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I. Прочтите и переведите текст. II. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова:

II. Заполните пропуски, используя следующие слова:

Granted, convenience, monetary, commodity, money, direct, inventions, barter, valuation.

1. Money is one of man’s greatest ….

2. In the absence of some form of money, exchange may take the form of ….

3. If a … is generally acceptable in exchanging for goods and services, it is ….

4. Such exchanges are taken for ….

5. The … of goods for goods would raise all sorts of problems regarding ….

6. It is a great … to hold wealth in the form of money.

7. A complex trading organization based upon a system of credit can only operate in a … economy.


III. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:

Means, form, tool, frustrating, obtain, useless, need, instrument, shape, get, medium, commodity, general, require, labour, store, common, article, work, stock, deteriorate, significant, spoil, essential, apparent, conduct, purchase, evident, carry out, buy.

IV. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:

Absence, increase, major, spread, presence, same, reduce, minor, accumulate, different.

V. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя нужные префиксы:

Direct, adequately, advantage, efficient, convenience, acceptable, likely.

VI. Переведите следующие сочетания слов с русского языка на английский:

Прямой обмен товарами и услугами, с ростом специализации, ряд подобных обменов, гораздо более удобное средство, основная сложность бартерной системы, в развитом обществе, предмет мебели, без использования денег, первый шаг, проблема обменных курсов, запас товаров, большое удобство, огромный недостаток, в период инфляции.

VII. Образуйте 3 формы от следующих глаголов:

To take, to prove, to become, to seek, to need, to find, to set, to spend, to make, to come, to raise, to give, to store, to fall, to pay, to spread, to do.

VIII. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:

1) One, money, is, man’s, inventions, greatest, of.

2) Is, it, tool, essential, of, an, civilisation.

3) Take, the, exchange, of, may, barter, form.

4) Will, barter, requirements, quite, man’s adequately, serve.

5) Barter, the, system, very, and, inefficient, proves, frustrating.

6) System, very, becomes, exchange, of, cumbersome, this.

7) Upon, a, depends, it, coincidence, wants, of, double.

8) Discovered, a, arrangement, man, more, much, convenient.

9) Removes, the, it, of, the, barter, major, system, difficulty.

10) Exchanges, are, such, for, granted, taken.

11) Would, be, they, without, inconvenient, use, of, the, money.

12) Is, problem, exchange, the, rates, solved, of, easily.

13) Is, to, deferred, it, serve, payment, means, a, as, of.

IX. Заполните пропуски предлогами:

1) Monetary policy is concerned with the cost … money.

2) Bank-notes and coins are not the most important form … money … developed economies.

3) Cheques didn’t come … general use … the second half of the seventeenth century.

4) A payment from one person … another merely requires that the banker reduces the amount … one deposit and increases it … another.

5) The transmission … payments … means … cheques creates problems when the person making the payment has an account … a different bank … the person receiving the payment.

6) Most countries have a central bank, which is responsible … the operation … the banking system.

7) Several merchant banks date back … the nineteenth century.

8) … recent years there has been a considerable extension … the range … financial services offered … building societies.

X. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:

1) In the absence of some form of money, exchange may take the form of barter.

2) As the extent of specialisation increases, the barter system proves very inefficient.

3) A specialist metal worker must seek out a large number of other specialists in order to obtain, by barter, the variety of goods he needs.

4) The alternative is to change his skins for some other article.

5) The use of money makes possible a great extension of the principle of specialisation.

6) The use of money allows us to exchange hours of labour for an amazing variety of goods and services.

7) The direct exchange of goods for goods would raise all sorts of problems regarding valuation.

8) The problem of exchange rates is easily solved when all other commodities are valued in terms of a single commodity.

9) It is a great convenience to hold wealth in the form of money.

10) The money value of wealth may fall when it is being stored.

XI. Заполните пропуски, используя глаголы, данные в скобках:

1) Exchange may … (to take) the form of barter, which … (to be) to direct exchange of goods and services for goods and services.

2) Barter … (to serve) man’s requirements quite adequately when he … (to provide) most of the needs directly and … (to rely upon) market exchanges for very few of the things he … (to want).

3) As the extent of specialisation … (to increase) the barter system … (to prove) inefficient.

4) In the simplest societies each family … (to provide) by its own efforts most of its needs.

5) This system of exchange … (to become) very cumbersome as economic activities … (to become) more specialised.

6) A specialist metal worker must … (to seek out) a large number of other specialists in order … (to obtain), by barter, the variety of goods he needs … (to satisfy) his daily wants.

7) The great disadvantage of barter … (to be) the fact that it … (to depend upon) a ‘double coincidence of wants’.

8) A hunter who … (to want) … (to exchange) his skins for corn must … (to find), not merely a person who … (to want) skins, but someone who … (to want) skins and … (to have) a surplus of corn for disposal.

XII. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1) What is barter?

2) When may exchange take the form of barter?

3) When is barter inefficient and frustrating?

4) What are the main functions of money?

5) Why has it become unprofitable to hold wealth in the form of money in recent years?

6) Why is money a perfect means of deferred payments?

7) How does a complex trading organisation operate in a monetary economy?


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