantages that have led to many nations abandoning planned economies over recent years:

* There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies.

* Any profits that are made are paid to the government.

* Citizens cannot start their own businesses and so new ideas rarely come forward.

* As a result, industries in planned economies can be very inefficient.

A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people's tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.

VOCABULARY NOTES

inhabitants жители, население

to own - владеть

natural resources природные ресурсы

a large amount большой объем

central planning and direction центральное планирование и руководство

consumption потребление

obviously очевидно

complicated сложный

to have a number of common features иметь ряд общих черт

intention намерение

to comply with подчиняться

a production target to meet производственная задача (задание), которую надо выполнить

an objective цель, задача

an overall aim общая цель

to enjoy a basic standard of living иметь основной уровень жизни

to duplicate production дублировать производство

to divert отвлекать (напр., ресурсы на другие цели)

to abandon отказываться от чего-либо

a major problem faced by command or planned economies основная проблема, стоящая перед командной или плановой экономикой

changes in tastes and fashions изменения вкусов и моды

to underproduce недопроизводить

to regard smth as воспринимать что-либо, относиться к чему-либо как...

obsolete (syn. out of date) устарелый, вышедший из употребления

to overproduce перепроизводить

delays and queues зд. перебои (с товарами) и очереди

Assignments

I. Suggest the Russian equivalents

each factory is set a production target to meet; to divert resources to wherever it wants; new ideas rarely come forward; tend to be slow when responding to changes

II. Replace the parts in italics by synonyms

obsolete products; it can ensure that; it can be very inefficient

There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies.

It led to many nations abandoning planned economies over recent years.

III. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text

1. The type of system chosen is in , in which businesses operate.

2. An economic system is the way in which a country uses its to satisfy the demands of for goods and services.

3. The more goods and services that can be produced, the higher the standard of living by the country's citizens.

4. The state_________ factories, land and .

5. Planned economies are economies with of , when the government all , decides and_________________________ __.

6._______________ The actual system employed from state to state, but command or planned economies have .

7. It is that there should be enough goods and services for all.

8. Industries are asked____________________ these plans and each industry and factory is set_________ .

9. The factory and farm targets are which, if met, allow the nation's

to be reached.

10. Nations do not waste resources .





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