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Speak on compound sentences and types of coordination

A compound sentences is a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with eqch other. A clause is part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own.

In a c.s. the clauses may be connected:

a) Syndetically i.e. by means of coordinating conjunctions (and, or, else, but) or conjunctive adverbs ( otherwise, however, nevertheless, yet, still, therefore).

He knew there were excuses for his father, yet he felt sick at heart.

b) Asyndetically without a conjunction or conjunctive adverb.

The rain fell softly, the house was quiet.

We can distinguish the following types of coordination :

· 1)Copulative coordination( соединительная связь), expressed by the conjunctions and, nor, either…..nor, not only…..but( also). With the help of these conjunctions the statement expressed in one clause is simply added to that expressed in another.

It was a nice little place and Mr. and Mrs. Witla were rather proud of it.

· 2)Disjunctive coordination ( разделительная связь) expressed by the conjunctions or, else, or else, either….or and the conjunctive adverb otherwise. By these a choice is offered between the statements expressed in two clauses.

He knew it to be nonsense or it would have frightened him.

Don’t come near me with that look else I’ll knock you down.

· 3)Adversative coordination( противительная) expressed by the conjunctions but, while, whereas and the conjunctive adverbs nevertheless, still, yet. These are conjunctions ans adverbs connecting two clauses contrasting in meaning.

The room was dark , but the street was lighter because of its lamps.

I was not unhappy, not much afraid, yet I wept.

· 4)Causative- consecutive coordination( причинно-следственная) expressed by the conjunctions for; so; and the conjunctive adverbs therefore, accordingly, hence.

For introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. Therefore, so, hence, accordingly introduce coordinate clauses denoting cause, result and consequence.

After all, the two of them belonged to the same trade,so talk was easy and happy between them.

Past tenses to express unreal actions

In modern English the same meaning as is expressed by the Subjunctive Mood may also be rendered by the forms of the Indicative Mood— the Past Indefinite, the Past Perfect and occasionally the Past Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous.

In adverbial clauses of condition the Past Indefinite denotes an unreal condition referring to the present or future; the Past Perfect denotes an unreal condition referring to the past.

The room is so low that the head of the tallest of the visitors would touch the

blackened ceiling if he stoodupright. (Dickens)

Комната такая низкая, что голова самого высокого из посетителей

коснулась бы закопченного потолка, если бы он выпрямился.

The noise about her was frightful, so deafening that if she had shoutedaloud

she would not have heard her own voice. (Cronin)

Шум вокруг нее был ужасный, такой оглушительный, что если бы она

громко закричала, она не услышала бы своего собственного голоса.


In other types of subordinate clauses the Past Indefinite denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed in the principal clause; the Past Perfect denotes an action prior to that ofthe principal clause.


He (Mr. Barkis) sat looking at the horse’s ears as if he sawsomething new

there. (Dickens)

Мистер Варкие сидел, глядя на уши лошади, как будто он видел там что-

то новое.

I felt as if the visit had diminishedthe separation between Ada and me.


У меня было такое чувство, как будто этот визит сблизил нас с Адой.

The Past Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous are less frequently used.

They looked as if they were fightingfor their life. (Eliot)

Они выглядели так, как будто они боролись за свою жизнь.

The mother’s delicate eyelids were pink, as if she had been cryinghalf the

night. (Eliot)

Нежные веки матери покраснели, как будто бы она проплакала половину

Kobrina: The non-factual past indefinite and past continuous are used to denote hypothetical actions in the present or future; the non-factual past perfect and past perfect continuous denote hypothetical actions in the past. These two pairs of forms differ not only in their time-reference but also in their degree of improbability:If I had only known expresses greater improbability than If I only knew because it refers to a time which has already passed. In Russian this difference is not reflected in the form of the verb.

The wide use of the non-factual past indefinite (If I knew, if he came...) probably accounts for the strong tendency in Modern English to substitute was for the past subjunctive form were, at least in less formal style. This tendency makes the system of subjunctive mood forms more similar and comparable to the system of indicative mood forms: if I knew..., if I was (instead of were), I wish I knew..., I wish I was (instead of were).

On the other hand, were is often used instead of was in the non-factual past continuous.

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