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DISCUSSION OF THE TEXT. 1. Define the passage and give a brief summary of its contents




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1. Define the passage and give a brief summary of its contents…

2. Expand on the structure of the passage. What is the logical value of tree-monologue in the structure of the scene? The monologue clearly falls into two "parts. Find the sentence serving as a turning point.

3. Speak about Mangan.

What features of a businessman are revealed in his words? What is his method of ruining people like Ellie's father? What is his way of conducting business? Prove your opinion by quoting the text. Account for Mangan's words "I take no risks in ideas, even when they're my own". What displays his contempt for naive enthusiasts? (Mind the words he chooses when speaking about them, his epithets and similes.) Account for the frequent use of the pronoun "I" in the mono­logue. What makes him feel so self-satisfied? Why is Mangan so cyn­ical about himself? Is his cynicism caused only by his superiority, or is it partly a disguise for his weakness? Account for your point of view. Comment oh the contrast between his feelings after the mono­logue ("with large self-approval") and at the. end of the scene ("like a beggared gambler").

4. Speak about Ellie.

What is the new blow she receives? How does she take it? Study Ellie's words "It would have been, this morning. Now! You cant think how little it matters". How do they characterize Ellie's state of mind? Note also the following stage directions. Why doesn't Man­gan's speech produce the desirable effect on Ellie? Comment on her words after Mangan's speech. What does she think of Mangan before and after the monologue? What are, in your opinion, Ellie's reasons for marrying him before and after the monologue? Why does Ellie eventually win the battle of words?

5. In the last act of the play Mangan gives his consent to marry Ellie, but she rejects him saying, "I never really intended to make you marry me, Mr Mangan. Never in the depths of my soul. I only wanted to feel my strength." Can we anticipate it in the passage read?



6. Sum up Ellie's father.

7. What is, in your opinion, Bernard Shaw's attitude to each of the three characters? Prove it by quoting the text of the play and stage directions.

8. Re-read all the stage directions and expand on their role in the given passage.

9. The play is considered to be typical of Shaw's paradoxical meth­od. What seems to you paradoxical in this passage?

10. Comment on the syntax of the passage. Compare the syntac-[77]tical patterns of the monologue and the dialogue. What do they differ in? What sentence patterns typical of dialogical speech can you find in the above passage? Quote the text. What makes the monological part colloquial in spite of the completeness of sentences? Account for the use of parallel constructions in the second part of the mono­logue.

11. Study the choice of words and phraseology.

(a) What words abound in Mangan's speech? Why?

(b) Comment on Mangan's similes and epithets. How can you account for the abundance of vulgarisms (low words) in Man­gan's speech ("rot", "a blamed fool", etc.)?

12. Bernard Shaw's plays are considered good both for staging and reading. What is your opinion on the matter judging by the selection?

13. What graphical means of emphasis are made use of in this passage? Pick out some instances of it and comment on them.

14. Summarize your comments on the text.

 

WORDS AND WORD COMBINATIONS TO BE MEMORIZED


settle down (v) sensible (a) deliberate (a) ruin (v)

intentionally (adv.) admit (v)

(un)conscious (a) curiosity (n) contempt (n) ignorance (n) handle (v) venture (v)

squeeze (v) modesty (n) self-approval (n) patiently (adv.)

to go (get) on well together

out of ill-nature

to finish with somebody

to show one's teeth

to wear out one's soul and body

to be too much for somebody

in a year or so

as likely as not

to take one's measure

a sound idea

to outrun one's expenses

to take (no) risks in something

to waste one's gratitude

to be keen on something

to be particular about something

to be in earnest


 

EXERCISES

I. Explain and expand on the following:

1. El1ie. ...It's no use pretending that we are Romeo and Ju­liet. But we can go on very well together if we choose to make the best of it. Your kindness of heart will make it easy for me.

2. Mangan. ...I just smoked them out like a hive of bees. What do you say to that?..

3. Mangan. ... A bit of a shock, eh?

E11ie. It would have been, this morning. Now! You cant think how little it matters. ...

4. Mangan. ...They wear out their souls and bodies trying to make a success of them. They're what you call enthusiasts. But the first dead lift ... is too much for them... [78]

5. Mangan. ...I took your father's measure. ...he was a child in business...

6. Mangan. ... I take no risks in ideas, even when they're my own...

7. Mangan. ...Your father, and the friends that ventured their money with him were no more to me than a heap of squeezed lemons...

II. Paraphrase the following sentences:

1. Nothing would please me better.

2. The air may suit us; but the question is, should we suit one another?

3. I ruined your father on purpose. Not out of ill-nature... And you'll admit that I kept a job for him when I had finished with him.

4. But how could it possibly do you any good to ruin my father? The money he lost was yours.

5. He shoves his hands into his pockets and shews his teeth.

6. Ellie listened to Mangan with unconscious contempt.

7. As likely as not the very same thing happens to the new lot. 8. In a year or so they have . .. to let the whole show go bust.

9. And that's where the real business man comes in...

10. I saw that he had a sound idea, and that he would work himself silly for it if he got the chance.

11. I saw that he was a child in business, and was dead certain to outrun his expenses and be in too great a hurry to wait for his market.

12. You've been wasting your gratitude: my kind heart is all rot. I'm sick of it.

13. ...she is not at all keen on my doing the same.

14. You mean to hold me to it?.. Do you wish to back out of it?

15. You're not in earnest?

III. Use words and word combinations from the text to express these notions:

to be reasonable; not to deny; to be eager; in about a year; thankful, thankfulness; to make bankrupt; to force out; to smile radiantly; to begin, to initiate; to invest (money); most probable; to roll (in); fortunate; to be serious; an opportunity; to show one's anger

IV. Paraphrase the following sentences using words and word com­binations from the text:

1. It is doubtful whether Mangan and Ellie match one another.

2. Mangan did not make Mr. Dunn bankrupt because he was an ill-natured man, he did it deliberately.

3. Ellie did not understand how Mangan could profit by bankrupting her father, for the money belonged to Mangan.

4. Ellie could not deny the fact that after ruining her father Mangan provided him with work. [79]

5. Mangan never initiated a new enterprise, and gave other people a chance to initiate it.

6. Mangan despised enthusiasts who exhausted themselves doing their best to keep their business going.

7. Mangan estimated Mr. Dunn's abilities and saw that he had no idea of business.

8. Mr. Dunn spent more money than he should.

9. It is most probable that Ellie did not care for Mangan at all.

10. People of Dunn's kind cannot stand the first blow and in about a year they get bankrupt.

11. It seems Ellie was eager to have Mangan marry her.

12. When displeased, Mangan did not conceal his anger.

V. Give Russian equivalents of the following:

kindness of heart; on purpose; to settle down; to go (get) on well together; deliberate unpleasantness; conscious curiosity; unconscious contempt; out of ill-nature; to show one's teeth; to wear out one's soul and body; to finish with somebody; to be in earnest; as likely as not; in a year or so; to take one's measure; to waste one's grat­itude; to outrun one's expenses; to be sick (of); to take (no) risks; self-approval; to be particular about people's characters; a wicker chair; a drawing-board

VI. Make up situations round the following expressions:

Out of ill nature; to wear one's soul and body; to waste one's gratitude; as likely as not; to be particular; what next?

VII. (a) Give English equivalents of the following:

лезть из кожи вон; разделаться с кем-либо; выжатый лимон; из-за плохого характера; оценивать способности; быть разборчи­вым; превысить расходы; показать зубы (выпускать, показывать когти); умышленно; разумная мысль; по всей вероятности; риско­вать; напрасно благодарить

(b) Use the English equivalents in examples of your own.

VIII. Explain the words, consulting an English-English dictionary: gratitude; curiosity; patronage; ignorance; modesty; to provoke; contempt; to venture; to waste

I. Define verbals and verbal constructions, state their syntactical function, translate the sentences into Russian: 1. I heard you ask Mr. Hushabye at dinner whether there are any nice houses to let down here. 2. It's no use pretending that we are Romeo and Juliet, 3. He is dead certain to outrun his expenses. 4. They wear out their souls and bodies trying to make a success of them. 5. I don't mind dropping a little money to start the process. 6. When I see your father beaming at me, regularly wallowing in gratitude, I sometimes feel I must tell him the truth or burst. 7. She is not at all keen on my doing the same. [80]

X. Use infinitive phrases instead of the attributive clauses.

Model: There are some nice houses that are to let down here. There are some nice houses to let down here.

1. So far we have no plan which would suit us. 2. The girl had nobody who she could confide in. 3. The old man was the first who revealed the truth to us. 4. He was a man who could take any risks for the sake of his ideas. 5. Are there any problems that might inter­est you? 6. You are the only person who can help me in the matter. 7. I've got a lot of letters that I should answer immediately. 8. The only dictionary we can refer to now is Hornby's Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 9. Mr Dunn was the last guest who visited Heartbreak House that day.

XI. (a) Study the structure of the sentence "It is no use pretending we are Romeo and Juliet". Translate it into Russian.

(b) Recast the following sentences using the above syntactical structure.

Model: You can't expect sympathy from people like Mangan. It is no use expect ing sympathy from people like Mangan.

1. You could not hope for a dinner in "Heartbreak House". 2. Trying to comfort Ellie after the first blow was useless. 3. Ellie saw it was a waste of time to explain what she really felt. 4. "Crying won't help me," she thought. 5. Andrew saw that making pretence of play­ing would not help. 6. Saying that he had lost his bow did not save Andrew. 7. Crying over the spilt milk is a waste of time. 8. Will it help if I go there myself? 9. I think your interference will not change anything. 10. Your calling for the taxi is of no use, the train has left already.

(c) Give your own examples after the above model.

XII. (a) Re-read note 15 to the text. Make the statements in the right column more emotional by using the analytical form of the Subjunctive Mood with "should". Introduce sentences in the way suggested in the left column. Give as many variants as it is logically possible.

It is strange How strange It is surprising It is a surprise It is curious It's a pity what a pity It is only natural It is a shame It is annoying


The child is so reserved.

You are so careless.

I see you for the first time here.

We are not invited.

You are not listening to me.

Ann is late.

We have met so late.

You didn't interfere.

We didn't stop him at once.

You have missed the concert.

You have been so thoughtless. [81]


(b) Give your own examples after the model.

Model: It is strange he should be so late. —It is strange (that) he should have acted so, etc.

XIII. (a) Join the sentences given below so as to use the Subjective Infinitive Construction.


Model: It is certain. He will outrun his expenses.


He is certain to outrun his expenses. Give as many variants as it is logically possible.

It is certain It is likely It is unlikely I am (not) sure

He will come to-morrow.

He is somewhere here.

He will approve of our plan.

They will agree to our suggestion.

They will admit their mistake.

They will take risks.

They will get on very well together.

She will be a success.

She will hold to our decision.

She will be pleased with the result.


(b) Give your own examples after the above model.

XIV. Paraphrase the following sentences using the indefinite article before an ordinal numeral (see note 12).

Model: We shall ring him up once more if we do not find him at home. —

If we don't find him at home, we shall ring him up a second time.

1. At first nobody spoke. Then someone took the floor, he was joined by another student, then by one more, and a hot discussion broke out.

2. Roy's first novel was a considerable success. A year or so later he wrote a new novel, which was inferior to the first.

3. To the young man the girl seemed a miracle, her frock was an­other miracle, and her hair-dress one more.

4. There were five boats in the open sea, soon one more boat was seen to leave the shore.

5. After her husband's death Mrs Copperfield married again.

XV. Account for the difference between the imperative sentence with and without the subject (see note 10). Translate the sen­tences into Russian. Comment on the emotions implied.

Listen and learn. — You listen and learn. Don't interrupt me. — Don't you interrupt me, miss. Wait, Mr Higgins.—Just you wait, Mr Higgins. Come here again. — You come here again, and I'll give you a piece

of my mind.[82]

Don't talk back to me!—Don't you talk back.

Step aside, please.—You step aside.

Don't worry!—Don't you worry, everything will be all right again.

XVI. Re-read note 13 to this lesson. Supply suitable adjectives as objective predicatives to complete the sentences below.*

Model: The hot sun bakes the earth.

The hot sun bakes the earth brown.

1. The cat licked the saucer—. 2. If you eat all those chocolates, you'll make yourself—. 3. The sun keeps us—. 4. "Open your mouth—," said the dentist. 5. The cold weather turned the leaves—. 6. Shall we paint the doors and windows—? 7. You've made your shoes—. 8. I've lost my key. I shall have to break the door—. 9. Have I made my meaning—?

XVII. Express disagreement with the following remarks (see note 16).

Model: You are not in earnest? — Yes, I am. You are joking.—No, I am not.

1. You don't mean to stay here. 2. I am not expected to stay here. 3. You are a stranger here? 4. I am not responsible for it.

5. You have told me a lie. 6. You shall answer for it. 7. She has been listening at doors. 8. You rang me up yesterday. 9. You were the winner at the last tournament. 10. You don't like the film.

XVIII. (a) Study the sentences with question-responses (see note 2). Find Russian equivalents of the question-responses:

1. You were saying—? —Was I? 2. She always said that you were just that sort of man,— Oh! Did she? 3. ...May I take the opportunity to come to a little understanding with you?—Certainly. I should like to. — Should you? That surprises me.

(b) React to the suggested statements using question-res­ponses after the above model:

1. I was going to ask you ... 2. You are rather late. 3. You should be more careful, really. 4. We must be off. 5. She has gone. 6. You've interrupted me. 7. He meant what he said. 8. I am not at all surprised. 9. I shouldn't be surprised. 10. I haven't heard about your arrival.

(c) Make up statements for which the following are responses.

Can she? Shouldn't we? Have you? Does she? Am I? Did they? Must we? Didn't you? Would you? Hasn't she?

(d) Make up two-line dialogues after the model given in sec­tion (a). [83]

XIX. Make up short dialogues round the following conversational formulas:

1. You were saying... 2. Nothing would please me better. 3. I mean what I say. 4. What do you say to that? 5. Well, but look here, you know... 6. What next? 7. I think so. 8. Why not?

XX. Recast the following sentences using the parts of speech indi­cated in brackets instead of the italicized words. Make necessary changes:

1. We were greatly surprised hearing the news. (noun). 2. The sea climate does not suit everybody, (adj.). 3. It is expected of a hero to be modest, (noun). 4. Why should we pretend to like people if we do not? (noun). 5. The truth is that I haven't seen the play staged, (adj.). 6. Huria Heep was a man of ill nature, (adj.). 7. It is snobbish to feel contempt for those who know less than you. (adj.). 8. We set to work with enthusiasm, (adv.). 9. People are generally grateful to their first teachers, (noun). 10. It was not my intention to hurt you. (adv.). 11. The doctor listened patiently to the sick man's complaints and did not interrupt him. (nouns). 12. To possess kindness of heart is not enough if you want to win people's respect, (adj., verb). 13. They say in a proverb that it was being curious that killed the cat. (noun). 14. We made an unsuccessful attempt to reach the top of the mountain before darkness, (adv., verb).

XXI. Read the following compound nouns, find an appropriate de­finition for each of them among those given below: self-approval; self-confidence; self-consciousness;

self-control; self-possession; self-reproach; self-respect; self-sacrifice; self-satisfaction:

belief in one's own abilities; satisfaction with one's own actions and behaviour; the giving-up of one's own interests and wishes for the sake of others; ability to rule one's feelings; calmness, ability to act in a quiet and confident manner; the feeling that everybody is looking at or thinking of one; blame of oneself; the state of being pleased with oneself; proper regard for one's own dignity

XXII. Read the compound nouns minding the stress:

Drawing-board; dancing-hall; fishing-rod; bathing-pool; teaching-aid; flying-field; smoking-car; booking-office; boarding-school; start­ing-point

XXIII. Translate into English:

(A) 1. Вы напрасно благодарите меня, не я вам помог. 2. По всей вероятности, мы еще встретимся. 3. Я скрыл от вас всю эту историю умышленно. 4. Если вы не разбираетесь в людях, вы рискуете при­обрести плохих друзей. 5. Мне надоела пустая болтовня, давайте поговорим о деле. 6. Я оценил ваши способности и думаю, что вы справитесь с этим заданием. 7. Примерно через неделю мы снова поговорим о вашем предложении. 8. Мы поселились здесь несколько [84] лет тому назад. Мне здесь нравится. Мне подходит здешний климат, и мы прекрасно ладим с соседями.

(В) 1. Бесполезно спорить о вкусах. 2. «Мы уже говорили с вами об этом».— «Да? Когда?» — «Две недели тому назад». — «Правда? Я не помню этого».— «Не помните? Странно». 3. Странно, что вы меня не узнали. 4. Присядь-ка ты здесь и послушай, что я тебе скажу. 5. Я не против того, чтобы выслушать тебя, но сейчас я занят. 6. Мне очень хочется, чтобы вы приняли участие в нашем концерте. 7. Нужно быть разумным, правда? 8. Я бы не удивился, если бы эта пьеса Б. Шоу была экранизирована. 9. Если пьеса интересна, она обязательно будет экранизирована. 10. Если пьеса действительно хорошая, вы смотрите ее один раз, другой, третий и каждый раз получаете удовольствие.

XXIV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. What happened—Mr Dunn, happens—many people who know as much—business as he did. He was a child—business. 2. Mangan was - a man who won't take risks—ideas. 3. Mr Dunn's attempt—business was"a failure, though he wore—his body and soul to make a success— it. 4. It wa^ not easy—Ellie to hear what Mangan thought—her fa­ther, but she was keen—learning the truth. 5. Mangan did not care— other people, but he knew perfectly well how to take care—himself. 6. Mr Dunn was grateful—Mangan—his help. 7. Mangan was not particular—the means when he dealt—people. He smoked them—like a hive of bees, finished—them, threw them—like-squeezed lemons. 8. Mangan explained—his friends in the City Mr Dunn's idea and they found it worth while putting their money—the business. 9. They did not manage to exchange words—dinner. 10. Ellie treated Mangan like that not— —ill-nature, she did so — —contempt.

XXV. Fill in the blanks with articles if necessary:

One of—turning points in Shaw's career was—production by Mr. J. B. Pagan, of "Heartbreak House" at—Royal Court Theatre, Lon­don, October 18, 1921. Owing to—incident behind—curtain, which caused —long delay on—opening night and—cynical reaction of— critics to—incident in—play,—reviews were almost exclusively un­favourable. So convinced was Mr Beverlay Baxter,—editor of—"Sunday Express", that—great injustice had been done to Mr Shaw, that he arranged to have—drama critics assemble at—following Wednesday Matinee, with Shaw present in—sort of "Meet—Press" role. "—Inci­dent of—intervention of—Editor of—"Sunday Express" to force — critics to reconsider their verdict on—play and to save it from what he believed to be—unmerited damnation," says Mr. Shaw, in—article he was invited by Mr Baxter to write, "is unprecedented in my expe­rience, and, as far as I know, in—history of—theatre. I was much touched by it; and I cannot refuse to say—word in its columns."

In—sharp disagreement with Mr. Baxter, Mr. Shaw declared that he had never had—better press. Certainly—"second thoughts" were much [85] more liberal. —"pitiable hullabaloo" by—representatives of two big dailies affected—box-office, unfavourably, for—short time. When— drama critics assembled for—Wednesday matinee, Shaw declined to discuss—play with them, but made—following brief speech from—box: "I am afraid that only half—house can see me, but that is as it should be. — author should never be seen. His place is not on—stage. There are so many people there who are much more attractive.

"It is—business of—author to get out of—way.

"I have enjoyed myself immensely. I think—performance—excel­lent one. I am perfectly certain that you have never seen—play like it before.—plays like this, with all—work we have put into it, should be seen at least—dozen times.

"We will keep it going as long as we can. Come again."

(From "Man of the Century" by A. Henderson)

XXVI. Render the contents of the extract in detail: (a) in indirect speech; (b) avoiding both direct and indirect speech.

XXVII. Retell the scene: (a) as if you were Ellie, (b) as if you were Mangan.

XXVIII. Enact the scene.

XXIX. Write a brief summary of the passage.

XXX. Render the dialogical part of the passage in writing. Use in­direct speech.

XXXI. Write a letter either from Ellie to a friend of hers or from Man­gan to a friend of his.

 




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