Lecture 9. Non - Finite Forms
The non-finite forms (the verbals) are the Infinitive, the Gerund and the Participle. They are not formally related to the doer of the action: the relationship is semantic, that’s why they have no categories which formally mark the relationship between the action and the doer of the action (no person and no number), no categories of predication (the tense, the mood) - they can’t be used as the predicate of the sentence, however the Infinitive and the Gerund can generate one-member sentences: No smoking! Why go there? To think of it!
The Infinitive has three grammatical categories: voice, time correlation, aspect. The Gerund and Participle I have two grammatical categories: voice and time correlation.
Non-finiite forms combine nominal and verbal features - they are partly verbs and partly names (adjectives). This contiguity explains the attempts to refer the non-finite forms to certain classes according to their functioning. Thus in some grammars the Infinitive was referred to the noun, the Participle - to the adjective. As to the Gerund it was a controversial point as it exists only in English and in Spanish.
Verbids are intermediary in many of the lexical grammatical features between the verb and non-processual parts of speech. They render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties while the finite forms serve only one syntactic function (finite predicate). The non-finite serves various syntactic functions other than that of the finite predicate.
The opposition between the finite and non-finite forms of the verb creates special grammatical: categories. The differential feature of the opposition is constituted by the expression of verbal time and mood. The verbid has no immediate means of expressing time, mood and categorial semantics and is therefore, the weak member of the opposition. This category can be called the category of finitude: “Have you ever had anything caught in your head — Have you ever had anything that was caught in your head. ”
The verbids, unable to express the predicative meanings of time and
mood, still express secondary or potential predication. The opposition of the finite verbs and the verbids is based on the expression of the functions of full predication and semi-predication: while the finite verbs express predication in complete form, the function of the verbids is to express semi-predication building up semi-predicative complexes. The English verbids include 4 forms: the infinitive, the gerund, the present and past participle.
The infinitive is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb and noun. Serving as the verbal name of the process, the English infinitive exists in two presentation forms: with and without to: to-infinitive (or marked) - bare infinitive (or unmarked).
The gerund is the non-finite form of the verb which like the infinitive combines the properties of a verb and those of the noun. The gerund also serves as the verbal name of the process but its substantive quality is more stronger pronounced than that of the infinitive. The gerund performs the functions of all the types of notional sentence parts.
The present participle is the non-finite form of the verb that combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb. It is homonymous with gerund and is distinguishing the same grammatical categories of retrospective coordinations and voice. The self-positional present participle performs the functions of the predicative tire attribute, tire adverbial modifier of various types.
The past participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective, serving as the qualifying processual name. This form has no paradigm of its own. The past unlike the present participle has no distinct features, characteristic of the adverb. The main functions of the past participle in the sentence are those of the attribute and the predicative.
The infinitive — gerund correlation. Both forms are substance-processual but there is a clear-out difference between these forms. Gerund has a more substantive nature than the infinitive. It is also more abstract. Hence, these forms don’t repeat but complement each other: “Seeing and talking to people made him tired.” - “It made him tired to see and talk to so many people.” In the first example the person is talking about are general features of someone’s behavior. The second is one particular occasion.
The infinitive has more dynamic, more actional character, compared to corresponding gerundial expressions: “For them to have arrived so early such a surprise! ” — “Their early arrival was so surprising. ”
This triple correlation being of a systematic nature enables us to interpret it in terms of a special lexico-grammatical category of processual representation. The infinitive and its phrase is dynamic, the gerund and its phrase is semi-dynamic and the verbal noun and its phrase is static.
Another category within substantival verbids is the category of modal representation.This category marks the infinitive in contrasts to the gerund and is revealed in the infinitive having a modal force: “This is a kind of piece desired by all. ” - "A land of piece that should be desired. ” “Is there any hope for us to meet her in the university? ” — “A hope that we may meet this person in the university. ”
The gerund - participle correlation. At present time there is a discussion if the present participle and the gerund constitute different verbids or if they present one and the same form. These forms are outwardly the same when viewed in isolation. And it is not by chance that in the American linguistic tradition they are recognized as one integral verb - ing. In treating the -ing forms as constituting one integral verbal entity opposed on the one hand to the infinitive and on tire other hand to the past participle, appeal is naturally made to the alternating views of the possessive and the common-objective normal element in the role of the subject of the -ing form. They are mostly observed in various positions of the sentence:
I felt annoyed at his (gerund) him (participle) failing to see my point at. once.
I saw him crossing the street/ his coming. I insist on him being invited.
1. Identify the verbid in each phrase and label its function:
1. Our coach gave hiring an assistant serious consideration.
2. Federico gave up his favorite hobby, collecting baseball cards.
3. Her neighbor's horse won first place by jumping successfully over all the rails.
4. Catching lightning bugs can be fun in the summertime.
5 His belief, getting to sleep early, helped him while he was in college.
6. The politician objected to releasing his medical files.
7. Our plan for winning next year is advertising on television.
8. Juggling chainsaws can be extremely dangerous.
9. The runner discussed winning the New York City Marathon.
10. The admiral’s objective was capturing the renegade raiding ship.
1. Changing the lighting is necessary during theatrical performances.
2. The owner did not permit smoking m the restaurant.
3. A psychologist's best trait is listening to others.
4. Her bad decision, skipping a day of school, cost her two days in suspension.
5. Mom gave making mashed potatoes a try.
6. Washington Roebling's greatest accomplishment was designing the Brooklyn Bridge.
7. Many reasons for leaving the game caused the crowd to disperse.
8. The landlord's responsibility, maintaining the apartment complex, became too much of a burden for him.
9. Everyone in the band liked eating out.
10. The umpire balked at taking a bribe.
2. Fill in the Infinitive or the -ing form:
1) Would you mind not (smoke)... here?
2) When I imagine (see) ... him again I feel so happy.
3) They have grown (hate) …. him.
4) The lungs function (supply)…. the body with oxygen.
5) This exercise is brought to you by www.nonstopenglish.com
6) She would really love (start) ... her own business.
7) She hurried (open) ... the door.
8) John mentioned (see)… you the other day. ,
9) If you want to catch the 9.30 plane, that will mean (leave) the house at 8.30 at the latest.
10) lf you ever get (eat) ... there you must try their pizza.
11 ) I used to hate jogging but I’m actually getting (like) ... it.
12) 1 love (cook)... for my friends.
13) 1 like (lie) ... in bed on Saturday mornings.
14) 1 did not mean (overhear) ... their conversation.
15) His grandfather lived (be) ... 93.
16) He imagined himself (sit)... in his favourite armchair back home.
17) He forbade me (tell) …. anyone about our plans.
18) First they’ll learn (use) ... this machine.
19) Don't forget (reserve) ... a seat for me.
20) Do you have (finish) ... tins today?
3. Use to- or bare infinitive. Explain the choice:
1. Make him ... speak louder. 2. Help me ... carry this bag. 3. My son asked me ... let him ... go to the theatre: 4. It cannot... be done today. 5. She asked me…. read the letter carefully and ... write an answer. 6. The man told me not... walk on the grass. 7. Let me ... help yon with your work. 8. She ought... take care of her health. 9. We had better... stop to rest a little. 10. I don't know what… do. 11. He was seen ... leave the house. 11. We heard the siren ... sound and saw the ship... move. 12. I cannot... go there now, 1 have some work ... do. 13. You must make him ... practice an hour a day. 14. He is not sure that it can ... be done, but he is willing ... try. 15. 1 looked for the book everywhere but could not... find it. 16. He said that she might... come in the evening. 17. She was made….. repeat the song. 18. Would you rather ... learn shorthand than typewriting?
4. Translate into English using the construction for + noun / pronoun + infinitive:
1. Вам необходимо быть здесь завтра в 5 часов. 2. Ему легко это сделать. 3. Нам трудно сделать эту работу в такой короткий срок (in such a short time). 4.. Вашей сестре необходимо повидать его. 5. Текст был слишком трудный, чтобы он мог перевести его без словаря. 6. Сейчас слишком поздно, чтобы дети шли гулять.
5.Translate into English: 1. Говорят, что он в Москве. 2. Ожидают, что договор будет подписан на этой неделе. 3. Сообщают, что экспедиция выехала 15 мая. 4. Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения по этому вопросу. 5. Считают, что он один из лучших летчиков нашей страны. 6. Говорят, что этот дом был построен около двухсот лет тому назад. 6. Он, по-видимому, удовлетворен результатом своей работы. 7. Эта книга, по-видимому, очень интересная. 8. Он, кажется, знает этот предмет очень хорошо. 9. Он, по-видимому, очень много читал по этому вопросу. 10. Эта-задача оказалась очень трудной.
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